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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669836/cd4-t-cell-epitope-specificity-and-cytokine-potential-are-preserved-as-cells-transition-from-the-lung-vasculature-to-lung-tissue-following-influenza-infection
#1
Anthony DiPiazza, Nathan Laniewski, Anuj Rattan, David J Topham, Jim Miller, Andrea J Sant
Pulmonary CD4 T cells are critical in respiratory virus control, both by delivering direct effector function and through coordinating responses of other immune cells. Recent studies have shown that following influenza infection, virus-specific CD4 T cells are partitioned between pulmonary vasculature and lung tissue. However, very little is known about the peptide specificity or functional differences of CD4 T cells within these two compartments. Using a mouse model of influenza infection in conjunction with intravascular labeling in vivo , the cell surface phenotype, epitope specificity, and functional potential of the endogenous polyclonal CD4 T cell response was examined by tracking nine independent CD4 T cell epitope specificities...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666412/extensive-t-cell-cross-reactivity-between-diverse-seasonal-influenza-strains-in-the-ferret-model
#2
Adrian J Reber, Nedzad Music, Jin Hyang Kim, Shane Gansebom, Jufu Chen, Ian York
Influenza virus causes widespread, yearly epidemics by accumulating surface protein mutations to escape neutralizing antibodies established from prior exposure. In contrast to antibody epitopes, T cell mediated immunity targets influenza epitopes that are more highly conserved and have potential for cross-protection. The extent of T cell cross-reactivity between a diverse array of contemporary and historical influenza strains was investigated in ferrets challenged with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza or the seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Perth/16/2009...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625544/identification-of-single-amino-acid-substitutions-in-proteogenomics
#3
REVIEW
S A Moshkovskii, M V Ivanov, K G Kuznetsova, M V Gorshkov
An important aim of proteogenomics, which combines data of high throughput nucleic acid and protein analysis, is to reliably identify single amino acid substitutions representing a main type of coding genome variants. Exact knowledge of deviations from the consensus genome can be utilized in several biomedical fields, such as studies of expression of mutated proteins in cancer, deciphering heterozygosity mechanisms, identification of neoantigens in anticancer vaccine production, search for RNA editing sites at the level of the proteome, etc...
March 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623309/cells-on-hierarchically-structured-platforms-hosting-functionalized-nanoparticles
#4
Chara Simitzi, Pascal Harimech, Syrago Spanou, Christina Lanara, Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Aleka Manousaki, Costas Fotakis, Anthi Ranella, Antonios G Kanaras, Emmanuel Stratakis
In this work, we report on a novel approach to develop hierarchically-structured cell culture platforms incorporating functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In particular, the hierarchical substrates comprise primary pseudo-periodic arrays of silicon microcones combined with a secondary nanoscale pattern of homogeneously deposited AuNPs terminated with bio-functional moieties. AuNPs with various functionalities (i.e. oligopeptides, small molecules and oligomers) were successfully attached onto the microstructures...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623301/peptide-based-bioinspired-approach-to-regrowing-multilayered-aprismatic-enamel
#5
Kaushik Mukherjee, Qichao Ruan, Steven Nutt, Jinhui Tao, James J De Yoreo, Janet Moradian-Oldak
The gradual discovery of functional domains in native enamel matrix proteins has enabled the design of smart bioinspired peptides for tooth enamel mimetics and repair. In this study, we expanded upon the concept of biomineralization to design smaller amelogenin-inspired peptides with conserved functional domains for clinical translation. The synthetic peptides displayed a characteristic nanostructured scaffold reminiscent of 'nanospheres' seen in the enamel matrix and effectively controlled apatite nucleation in vitro resulting in the formation of smaller crystallites...
