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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718958/multiplex-pcr-scheme-for-variant-plasmid-mediated-class-c-%C3%AE-lactamase-typing
#1
Le Van Chuong, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Ratana Lawung
BACKGROUND: An increasing of prevalence and diversification of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) has been emerged worldwide. The incidence of pAmpC resulted in increasing β-lactamase production and conferred resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics excluding carbapenems. The lack of standard method for pAmpC identification and classification exert a challenge in epidemiological surveillance and infection control practices. METHODS: A robust, single tube multiplex PCR has been developed to classify six different pAmpC groups including CIT (CMY-2 like, LAT and CFE), ECB (ACT, MIR), MOX & CMY-1 like, DHA, ACC, and FOX...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711559/outbreak-of-colistin-resistant-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-tunisia
#2
Wejdène Mansour, Marisa Haenni, Estelle Saras, Raoudha Grami, Yosra Mani, Anis Ben Haj Khalifa, Souhail El Atrouss, Mohamed Kheder, Mohamed Fekih Hassen, Noureddine Boujâafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Jean-Yves Madec
OBJECTIVES: Mechanisms of colistin and carbapenem resistance among a collection of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered in a university hospital in Tunisia were studied. METHODS: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE), Southern blotting and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) were performed. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, AmpC-type enzymes and mgrB genes were detected by PCR and sequencing...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685856/the-performance-of-a-resazurin-chromogenic-agar-plate-with-a-combined-disc-method-for-rapid-screening-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-co-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-enterobacteriaceae
#3
Yothin Teethaisong, Katie Evans, Ismini Nakouti, Kanokwan Tiamyom, James R Ketudat-Cairns, Glyn Hobbs, Griangsak Eumkeb
A resazurin chromogenic agar (RCA) along with combined disc method has been developed as a promising method for rapid screening of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and co-production of ESBL and AmpC. Cefpodoxime (CPD) discs supplemented with and without clavulanic acid (CA), cloxacillin (CX), or CA+CX were evaluated against 86-molecularly confirmed β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, including 15 ESBLs, 32 AmpCs, 9 co-producers of ESBL and AmpC, and 30 carbapenemase producers...
July 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671522/molecular-epidemiology-of-beta-lactamase-producing-nosocomial-gram-negative-pathogens-from-north-and-south-indian-hospitals
#4
Surbhi Khurana, Purva Mathur, Arti Kapil, Chithra Valsan, Bijayini Behera
PURPOSE: Resistant Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) infections, apart from tremendously escalating the cost of treatment, are a cause for substantial morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Such bacteria are rapidly acquiring resistance to many antimicrobial agents, especially the beta-lactams which are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials in hospital and community patient care settings, and now also to colistin; a last-line drug to treat infections with such bacteria...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670975/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-bloodstream-infection-indian-experience
#5
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Chaitra Shankar, Susmitha Karunasree, Shantha Kumari, Raji Ravi, Ravikar Ralph
Increased incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative infection has resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the commonest MDR pathogens causing bacteraemia with limited therapeutic options such as colistin and tigecycline. Present study focused on molecular characterisation of MDR K. pneumoniae from bloodstream infection and their clinical outcome. A total of 115 K. pneumoniae from January 2015 to September 2016 were included in the study which comprised of phenotypically identified ESBL and carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665771/increased-antimicrobial-resistance-in-a-novel-cmy-54-ampc-type-enzyme-with-a-gluleu-217-218-insertion-in-the-%C3%AE-loop
#6
Francisco José Pérez-Llarena, Juan Carlos Vázquez-Ucha, Frédéric Kerff, Laura Zamorano, Elisenda Miró, María Póvoa Cabral, Ana Fleites, Marta Lantero, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Antonio Oliver, Moreno Galleni, Ferrán Navarro, Alejandro Beceiro, Germán Bou
During a Spanish surveillance study, a natural variant of a CMY-type β-lactamase related to CMY-2 with a GluLeu(217-218) insertion in the Ω-loop (designated CMY-54) was found to increase the minimum inhibitory concentractions to β-lactams in a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize CMY-54 by genetic, microbiological, and biochemical analysis. The blaCMY-54 gene is encoded by a plasmid of around 100 kb that hybridizes with K and FIB probes. The genetic context of blaCMY-54 and blaCMY-2 genes was found to be very similar...
