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protein array

Meredith E Bohannon, Tom E Porter, Emma T Lavoie, Mary Ann Ottinger
The upper Hudson River was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Aroclor mixtures from the 1940s until the late 1970s. Several well-established biomarkers, such as induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, were used to measure exposure to PCBs and similar contaminants in birds. In the present study, Japanese quail eggs were injected with a PCB mixture based upon a congener profile found in spotted sandpiper eggs at the upper Hudson River and subsequently, RNA was extracted from hatchling liver tissue for hybridization to a customized chicken cDNA microarray...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Raúl Gómez, Ana Castro, Jessica Martínez, Víctor Rodríguez-García, Octavio Burgués, Juan J Tarín, Antonio Cano
The system integrated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, modulates the role of hormones in the genesis and progression of breast tumors. We investigated whether the expression of RANK was related with clinicopathological features of primary endometrial tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used in an endometrial cancer tissue array containing samples from 36 tumors. The amount of RANK mRNA was examined in a tissue scan cDNA array containing cDNA from 40 tumors. Normal endometrium was examined for comparison...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wanyin Chen, Leonel Nguekeu Zebaze, Jihu Dong, Laëtitia Chézeau, Perrine Inquimbert, Sylvain Hugel, Songlin Niu, Fréderic Bihel, Emmanuel Boutant, Eléonore Réal, Pascal Villa, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Marcel Hibert, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer, Maria Zeniou
Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous brain tumor. The presence of cancer cells with stem-like and tumor initiation/propagation properties contributes to poor prognosis. Glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSC) reside in hypoxic and acidic niches favoring cell quiescence and drug resistance. A high throughput screening recently identified the laxative Bisacodyl as a cytotoxic compound targeting quiescent GSC placed in acidic microenvironments. Bisacodyl activity requires its hydrolysis into DDPM, its pharmacologically active derivative...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Agata Witkowska, Lukasz Jablonski, Reinhard Jahn
Reconstitution of membrane proteins in artificial membranes is an essential prerequisite for functional studies that depend on the context of an intact membrane. While straight-forward protocols for reconstituting proteins in small unilamellar vesicles were developed many years ago, it is much more difficult to prepare large membranes containing membrane proteins at biologically relevant concentrations. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) represent a model system that is characterised by low curvature, controllable tension, and large surface that can be easily visualised with microscopy, but protein insertion is notoriously difficult...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Buzzi, P Versura, B Grigolo, C Cavallo, A Terzi, M Pellegrini, G Giannaccare, V Randi, E C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Various blood-derived products have been proposed for the topical treatment of ocular surface diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the different content of Growth Factors (GFs) and Interleukins (ILs) in peripheral blood (PB-S) and Cord Blood (CB-S) sera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 105 healthy adult donors (PB-S) and 107 umbilical/placental veins at the time of delivery (CB-S). The levels of epithelial-GF (EGF), fibroblast-GF (FGF), platelet-derived-GF (PDGF), insulin-GF (IGF), transforming-GF alpha (TGF-α,) and beta 1-2-3 (TGF-β1-β2-β3), vascular endothelial-GF (VEGF), nerve-GF (NGF), Interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-4,IL-6,IL-10, and IL-13 were assessed by Bio-Plex Protein Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA)...
June 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Lukas Jennewein, Georg Bartsch, Kilian Gust, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Axel Haferkamp, Roman Blaheta, Michel Mittelbronn, Patrick N Harter, Jens Mani
Testicular germ cell cancer in a metastatic state is curable with a cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. However, 10-15% of these patients are resistant to first line chemotherapy and are thus left with only palliative options. Immunotherapies and inhibition of angiogenesis used in multiple types of cancer; however, the molecular context of angiogenesis and immune checkpoints in the development and progression of testicular cancers is still unknown. Therefore, the present study performed tissue micro array based analysis of 84 patients with immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) of testicular cancer and corresponding normal appearing testis tissue, matching the results with clinical data...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Peter O Bayguinov, Dennis M Oakley, Chien-Cheng Shih, Daniel J Geanon, Matthew S Joens, James A J Fitzpatrick
Since its commercialization in the late 1980's, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has since become one of the most prevalent fluorescence microscopy techniques for three-dimensional structural studies of biological cells and tissues. The flexibility of the approach has enabled its application in a diverse array of studies, from the fast imaging of dynamic processes in living cells, to meticulous morphological analyses of tissues, and co-localization of protein expression patterns. In this chapter, we introduce the principles of confocal microscopy and discuss how the approach has become a mainstay in the biological sciences...