March 31, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623076/autoantibodies-in-serum-of-systemic-scleroderma-patients-peptide-based-epitope-mapping-indicates-increased-binding-to-cytoplasmic-domains-of-cxcr3
#6
Andreas Recke, Ann-Katrin Regensburger, Florian Weigold, Antje Müller, Harald Heidecke, Gabriele Marschner, Christoph M Hammers, Ralf J Ludwig, Gabriela Riemekasten
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe chronic autoimmune disease with high morbidity and mortality. Sera of patients with SSc contain a large variety of autoantibody (aab) reactivities. Among these are functionally active aab that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) such as C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and 4 (CXCR4). Aab binding to the N-terminal portion of these two GPCRs have been shown to be associated with slower disease progression in SSc, especially deterioration of lung function. Aabs binding to GPCRs exhibit functional activities by stimulating or inhibiting GPCR signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618380/coordinated-responses-to-individual-tumor-antigens-by-igg-antibody-and-cd8-t-cells-following-cancer-vaccination
#7
Tyler W Hulett, Shawn M Jensen, Phillip A Wilmarth, Ashok P Reddy, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Michael E Afentoulis, Christopher Dubay, Larry L David, Bernard A Fox
BACKGROUND: One of today's greatest hurdles for cancer immunotherapy is the absence of information regarding which tumor antigens are already recognized by patients receiving immunotherapies, and whether those therapies then boost or generate an immune response against tumor proteins. For CD8+ T cells in particular, patient-specific immune recognition and responses at the level of individual tumor antigens are rarely characterized. Because of this, some immunologists have turned to serum antibodies as an alternative measure of antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614018/in-vitro-influence-of-extracts-from-snail-helix-aspersa-m%C3%A3-ller-on-the-colon-cancer-cell-line-caco-2
#8
Magdalena Matusiewicz, Iwona Kosieradzka, Tomasz Niemiec, Marta Grodzik, Hanna Antushevich, Barbara Strojny, Małgorzata Gołębiewska
Colorectal cancer is the third most widely diagnosed cancer. Extracts from snails may modulate growth and development of colorectal cancer cells. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of tissues derived from Helix aspersa Müller and red-ox properties of tissue extracts. Then, the influence of extracts and their fractions of different molecular weights on viability of Caco-2 cells was examined. Tissue lyophilisates contained antioxidants that could be important in the prevention of colorectal cancer...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607921/a-novel-peptide-from-vespa-ducalis-induces-apoptosis-in-osteosarcoma-cells-by-activating-the-p38-mapk-and-jnk-signaling-pathways
#9
Ren Wu, Ding Li, Qi Tang, Wanchun Wang, Guangrong Xie, Pengcheng Dou
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a typical bone cancer, and most frequently used cancer treatments for OS are limited due to severe drug-related toxicities. Wasp venoms contain functional components that may offer pharmaceutical components for the treatment of cancers. This study aimed to isolate and characterize a novel peptide (venom anti-cancer peptide 1, VACP1) derived from the wasp venom of Vespa ducalis SMITH. Toxins from Vespa ducalis crude venom were separated by gel filtration and purified by C18 reverse-phase HPLC...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605137/plasma-assisted-alignment-in-the-fabrication-of-microchannel-array-based-in-tube-solid-phase-microextraction-microchips-packed-with-tio-2-nanoparticles-for-phosphopeptide-analysis
#10
Siyu Wang, Xiayan Wang, Lin Wang, Qiaosheng Pu, Wenbin Du, Guangsheng Guo
Phosphorylated peptides are important for understanding the processes of biological regulation. However, the detection of phosphopeptides remains a challenge because of their low abundance and the suppression by non-phosphopeptides. Here, we report a strategy for the facile and rapid fabrication of TiO2 -nanoparticle-packed microchannel-array glass microchips (TMA-microchips) for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) using a plasma-assisted method for the precise alignment of the microstructure. This proposed strategy was applied to the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from a protein digestion mixture, demonstrating the high capacity and selectivity of the SPME microchips...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600443/immuno-receptors-from-recognition-to-signaling-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Israel Pecht
The vertebrate adaptive immune response is initiated by specific recognition of antigens. This is carried out by molecules, soluble or cell surface receptors that are members of the Multichain Immune Recognition Receptors (MIRR) group of proteins. The soluble arm of the response is based on antibodies. Kinetic analysis of antibody-antigenic epitope interactions pioneered insights into the complexity underlying the capacity of relatively limited repertoires of antibodies to recognize an essentially unlimited range of epitopes by employing conformational diversity of a given single sequence...
March 29, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599675/activity-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-conventional-antibiotics-against-superantigen-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Lidia Piechowicz, Damian Neubauer, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. It secretes toxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. Aim: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility to conventional antibiotics and selected antimicrobial peptides among toxin-producing strains and nonproducing strains...
February 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593561/reciprocal-interactions-of-mitochondria-and-the-neuroimmunoendocrine-system-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-an-important-role-for-melatonin-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Victoria O Polyakova, Igor M Kvetnoy, George Anderson, Jessica Rosati, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Natalya S Linkova
Structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are intimately linked to a wide array of medical conditions. Many factors are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function, including cytokines, chaperones, chemokines, neurosteroids, and ubiquitins. The role of diffusely located cells of the neuroendocrine system, including biogenic amines and peptide hormones, in the management of mitochondrial function, as well as the role of altered mitochondrial function in the regulation of these cells and system, is an area of intense investigation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593427/glucagon-like-peptide-1-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-mouse-colon-smooth-muscle-cells-through-the-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-vitro
#14
Ahmed Al-Dwairi, Tamara E Alqudah, Othman Al-Shboul, Mohammad Alqudah, Ayman G Mustafa, Mahmoud A Alfaqih
Background: Intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo substantial morphological, phenotypic, and contractile changes during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). SMCs act as a source and target for different inflammatory mediators, however their role in IBD pathogenesis is usually overlooked. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone reported to exert multiple anti-inflammatory effects in different tissues including the gastrointestinal tract through various mechanisms. Aim: The aim of this research is to explore the effect of GLP-1 analog exendin-4 on the expression and secretion of inflammatory markers from mouse colon smooth muscle cells (CSMCs) after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589540/-lactoferrin-and-peptide-derivatives-antimicrobial-agents-with-potential-use-in-nonspecific-immunity-modulation
#15
Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Rafael Campos-Rodriguez, Julio Cesar Carrero, Mireya de la Garza
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a conserved cationic non-heme glycoprotein that is part of the innate immune defense system of mammals. Lf is present in colostrum, milk and mucosal sites, and it is also produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and secreted at infection sites. Lf and Lf N-terminus peptide-derivatives named lactoferricins (Lfcins) are molecules with microbiostatic and microbicidal action in a wide array of pathogens. In addition, they display regulatory properties on components of nonspecific immunity, including toll-like receptors, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species...
