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Kennedy F Chah, Ifeoma C Ugwu, Angela Okpala, Kwabugge Y Adamu, Carla Andrea Alonso, Sara Ceballos, John N Nwanta, Carmen Torres
OBJECTIVE: To screen chickens and pigs slaughtered for human consumption for presence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) beta-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria. METHODS: Faecal samples from 410 broiler chickens and 100 pigs were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2μg/ml cefotaxime. The antibacterial resistance phenotypes of the recovered isolates were determined by disc-diffusion method while PCR and subsequent sequencing was performed to identify the ESBL and pAmpC gene variants and other associated resistance determinants...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Thi Thu Tra Vu, Thomas Alter, Uwe Roesler, Nicole Roschanski, Stephan Huehn
Retail seafood in Berlin, Germany, was investigated to detect the prevalence and quantitative load of Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). A total of 160 raw seafood samples were screened for the presence of these bacteria using MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime after nonselective enrichment. Isolated species were subsequently identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight analysis. ESBL and AmpC production was tested by the disk diffusion method, and ESBL and AmpC genes were characterized using real-time and conventional PCR assays with DNA sequencing...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ejikeugwu Chika, Esimone Charles, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Adikwu Michael
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria represent the most relevant reservoir of resistance to antibiotics in the environment. The natural selection of resistant clones of bacteria in the environment by antimicrobial selective pressure is a relevant mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance traits in both the community and hospital environment. This is in scenarios where antimicrobials are used irrationally, and even in the propagation of livestock, poultry birds, and for other veterinary purposes...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Supeng Yin, Ping Chen, Bo You, Yulong Zhang, Bei Jiang, Guangtao Huang, Zichen Yang, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yan Zhao, Ming Li, Fuquan Hu, Yali Gong, Yizhi Peng
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of infection in burn patients. The increasing carbapenem resistance of P. aeruginosa has become a serious challenge to clinicians. The present study investigated the molecular typing and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of 196 P. aeruginosa isolates from the bloodstream and wound surface of patients in our burn center over a period of 6 years. By multilocus sequence typing (MLST), a total of 58 sequence types (STs) were identified. An outbreak of ST111, a type that poses a high international risk, occurred in 2014...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philine von Tippelskirch, Greta Gölz, Michaela Projahn, Katrin Daehre, Anika Friese, Uwe Roesler, Thomas Alter, Stefanie Orquera
Food producing animals are considered a reservoir for Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC) producing Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, meat is discussed to be a potential source for the transmission of these resistant bacteria to humans. There is only limited information about the quantitative load of ESBL-/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different sample matrices during slaughter and their distribution in the slaughterhouse environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as quantitative load of ESBL-/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in caecum, skin and filet samples of different broiler chicken flocks during slaughter in Germany...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
J Zhang, J R Liang, R Duan, S Qin, M Xiao, H Q Jing, X Wang
Objective: In this study, we analyze the regulation mechanisms of the expression of ampD in AmpC β-lactamase and the regulation mechanism of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NagZ) in Yersinia enterocolitica . Methods: We construct the mutation strains of Yersinia enterocolitica AmpD (AmpD1-3) gene ( ampD 1-3), Low-Molecular-Mass Penicillin-Binding Proteins (LMM PBPs) gene ( pbp 4, pbp 5 a , pbp 5 b , pbp 7), NagZ gene ( nagZ ), and ampR gene by deleting and complementing genes, and induce them by cefoxitin. We determined the activity of AmpC β-lactamase activity (U) of mutant strains (basal level and induce level) by using cephalothiophene hydrolysis method, the promoter activity of AmpC β-lactamase ((relative light unit (RLU)) was detected by the luxCDABE reporter system, and the activity of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (nmol/L) was determined by by using 4-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide as the chromogenic substrate...
June 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Hirofumi Hara, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria
The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (66...
June 6, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Dixie F Mollenkopf, Brittany De Wolf, Sydnee M Feicht, Johana K Cenera, Christy A King, Joany C van Balen, Thomas E Wittum
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in retail meat pose a health hazard to the public, as does contamination of these products with Salmonella. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella as well as Escherichia coli expressing AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance phenotypes contaminating broiler transport cages and fresh, retail ground chicken meat. Sterile gauze sponges were used to collect duplicate cage floor samples from transport trailers that deliver market-ready birds to a single organic poultry-processing facility...