June 20, 2018: Current Protocols in Cytometry
Parimala Narne, Vimal Pandey, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) are the key gasotransmitters with an imperious role in the maintenance of cerebrovascular homeostasis. A decline in their levels contributes to endothelial dysfunction that portends ischemic stroke (IS) or cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R). Nevertheless, their exorbitant production during CI/R is associated with exacerbation of cerebrovascular injury in the post-stroke epoch. NO-producing nitric oxide synthases are implicated in IS pathology and their activity is regulated, inter alia, by various post-translational modifications and chromatin-based mechanisms...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Stephanie L F Gustin, Guangwen Wang, Valerie M Baker, Gary Latham, Vittorio Sebastiano
OBJECTIVE: Create a model, using reprogrammed cells, to provide a platform to identify the mechanisms of CGG repeat instability amongst female fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) premutation (PM) carriers. METHODS: Female PM carriers (with and without POI) and healthy controls were enrolled from June 2013 to April 2014. Patient-derived fibroblasts (FB) were reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) using viral vectors, encoding KLF4, OCT4, SOX2, and MYC...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
I F T Viana, D F Coêlho, M L Palma, E J M Nascimento, G Gu, L F O Lima, L Foti, M A Krieger, C Pilcher, C E Calzavara-Silva, R B Mailliard, C R Rinaldo, R Dhalia, E T A Marques
Reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is still a public health priority. The development of effective control strategies relies on the quantification of the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic measures in disease incidence. Although several assays can be used to estimate HIV incidence, these estimates are limited by the poor performance of these assays in distinguishing recent from long-standing infections. To address such limitation, we have developed an assay to titrate p24-specific IgG3 antibodies as a marker of recent infection...
June 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Laura Del Hoyo Soriano, Angela John Thurman, Danielle Jenine Harvey, W Ted Brown, Leonard Abbeduto
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, leading to decreased levels of FMR1 protein (FMRP), which causes the array of neuropsychological impairments that define FXS. Because FXS is an X-linked condition, fewer females display FXS and females with FXS are more mildly affected than males, on average. However, there is a considerable variability in terms of severity of affectedness among females with FXS. The current study was designed to investigate potential genetic (FMRP level and ratio of affected to total chromosomes) and environmental factors (maternal psychological distress and closeness in the mother-child relationship) influencing the cognitive (fluid and crystallized intelligence) and behavioral (anxiety and withdrawal) phenotype of females with FXS...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Francisco Garrido, María Pacheco, Rocío Vargas-Martínez, Roberto Velasco-García, Inmaculada Jorge, Horacio Serrano, Francisco Portillo, Jesús Vázquez, María Ángeles Pajares
Protein-protein interactions are an important mechanism for the regulation of enzyme function allowing metabolite channeling, crosstalk between pathways or the introduction of post-translational modifications. Therefore, a number of high-throughput studies have been carried out to shed light on the protein networks established under different pathophysiological settings. Surprisingly, this type of information is quite limited for enzymes of intermediary metabolism such as betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase, despite its high hepatic abundancy and its role in homocysteine metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Cristina Azevedo, Jyoti Singh, Nicole Steck, Alexandre Hofer, Felix A Ruiz, Tanya Singh, Henning J Jessen, Adolfo Saiardi
Phenotypes are established by thigh regulation on protein functions. This regulation can be mediated allosterically, through protein binding, and covalently, through post-translational modification (PTM). The integration of an ever-increasing number of PTMs into regulatory networks enable and define the proteome complexity. Protein PTMs can occur enzymatically and non-enzymatically. Polyphosphorylation, a recently discovered PTM that belongs to the latter category, is the covalent attachment of the linear ortho-phosphate polymer called inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) to lysine residues...
