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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103316/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-protects-against-cytokine-induced-barrier-damage-in-caco-2-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#1
Judit Váradi, András Harazin, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Katalin Réti-Nagy, Péter Gogolák, György Vámosi, Ildikó Bácskay, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Gábor Vasvári, Eszter Róka, David Haines, Mária A Deli, Miklós Vecsernyés
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide with cytoprotective effect in various tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the ability of α-MSH to interact with intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and mitigate inflammatory processes of the epithelial barrier. The protective effect of α-MSH was studied on Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial monolayers, which were disrupted by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The barrier integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) and permeability for marker molecules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102868/control-and-automation-of-multilayered-integrated-microfluidic-device-fabrication
#2
Sarit Kipper, Ludmila Frolov, Ortal Guy, Michal Pellach, Yair Glick, Asaf Malichi, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Dorit Avrahami, Yehuda Yavets-Chen, Erez Y Levanon, Doron Gerber
Integrated microfluidics is a sophisticated three-dimensional (multi layer) solution for high complexity serial or parallel processes. Fabrication of integrated microfluidic devices requires soft lithography and the stacking of thin-patterned PDMS layers. Precise layer alignment and bonding is crucial. There are no previously reported standards for alignment of the layers, which is mostly performed using uncontrolled processes with very low alignment success. As a result, integrated microfluidics is mostly used in academia rather than in the many potential industrial applications...
January 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102738/optimization-and-partial-characterization-of-intracellular-anticandidal-protein-from-aspergillus-giganteus-mtcc-8408-using-taguchi-doe
#3
Debashis Dutta, Mira Debnath Das
A new intracellular antifungal protein (afp) production with average molecular weight 24.3 kDa and yield of 0.65 ± 0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of mycelia in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 was optimized. Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L27 orthogonal array (OA) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with 8 most influensive factors namely, culture pH, temperature, slant age, inoculum volume, agitation and KH2PO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and afp production...
January 19, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102419/towards-encoded-particles-for-highly-multiplexed-colorimetric-point-of-care-autoantibody-detection
#4
Gustav Svedberg, Yunjin Jeong, Hunjong Na, Jisung Jang, Peter Nilsson, Sunghoon Kwon, Jesper Gantelius, Helene Andersson Svahn
Highly multiplexed point of care tests could improve diagnostic accuracy and differential diagnostic capacity in for instance emergency medicine and low resource environments. Available technology platforms for POC biomarker detection are typically simplex or low-plexed, whereas common lab-based microarray systems allow for the simultaneous detection of thousands of DNA or protein biomarkers. In this study, we demonstrate a novel suspension particle array platform that utilizes 900 μm bricks for POC amenable colorimetric biomarker detection with an encoding capacity of over two million...
January 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101945/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-mapk-nuclear-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il8-a-possible-mechanism-of-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-induced-lung-toxicity
#5
Seung-Chan Jeong, Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Eunil Lee, Jae-Chun Ryu
Airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of diverse pulmonary diseases. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5, a PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm, enhances inflammation-related toxicity in the human respiratory system through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Through cytokine antibody array analysis of two extracts of PM2.5 [water (W-PM2.5 ) and organic (O-PM2.5 ) soluble extracts] exposed to A549 (human alveolar epithelial cell), we identified eight cytokines changed their expression with W-PM2...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100213/transcriptomic-response-of-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata-to-transgenic-rice-expressing-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-protein
#6
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Kaifu Xiao, Baoyang Wei, Jilin Hu, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song, Xuguo Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant predators in South China, plays a crucial role in the rice agroecosystem. In this study, we investigated transcriptome responses of the 5th instar spiders fed on preys maintained on Bt- and non-Bt rice...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099931/a-new-semisynthetic-cardenolide-analog-3%C3%AE-2-1-amantadine-1-on-ethylamine-digitoxigenin-amantadig-affects-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mirna-expression-profiles-and-enhances-proapoptotic-survivin-2b-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cell-lines
#7
Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, Izabella Thais Silva, Sabine Lukat, Arif B Ekici, Jennifer Munkert, Frieder Müller-Uri, Wolfgang Kreis, Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões, Julio Vera, Bernd Wullich, Helge Taubert, Xin Lai
