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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819174/interleukin-17-receptor-a-il-17ra-as-a-central-regulator-of-the-protective-immune-response-against-giardia
#1
Oonagh Paerewijck, Brecht Maertens, Leentje Dreesen, Frederik Van Meulder, Iris Peelaers, Dariusz Ratman, Robert W Li, Erik Lubberts, Karolien De Bosscher, Peter Geldhof
The protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the protective effector mechanisms triggered by IL-17A following G. muris infection in mice, by an RNA-sequencing approach. C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO mice were orally infected with G. muris cysts. Three weeks post infection, intestinal tissue samples were collected for RNA-sequencing, with samples from uninfected C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO animals serving as negative controls...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#2
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811324/the-transcriptional-program-functional-heterogeneity-and-clinical-targeting-of-mast-cells
#3
REVIEW
Gökhan Cildir, Harshita Pant, Angel F Lopez, Vinay Tergaonkar
Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that express an array of receptors that can be activated by several extracellular cues, including antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) complexes, bacteria, viruses, cytokines, hormones, peptides, and drugs. Mast cells constitute a small population in tissues, but their extraordinary ability to respond rapidly by releasing granule-stored and newly made mediators underpins their importance in health and disease. In this review, we document the biology of mast cells and introduce new concepts and opinions regarding their role in human diseases beyond IgE-mediated allergic responses and antiparasitic functions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809981/leucine-zipper-motif-inspiration-a-two-dimensional-leucine-velcro-like-array-in-peptide-coordination-polymers-generates-hydrophobicity
#4
Sabina Rodríguez-Hermida, Emi Evangelio, Marta Rubio-Martínez, Inhar Imaz, Albert Verdaguer, Jordi Juanhuix, Daniel Maspoch
Here, we show that the well-known hydrophobic leucine (Leu) zipper motif (also known as the coiled-coil or Leu scissors motif), typically found in proteins, can be used as a source of inspiration in coordination polymers built from Leu-containing dipeptides or tripeptides. We demonstrate that this motif can be extended to form Velcro-like layers of Leu, and that the hydrophobicity of these layers is transferred to coordination polymers, thereby enabling the development of a new type of hydrophobic materials...
August 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805711/a-dereplication-and-bioguided-discovery-approach-to-reveal-new-compounds-from-a-marine-derived-fungus-stilbella-fimetaria
#5
Sara Kildgaard, Karolina Subko, Emma Phillips, Violaine Goidts, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Charlotte H Gotfredsen, Birgitte Andersen, Jens C Frisvad, Kristian F Nielsen, Thomas O Larsen
A marine-derived Stilbella fimetaria fungal strain was screened for new bioactive compounds based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided approach using cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays; and (ii) dereplication based approach using liquid chromatography with both diode array detection and high resolution mass spectrometry. This led to the discovery of several bioactive compound families with different biosynthetic origins, including pimarane-type diterpenoids and hybrid polyketide-non ribosomal peptide derived compounds...
August 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804489/normalized-synergy-predicts-that-cd8-co-receptor-contribution-to-t-cell-receptor-tcr-and-pmhc-binding-decreases-as-tcr-affinity-increases-in-human-viral-specific-t-cells
#6
Chad M Williams, Alexandra A Schonnesen, Shu-Qi Zhang, Ke-Yue Ma, Chenfeng He, Tori Yamamoto, S Gail Eckhardt, Christopher A Klebanoff, Ning Jiang
The discovery of naturally occurring T cell receptors (TCRs) that confer specific, high-affinity recognition of pathogen and cancer-associated antigens remains a major goal in cellular immunotherapies. The contribution of the CD8 co-receptor to the interaction between the TCR and peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) has previously been correlated with the activation and responsiveness of CD8(+) T cells. However, these studies have been limited to model systems of genetically engineered hybridoma TCRs or transgenic mouse TCRs against either a single epitope or an array of altered peptide ligands...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800929/directing-t-cell-fate-how-thymic-antigen-presenting-cells-coordinate-thymocyte-selection
#7
REVIEW
Elise R Breed, S Thera Lee, Kristin A Hogquist
The development of a self-tolerant and effective T cell receptor repertoire is dependent on interactions coordinated by various antigen presenting cells (APC) within the thymus. T cell receptor-self-peptide-MHC interactions are essential for determining T cell fate, however different cytokine and co-stimulatory signals provided by the diverse APCs within the thymus are also critical. Here, we outline the different localization and functional capabilities of thymic APCs. We also discuss how these distinct APCs work collectively to facilitate the establishment of a diverse T cell receptor repertoire that is tolerant to an array of different self-antigens...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800361/identification-of-a-common-ara-h-3-epitope-recognized-by-both-the-capture-and-the-detection-monoclonal-antibodies-in-an-elisa-detection-kit
#8
Lipei Zhao, Liang Zhao, Buchang Zhang, Jason M Robotham, Kenneth H Roux, Hengli Tang
Allergy to peanuts has become a common and severe problem, especially in westernized countries. In this study, we evaluated the target and epitope specificity of the capture and detection mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in a commercial peanut allergen detection platform. We first identified the target of these antibodies as Ara h 3 and then used an overlapping peptide array of Ara h 3 to determine the antibody-binding epitopes. Further amino acids critical for the binding via alanine substitutions at individual amino acid residues within the epitope were mapped...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794048/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-modulates-endoglin-cd105-signaling-pathway-for-liver-pathogenesis
#9
Young-Chan Kwon, Reina Sasaki, Keith Meyer, Ranjit Ray
Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In our previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition state (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of HCV core expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782095/markers-in-blood-and-saliva-for-prediction-of-orthodontically-induced-inflammatory-root-resorption-a-retrospective-case-controlled-study
#10
Dilara Yashin, Oyku Dalci, Mohammed Almuzian, Jenkin Chiu, Rajiv Ahuja, Apurv Goel, M Ali Darendeliler
BACKGROUND: Hormonal and enzymatic factors may render certain individuals more susceptible to orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). The objectives of this study are (1) to identify biochemical key markers in blood and saliva that may be correlated to the trend of extensive OIIRR and (2) to utilise these markers to predict a susceptible patient-receiving orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Nine patients (mean age 23 + 2.9 years) who had moderate to severe OIIRR that assessed via orthopantomograms and met the inclusion criteria were classified as the root resorption group (RRG)...