June 6, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
María E Pachón-Ibáñez, Gema Labrador-Herrera, Tania Cebrero-Cangueiro, Caridad Díaz, Younes Smani, José P Del Palacio, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Alvaro Pascual, Jerónimo Pachón, M Carmen Conejo
Despite the relevance of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) infections there are a scarce number of studies to evaluate in vivo the efficacy of combinations therapies. The bactericidal activity of colistin, rifampin, and its combination was studied (time-kill curves) against four clonally unrelated clinical isolates of CP-Kp, producing VIM-1, VIM-1 plus DHA-1(acquired AmpC β-lactamase), OXA-48 plus CTX-M-15 (extended spectrum β-lactamase) and KPC-3, respectively, with colistin MICs of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Roelof Dirk Coertze, Cornelius Carlos Bezuidenhout
This study aimed to investigate the presence and diversity of AmpC β-lactamase and integrase genes among DNA (genomic and plasmid) from bacterial populations in selected aquatic systems. Following an enrichment step, DNA was isolated and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digital droplet PCR. The intI1 gene and AmpC β-lactamase genes were present in genomic and plasmid DNA from all sites in the Mooi, Crocodile and Marico Rivers, with the exception of intI1 in the Marico River. Digital droplet PCR demonstrated that copy numbers varied considerably (0...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
David A Dik, Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The importance of the cell wall to the viability of the bacterium is underscored by the breadth of antibiotic structures that act by blocking key enzymes that are tasked with cell-wall creation, preservation, and regulation. The interplay between cell-wall integrity, and the summoning forth of resistance mechanisms to deactivate cell-wall-targeting antibiotics, involves exquisite orchestration among cell-wall synthesis and remodeling and the detection of and response to the antibiotics through modulation of gene regulation by specific effectors...
May 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Manju Suresh, N Nithya, P R Jayasree, K P Vimal, P R Manish Kumar
The present study deals with membrane-bound efflux pumps, MexAB-OprM and MexXY and their respective regulatory genes mexR, nalC, nalD and mexZ in multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing and detection of various beta-lactamases, hyperexpression of efflux pump genes, mexB and mexY in the isolates was investigated using semi-quantitative and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Amplicons from regulatory genes were sequenced and subjected to mutational and phylogenetic analysis...
May 30, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
L M Chirindze, T F Zimba, J O Sekyere, U Govinden, H Y Chenia, A Sundsfjord, S Y Essack, G S Simonsen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the world has seen a surge in Enterobacteriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) enzymes. Data on the epidemiology of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Sub-Saharan Africa are still limited. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-five non-repetitive stool samples were collected from Mozambican university students of both sexes...
May 30, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
W Biasino, L De Zutter, C Garcia-Graells, M Uyttendaele, N Botteldoorn, T Gowda, I Van Damme
This study quantified cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (CREC) on nine different carcass areas of 104 freshly slaughtered pig carcasses. In 49% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 29-69%] of the carcasses CREC could be isolated and enumerated (using Tryptone Bile Agar with X-Glucuronide supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime). Proportions of positive samples varied between carcass areas from 1% [95% CI: 0-10%] (loin) to 23% [95% CI: 10-44%] (head). Maximum concentrations on positive samples ranged between -0.6 log10  CFU/cm2 (loin, elbow before evisceration) and 1...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Reza Ghotaslou, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Alka Hasani, Mohammad Asgharzadeh
The current study was conducted to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase- producers among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae . Three hundred and seven non-duplicative clinical isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in five medical centers in Azerbaijan, Iran. Initial screening for β-lactamase production was performed using disc agar diffusion according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic confirmatory tests was done using total ESBL/AmpC confirm kit, KPC/MBL and OXA-48 confirm kit according to manufacturer's instructions...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Stefano Mangani, Cecilia Pozzi, Flavio Di Pisa, Filomena De Luca, Manuela Benvenuti, Jean-Denis Docquier
β-lactamases (BLs) are important antibiotic resistance determinants that significantly compromise the efficacy of valuable β-lactam antibacterial drugs. For that reason, combinations with β-lactamase inhibitor were developed. Avibactam is the first non-β-lactam BL inhibitor introduced in clinical practice. Ceftazidime-avibactam represents one of the few last-resort antibiotics available for the treatment of infections caused by near pandrug-resistant bacteria. TRU-1 is a chromosomally-encoded AmpC-type BL of Aeromonas enteropelogenes, related to the FOX-type BLs and constitutes a good model for class C BLs...
May 22, 2018: ChemMedChem
Jesús Oteo, Aida Mencía, Verónica Bautista, Natalia Pastor, Noelia Lara, Fernando González-González, Francisco Javier García-Peña, José Campos
Antibiotic resistance is a global threat of complex and changeable epidemiology. The role of wild birds in the dissemination of antibacterial resistance might be underestimated. We studied the cloacal colonization by cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in 668 wild birds in Spain. Eighty-eight wild birds (13.2%) of 28 species carried cefotaxime-resistant isolates; 58 of them (8.7%) carried extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and 15 (2.5%) plasmid-mediated AmpCs of the blaCIT family. The 58 ESBLs belonged to the CTX-M-1 group (63...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Carla Andrea Alonso, Leticia Alcalá, Carmen Simón, Carmen Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
James A Karlowsky, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Samuel K Bouchillon, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Gregory G Stone, Daniel F Sahm
The in vitro activities of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators were determined for 9,149 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and 2,038 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected by 42 medical centers in nine countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2012 to 2015 as part of the International Network For Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) global surveillance program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by CLSI broth microdilution and isolate subset analysis performed based on resistant phenotypes and β-lactamase content...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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