Cardiac glycosides are well known in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their application as treatment option for cancer patients is under discussion. We showed that the cardiac glycoside digitoxin and its analog AMANTADIG can inhibit the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and increase G2/M cell cycle arrest. To identify the signaling pathways and molecular basis of this G2/M arrest, microRNAs were profiled using microRNA arrays. Cardiac glycoside treatment significantly deregulated two microRNAs, miR-2278 and miR-670-5p...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099887/comparative-proteomics-of-paired-vocal-fold-and-oral-mucosa-fibroblasts
#8
Michael Karbiener, Barbara Darnhofer, Marie-Therese Frisch, Beate Rinner, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger, Markus Gugatschka
: Injuries of the vocal folds frequently heal with scar formation, which can have lifelong detrimental impact on voice quality. Current treatments to prevent or resolve scars of the vocal fold mucosa are highly unsatisfactory. In contrast, the adjacent oral mucosa is mostly resistant to scarring. These differences in healing tendency might relate to distinct properties of the fibroblasts populating oral and vocal fold mucosae. We thus established the in vitro cultivation of paired, near-primary vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) and oral mucosa fibroblasts (OMF) to perform a basic cellular characterization and comparative cellular proteomics...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099430/pooled-crispr-screening-with-single-cell-transcriptome-readout
#9
Paul Datlinger, André F Rendeiro, Christian Schmidl, Thomas Krausgruber, Peter Traxler, Johanna Klughammer, Linda C Schuster, Amelie Kuchler, Donat Alpar, Christoph Bock
CRISPR-based genetic screens are accelerating biological discovery, but current methods have inherent limitations. Widely used pooled screens are restricted to simple readouts including cell proliferation and sortable marker proteins. Arrayed screens allow for comprehensive molecular readouts such as transcriptome profiling, but at much lower throughput. Here we combine pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell RNA sequencing into a broadly applicable workflow, directly linking guide RNA expression to transcriptome responses in thousands of individual cells...
January 18, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099425/genetic-ablation-of-bach1-gene-enhances-recovery-from-hyperoxic-lung-injury-in-newborn-mice-via-transient-upregulation-of-inflammatory-genes
#10
Masato Ito, Nobuhiko Nagano, Yukio Arai, Ryo Ogawa, Shingo Kobayashi, Yukiko Motojima, Hayato Go, Masanori Tamura, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Phyllis A Dennery, Fumihiko Namba
BACKGROUND: BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The effects of Bach1 disruption on hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice have not been determined. We aimed to investigate the role of Bach1 in the newborns exposed to hyperoxia. METHODS: Bach1(-/-) and WT newborn mice were exposed to 21% or 95% oxygen for 4 days and were then allowed to recover in room air. Lung histology was assessed and lung Bach1, HO-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA levels were evaluated using RT-PCR...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098900/endothelial-microparticles-activate-endothelial-cells-to-facilitate-the-inflammatory-response
#11
Yiyun Liu, Ruyuan Zhang, Hongping Qu, Jun Wu, Lei Li, Yaoqing Tang
Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of sepsis and septic shock. EMPs are small vesicles released by ECs and are considered biomarkers for endothelial cell function and mediators for intercellular information exchange. However, the effect of EMPs on their parental ECs remains unknown. The present study collected tumor necrosis factor‑α‑derived EMPs and detected the proinflammatory cytokines released from unstimulated and EMP‑stimulated ECs by proteome profiler array...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098506/capsicum-annuum-var-grossum-bell-pepper-inhibits-%C3%AE-secretase-activity-and-%C3%AE-amyloid1-40-aggregation
#12
Omodesola Oluwafisayo Ogunruku, Ganiyu Oboh, Sabina Passamonti, Federica Trammer, Aline Augusti Boligon
The deposition of amyloid protein as senile plaques is the major signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is produced by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by secretases. Moreover, peppers are noted for their antiaging and cognitive enhancing properties. Thus, in this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich extracts from bell pepper on amyloid production and aggregation in vitro were investigated. Bell pepper (ripe and unripe) was extracted with methanol-1 N HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, the inhibitory potentials of the extracts on β-secretase and β-amyloid1-40 aggregation were determined...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097431/placental-dapk1-and-autophagy-marker-lc3b-ii-are-dysregulated-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-a-gestational-age-dependent-manner
#13
Andreas Prokesch, Astrid Blaschitz, Tamara Bauer, Gerit Moser, Ursula Hiden, Julianna Zadora, Ralf Dechend, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
Autophagy, a cell-survival process responsible for degradation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles, is increasingly recognized as another mechanism essential for human placentation. A substantial body of experiments suggests inflammation and oxidative stress as the underlying stimuli for altered placental autophagy, giving rise to placenta dysfunction and pregnancy pathologies. Here, the hypothesis is tested whether or not pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to influence the expression profile of autophagy genes in human first-trimester villous placenta...