June 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Anabel Gonzalez-Gil, Ryan N Porell, Steve M Fernandes, Yadong Wei, Huifeng Yu, Daniela J Carroll, Ryan McBride, James C Paulson, Michael Tiemeyer, Kazuhiro Aoki, Bruce S Bochner, Ronald L Schnaar
Human siglecs are a family of 14 sialic acid binding proteins, most expressed on subsets of immune cells where they regulate immune responses. Siglec-8 is expressed selectively on human allergic inflammatory cells - primarily eosinophils and mast cells - where engagement causes eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell mediator release. Evidence supports a model in which human eosinophils and mast cells bind to Siglec-8 sialoglycan ligands on inflammatory target tissues to resolve allergic inflammation and limit tissue damage...
June 19, 2018: Glycobiology
Skye Marshall, Patrick H Kelly, Brajesh K Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E Wilson, Chaoqun Yao
BACKGROUND: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Symptomatic leishmaniasis causes considerable human morbidity in endemic regions. The Leishmania spp. evade host microbicidal mechanisms partially through virulence-associated proteins such as the major surface protease (MSP or GP63), to inactivate immune factors in the host environment...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Joel Lapin, Alexander A Nevzorov
An automated technique for the sequential assignment of NMR backbone resonances of oriented protein samples has been developed and tested based on 15 N-15 N homonuclear exchange and spin-exchanged separated local-field spectra. By treating the experimental spectral intensity as a pseudopotential, the Monte-Carlo Simulated Annealing algorithm has been employed to seek lowest-energy assignment solutions over a large sampling space where direct enumeration would be unfeasible. The determined sequential assignments have been scored based on the positions of the crosspeaks resulting from the possible orders for the main peaks...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Giulia M Sancesario, Sergio Bernardini
Recent progresses in high-throughput technologies have led to a new scenario in investigating pathologies, named the "Omics era", which integrate the opportunity to collect large amounts of data and information at the molecular and protein levels together with the development of novel computational and statistical tools that are able to analyze and filter such data. Subsequently, advances in genotyping arrays, next generation sequencing, mass spectrometry technology, and bioinformatics allowed for the simultaneous large-scale study of thousands of genes (genomics), epigenetics factors (epigenomics), RNA (transcriptomics), metabolites (metabolomics) and proteins(proteomics), with the possibility of integrating multiple types of omics data ("multi -omics")...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Katya Mokretar, Daniel Pease, Jan-Willem Taanman, Aynur Soenmez, Ayesha Ejaz, Tammaryn Lashley, Helen Ling, Steve Gentleman, Henry Houlden, Janice L Holton, Anthony H V Schapira, Elizabeth Nacheva, Christos Proukakis
The α-synuclein protein, encoded by SNCA, has a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Although usually sporadic, Parkinson's disease can result from inherited copy number variants in SNCA and other genes. We have hypothesized a role of somatic SNCA mutations, leading to mosaicism, in sporadic synucleinopathies. The evidence for mosaicism in healthy and diseased brain is increasing rapidly, with somatic copy number gains of APP reported in Alzheimer's brain. Here we demonstrate somatic SNCA copy number gains in synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy), focusing on substantia nigra...
June 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lishen Shan, Xinyuan Kang, Fen Liu, Xuxu Cai, Xiaohua Han, Yunxiao Shang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on airway inflammation in mice with bronchial asthma, and the regulatory mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 signaling pathway, so as to provide theoretical basis for research and development of a novel drug for clinical treatment. Mouse models of bronchial asthma were established and injected with dexamethasone and EGCG via the caudal vein. 7 days later, bronchoalveolar tissue was collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
He Xiaoyu, Yin Yiru, Shi Shuisheng, Cheng Keyan, Yan Zixing, Cheng Shanglin, Wang Yuan, Cheng Dongming, Zhang Wangliang, Bai Xudong, Ma Jie
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a highly prevalent cancer withpoor survival rate and prognosis. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for metabolic regulation in treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The pyruvate kinase M2 isoform is a key enzyme in the energy production process, and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform also plays a crucial role in gene transcription and tumorigenesis. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway regulates an array of cellular functions, including protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell proliferation...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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