June 30, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658322/prevalence-of-esbl-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-warsaw-poland-detected-by-various-phenotypic-and-genotypic-methods
#7
Agnieszka E Laudy, Patrycja Róg, Katarzyna Smolińska-Król, Milena Ćmiel, Alicja Słoczyńska, Jan Patzer, Danuta Dzierżanowska, Renata Wolinowska, Bohdan Starościak, Stefan Tyski
Knowledge of the prevalence of ESBL enzymes among P. aeruginosa strains compared to the Enterobacteraiceae family is limited. The phenotypic tests recommended by EUCAST for the detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are not always suited for P. aeruginosa strains. This is mainly due to the presence of other families of ESBLs in P. aeruginosa isolates more often than in Enterobacteriaceae, production of natural AmpC cephalosporinase and its overexpression, and co-production of metallo-β-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of ESBLs in P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654368/evaluation-of-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-and-its-association-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-the-northwest-of-iran
#8
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Younes Khalili, Reza Ghotaslou, Saber Yousefi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Behrooz Naghili, Vajihe Sheikhalizadeh
The aims of this study were to determine carbapenem resistance mechanisms, molecular epidemiological relationship, clinical impact, and patient outcome of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) infections. A total of 42 nonduplicated CRPA were recovered from Urmia, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using phenotypic methods. The carbapenem resistance mechanisms such as carbapenemase genes, efflux pump hyperexpression, AmpC overproduction, and OprD gene downregulation were determined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
June 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650688/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-lebanese-hospital-wastewater-implication-in-the-one-health-concept
#9
Ziad Daoud, Jina Farah, Elie Salem Sokhn, Khalil El Kfoury, Elias Dahdouh, Khalil Masri, Claude Afif, Roula M Abdel-Massih, Ghassan M Matar
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing organisms pose severe problems for hospitalized patients. In the absence of efficient sanitation and sewage disposal, the risks for transmission of hospital organisms into the community are high. Our objectives were to study the occurrence and mechanisms of resistance of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in two Lebanese hospital sewage treatment plants. Wastewater samples were collected, filtered, and cultivated on MacConckey+cefotaxime agars...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646667/prevalence-and-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-and-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-fresh-pork-meat-at-processing-level-in-germany
#10
Franziska Schill, Amir Abdulmawjood, Günter Klein, Felix Reich
ESBL or AmpC β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae is an increasing concern in human medicine. A distribution via the food chain is discussed, but less is known about these bacteria on fresh pork meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in fresh pork meat at processing level in Germany. The analysis comprised microbiological hygiene parameters and further pheno- and genotypical characterization of ESBL/AmpC isolates. The examination included three pools of meat and one corresponding meat juice sample from each of the tested pork meat batches (n=63)...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643488/multidrug-resistance-mechanisms-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-in-chongqing-china
#11
Jinrong Yan, Shuli Pu, Xiaojiong Jia, Xiuyu Xu, Shuangshuang Yang, Jing Shi, Shan Sun, Liping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is considered a serious global threat. However, little is known regarding the multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms of CRKP. This study investigated the phenotypes and MDR mechanisms of CRKP and identified their clonal characteristics. METHODS: PCR and sequencing were utilized to identify antibiotic resistance determinants. Integron gene cassette arrays were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639934/first-description-of-methyltransferases-in-extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-saudi-arabia
#12
Baha Abdalhamid, Nasreldin Elhadi, Samar Albunayan, Khaldoon Alsamman, Reem Aljindan
PURPOSE: The resistance determinants for carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were characterized in 16 extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDRKPN) strains collected from Saudi hospitals during 2014. METHODOLOGY: PCR and sequencing were used to detect: blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP-1,blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and ampC for β-lactam resistance; qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and mutations of gyrA and parC for fluoroquinolone resistance; and aacA4, aacC2, aadA1, aphA6, armA and rmtB for aminoglycoside resistance...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#13
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619146/dynamics-of-cmy-2-producing-e-coli-in-a-broiler-parent-flock
#14
Anita Dame-Korevaar, Egil A J Fischer, Arjan Stegeman, Dik Mevius, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Francisca Velkers, Jeanet van der Goot
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602519/diversity-of-plasmids-harboring-blacmy-2-in-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-poultry-in-brazil