March 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588318/rapid-construction-of-antitumor-t-cell-receptor-vectors-from-frozen-tumors-for-engineered-t-cell-therapy
#16
Takemasa Tsuji, Akira Yoneda, Junko Matsuzaki, Anthony Miliotto, Courtney Ryan, Richard C Koya, Kunle Odunsi
T cells genetically engineered with tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes have demonstrated therapeutic potential in patients with solid tumors. In order to achieve broader application, an efficient method to identify TCR genes for an array of tumor antigens and HLA restriction elements is required. Here, we have developed a method to construct a TCR-expression library from specimens, including frozen tumor biopsies, that contain antigen-specific T cells. TCR-expressing cassettes were constructed and cloned in a retroviral plasmid vector within 24 hours by unbiased PCR amplification of TCR α and β chain variable regions assembled with TCR constant regions...
March 27, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581527/identification-of-an-arg-leu-arg-tripeptide-that-contributes-to-the-binding-interface-between-the-cytokine-mif-and-the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4
#17
Michael Lacy, Christos Kontos, Markus Brandhofer, Kathleen Hille, Sabine Gröning, Dzmitry Sinitski, Priscila Bourilhon, Eric Rosenberg, Christine Krammer, Tharshika Thavayogarajah, Georgios Pantouris, Maria Bakou, Christian Weber, Elias Lolis, Jürgen Bernhagen, Aphrodite Kapurniotu
MIF is a chemokine-like cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and cardiovascular disorders. It binds to the chemokine-receptors CXCR2/CXCR4 to trigger atherogenic leukocyte migration albeit lacking canonical chemokine structures. We recently characterized an N-like-loop and the Pro-2-residue of MIF as critical molecular determinants of the CXCR4/MIF binding-site and identified allosteric agonism as a mechanism that distinguishes CXCR4-binding to MIF from that to the cognate ligand CXCL12...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578688/unprecedented-role-of-hybrid-n-glycans-as-ligands-for-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#18
Vidya S Shivatare, Sachin S Shivatare, Chang-Chun David Lee, Chi-Hui Liang, Kuo-Shiang Liao, Yang-Yu Cheng, Gannerla Saidachary, Chung-Yi Wu, Nan-Horng Lin, Peter D Kwong, Dennis R Burton, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong
The development of HIV vaccine has been hampered by the extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of the virus, particularly the substantial sequence diversity of gp120 and gp 41 envelope glycoproteins existing in more than 2,000 HIV variants. The highly diverse glycans on HIV spikes are commonly considered as immunologically silent self-antigens; however, the discovery of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) from HIV patients targeting the viral surface glycans has raised a major question about the origin of their antigens...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577901/o-glcnac-site-mapping-of-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-and-o-glcnac-transferase
#19
Qiong Fan, Anders Moen, Jan Haug Anonsen, Christian Bindesbøll, Thomas Sæther, Cathrine Rein Carlson, Line M Grønning-Wang
The Liver X Receptor α (LXRα) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in regulating cholesterol, lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that LXRα is post-translationally modified by O-linked β-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) with increased transcriptional activity. Moreover, we showed that LXRα associates with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in vitro and in vivo in mouse liver. In this study, we report that human LXRα is O-GlcNAc modified in its N-terminal domain (NTD) by identifying a specific O-GlcNAc site S49 and a novel O-GlcNAc modified peptide20 LWKPGAQDASSQAQGGSSCILRE42 ...
March 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571254/er-shen-wan-extract-reduces-diarrhea-and-regulates-aqp-4-and-nhe-3-in-a-rat-model-of-spleen-kidney-yang-deficiency-induced-diarrhea
#20
Rui Xiong, Wenbing Li, Yidan Li, Kaixuan Zheng, Tingting Zhang, Mingyang Gao, Yun Li, Lin Hu, Changjiang Hu
INTRODUCTION: Er Shen Wan (ESW), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula comprised of Psoraleae Fructus (Babchi seeds, from Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) and Myristicae Semen (Nutmeg, from Myristica fragrans Houtt.), is widely used to treat spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD)-induced diarrhea. Previous studies have demonstrated preliminarily that the petroleum ether extract of ESW (ESWP) exhibits significant anti-diarrheal activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diarrhea activity of ESWP and to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to fluid metabolism in a rat model of SKYD-induced diarrhea...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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