January 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097235/a-patient-derived-xenograft-platform-to-study-brca-deficient-ovarian-cancers
#14
Erin George, Hyoung Kim, Clemens Krepler, Brandon Wenz, Mehran Makvandi, Janos L Tanyi, Eric Brown, Rugang Zhang, Patricia Brafford, Stephanie Jean, Robert H Mach, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Meenhard Herlyn, Mark Morgan, Xiaochen Zhang, Robert Soslow, Ronny Drapkin, Neil Johnson, Ying Zheng, George Cotsarelis, Katherine L Nathanson, Fiona Simpkins
Approximately 50% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) have defects in genes involved in homologous recombination (HR) (i.e., BRCA1/2). Preclinical models to optimize therapeutic strategies for HR-deficient (HRD) HGSOC are lacking. We developed a preclinical platform for HRD HGSOCs that includes primary tumor cultures, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and molecular imaging. Models were characterized by immunohistochemistry, targeted sequencing, and reverse-phase protein array analysis. We also tested PDX tumor response to PARP, CHK1, and ATR inhibitors...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096900/ms_histonedb-a-manually-curated-resource-for-proteomic-analysis-of-human-and-mouse-histones
#15
Sara El Kennani, Annie Adrait, Alexey K Shaytan, Saadi Khochbin, Christophe Bruley, Anna R Panchenko, David Landsman, Delphine Pflieger, Jérôme Govin
BACKGROUND: Histones and histone variants are essential components of the nuclear chromatin. While mass spectrometry has opened a large window to their characterization and functional studies, their identification from proteomic data remains challenging. Indeed, the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases which are either not exhaustive (Swiss-Prot) or contain many redundant entries (UniProtKB or NCBI). Currently, no protein database is ideally suited for the analysis of histones and the complex array of mammalian histone variants...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096261/tuning-collective-cell-migration-by-cell-cell-junction-regulation
#16
Peter Friedl, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095868/pik3ca-mutations-are-common-in-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-but-are-not-a-biomarker-of-progression
#17
Vandna Shah, Salpie Nowinski, Dina Levi, Irek Shinomiya, Narda Kebaier Ep Chaabouni, Cheryl Gillett, Anita Grigoriadis, Trevor A Graham, Rebecca Roylance, Michael A Simpson, Sarah E Pinder, Elinor J Sawyer
BACKGROUND: Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a non-invasive breast lesion that is typically found incidentally on biopsy and is often associated with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). LCIS is considered by some to be a risk factor for future breast cancer rather than a true precursor lesion. The aim of this study was to identify genetic changes that could be used as biomarkers of progression of LCIS to invasive disease using cases of pure LCIS and comparing their genetic profiles to LCIS which presented contemporaneously with associated ILC, on the hypothesis that the latter represents LCIS that has already progressed...
January 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095864/microrna-141-enhances-anoikis-resistance-in-metastatic-progression-of-ovarian-cancer-through-targeting-klf12-sp1-survivin-axis
#18
Celia S L Mak, Mingo M H Yung, Lynn M N Hui, Leanne L Leung, Rui Liang, Kangmei Chen, Stephanie S Liu, Yiming Qin, Thomas H Y Leung, Kai-Fai Lee, Karen K L Chan, Hextan Y S Ngan, David W Chan
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis is determined by the formation of the metastatic niche and the ability of cancer cells to adapt to microenvironmental stresses. Anoikis resistance is a fundamental feature of metastatic cancer cell survival during metastatic cancer progression. However, the mechanisms underlying anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer are still unclear. METHODS: Expressions of miRNA-141 and its downstream targets were evaluated by qPCR, Western blotting, Immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095712/current-views-on-the-potential-for-development-of-a-hiv-vaccine
#19
Kristen W Cohen, Nicole Frahm
Despite many recent advances in the HIV prevention landscape, an effective vaccine remains the most promising tool to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Areas covered: This review summarizes past HIV vaccine efficacy trials and current vaccine strategies as well as new approaches about to move into first-in-human trials. Expert opinion: Despite many setbacks in early HIV vaccine efficacy trials, the success of RV144 has provided the glimmer of hope necessary to invigorate the vaccine field, and has led to the development of a large number of vaccine strategies aiming at inducing an array of different immune responses...
January 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094758/exosomes-isolated-from-serum-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-display-alterations-in-their-content-of-profibrotic-and-antifibrotic-microrna-and-induce-a-profibrotic-phenotype-in-cultured-normal-dermal-fibroblasts
#20
Peter J Wermuth, Piera-Velazquez Sonsoles, Sergio A Jimenez
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are lipid bilayer-bound microvesicles containing various macromolecules including numerous microRNA (miRNA). Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by fusing and releasing their macromolecular content into target cells. Here, we analysed the content of profibrotic and antifibrotic miRNAs in exosomes isolated from the serum of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and tested their ability to induce a profibrotic phenotype in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro...
January 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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