#15
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) has been increasingly reported in Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal microbiota, environment and food-producing animals. Resistance plasmids able to harbor different transposable elements are capable to mobilize antimicrobial resistance genes and transfer to other bacterial hosts. Plasmids carrying blaCMY are frequently associated with MDR. The present study assessed the presence of plasmid-encoded ampC genes (blacmy, blamox, blafox, blalat, blaact, blamir, bladha, blamor) in commensal E...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596406/draft-genome-sequences-of-enterobacter-cloacae-strains-caprex-e7-and-caprex-e2-2
#16
Rita E Monson, Joseph Honger, Alison Rawlinson, George P C Salmond
Enterobacter cloacae strains CAPREx E7 and CAPREx E2-2 were isolated from Ghanaian yams at a London market. The draft genome sequences indicate that the two strains are similar, with genomes of 5,042,838 and 5,039,930 bp and 56.19% and 55.05% G+C content, respectively. Both strains encoded three different β-lactamases, including one of the AmpC family.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578094/salmonella-heidelberg-genetic-profile-of-its-antimicrobial-resistance-related-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-esbls
#17
Jéssica Giuriatti, Lenita Moura Stefani, Maiara Cristina Brisola, Regiane Boaretto Crecencio, Dinael Simão Bitner, Gláucia Amorim Faria
The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of antimicrobial susceptibility and the possible involvement of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the resistance profile of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) isolated from chicken meat. We used 18 SH isolates from chicken meat produced in 2013 in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The isolates were submitted to disk-diffusion tests and from these results it was possible to determine the number of isolates considered multiresistant and the index of multiple antimicrobial resistance (IRMA) against ten antimicrobials routinely used in human and veterinary medicine...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576703/porin-flexibility-in-providencia-stuartii-cell-surface-exposed-loops-l5-and-l7-are-markers-of-providencia-porin-omppst1
#18
Que-Tien Tran, Laure Maigre, Tommaso D'Agostino, Matteo Ceccarelli, Mathias Winterhalter, Jean-Marie Pagès, Anne Davin-Regli
Epidemiologically unrelated Providencia stuartii strains isolated in hospitals in the south of France were investigated for their porin sequences and profiles. Noticeable resistance to β-lactams was found to be associated with production of extended spectrum β-lactamases or AmpC overproduction, but not metallo-β-lactamases. At the same time, the expression level of outer membrane porins was unmodified in these isolates. The identity of the amino acid sequences of the major porin OmpPst1 was less than 90% in the tested clinical strains, whereas sequences of the second major porin OmpPst2 were found to be identical in all isolates...
May 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575064/antimicrobial-resistance-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-stool-isolates-circulating-in-kenya
#19
Chris Rowe Taitt, Tomasz A Leski, Daniel P Erwin, Elizabeth A Odundo, Nancy C Kipkemoi, Janet N Ndonye, Ronald K Kirera, Abigael N Ombogo, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac, Christine Hulseberg, Gary J Vora
We sought to determine the genetic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of commensal Klebsiella spp. circulating in Kenya by testing human stool isolates of 87 K. pneumoniae and three K. oxytoca collected at eight locations. Over one-third of the isolates were resistant to ≥3 categories of antimicrobials and were considered multidrug-resistant (MDR). We then compared the resistance phenotype to the presence/absence of 238 AMR genes determined by a broad-spectrum microarray and PCR. Forty-six genes/gene families were identified conferring resistance to β-lactams (ampC/blaDHA, blaCMY/LAT, blaLEN-1, blaOKP-A/OKP-B1, blaOXA-1-like family, blaOXY-1, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-2 families), aminoglycosides (aac(3)-III, aac(6)-Ib, aad(A1/A2), aad(A4), aph(AI), aph3/str(A), aph6/str(B), and rmtB), macrolides (mac(A), mac(B), mph(A)/mph(K)), tetracyclines (tet(A), tet(B), tet(D), tet(G)), ansamycins (arr), phenicols (catA1/cat4, floR, cmlA, cmr), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), quaternary amines (qacEΔ1), streptothricin (sat2), sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, sul3), and diaminopyrimidines (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA8, dfrA12, dfrA13/21/22/23 family, dfrA14, dfrA15, dfrA16, dfrA17)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562752/phenotypic-methods-for-screening-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-assessment-of-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile
#20
Danielly da Costa Silva, Roberta Filipini Rampelotto, Vinícius Victor Lorenzoni, Silvana Oliveira Dos Santos, Juliana Damer, Manfredo Hörner, Rosmari Hörner
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we used phenotypic methods to screen carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs) and evaluated their antimicrobial sensitivity profile. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight CREs were isolated at a university hospital in south Brazil in a one-year period. Samples were assessed using disk diffusion tests with inhibitors of β-lactamases such as phenylboronic acid (AFB), cloxacillin (CLOXA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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