December 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781959/structure-based-design-of-ferritin-nanoparticle-immunogens-displaying-antigenic-loops-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#11
Liqin Wang, Daniel Xing, Adriana Le Van, Ann E Jerse, Shuishu Wang
Effective vaccines are urgently needed to combat gonorrhea, a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection, for which treatment options are diminishing due to rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. We have used a rational approach to the development of gonorrhea vaccines, and genetically engineered nanoparticles to present antigenic peptides of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. We hypothesized that the ferritin nanocage could be used as a platform to display an ordered array of N...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777546/site-selective-sensing-of-histone-methylation-enzyme-activity-via-an-arrayed-supramolecular-tandem-assay
#12
Yang Liu, Lizeth Perez, Adam D Gill, Magi Mettry, Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang, Richard J Hooley, Wenwan Zhong
Arrayed deep cavitands can be coupled to a fluorescence-based supramolecular tandem assay that allows site-selective in situ monitoring of post-translational modifications catalyzed by the lysine methyltransferase PRDM9 or the lysine demethylase JMJD2E. An arrayed sensor system containing only three cavitand components can detect the specific substrates of enzyme modification, in the presence of other histone peptides in the enzyme assay, enabling investigation of cross-reactivity over multiple methylation sites and interference from nonsubstrate peptides...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774431/rapid-biomimetic-remineralization-of-the-demineralized-enamel-surface-using-nano-particles-of-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-guided-by-chimaeric-peptides
#13
Zuohui Xiao, Kehua Que, Haorong Wang, Ran An, Zhen Chen, Zhongjun Qiu, Mingli Lin, Jinhua Song, Jie Yang, Danyang Lu, Minjuan Shen, Binbin Guan, Yinghui Wang, Xuliang Deng, Xiaoping Yang, Qing Cai, Jiaying Deng, Li Ma, Xi Zhang, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and effective method to remineralize human carious-like enamel using chimaeric peptide-mediated nanocomplexes of carboxymethyl chitosan/amorphous calcium phosphate (CMC/ACP), mimicking the mineralizing pattern of the oriented assembly of ACP guided by amelogenin in the biomineralization of enamel. METHODS: CMC/ACP nanocomplex solution was first synthesized through the successive addition of carboxymethyl chitosan, calcium chloride, and dipotassium phosphate into distilled water...
July 31, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773850/screening-of-osteogenic-enhancing-short-peptides-from-bmps-for-biomimetic-material-applications
#14
Kei Kanie, Rio Kurimoto, Jing Tian, Katsumi Ebisawa, Yuji Narita, Hiroyuki Honda, Ryuji Kato
Bone regeneration is an important issue in many situations, such as bone fracture and surgery. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are promising cell sources for bone regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins and their bioactive peptides are biomolecules known to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. However, fibrosis can arise during the development of implantable biomaterials. Therefore, it is important to control cell organization by enhancing osteogenic proliferation and differentiation and inhibiting fibroblast proliferation...
August 25, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772209/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-raas-the-ubiquitous-system-for-homeostasis-and-pathologies
#15
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan, Tareq Abu-Izneid
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a vital system of human body, as it maintains plasma sodium concentration, arterial blood pressure and extracellular volume. Kidney-secreted renin enzyme acts on its substrate to form angiotensin II, a versatile effector peptide hormone. Every organ is affected by RAAS activation and the resultant hypertension, cell proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis. The imbalance of renin and angiotensin II can result in an overwhelming number of chronic and acute diseases...
July 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772159/structure-based-design-of-competitive-ligands-to-target-spon2-in-gastric-cancer-an-integration-of-molecular-modeling-and-in-vitro-assay
#16
Zhenglei Xu, Zhichao Yu, Shumei Nai, Ruiyue Shi, Qinhong Tang, Haiyang Zhang, Lijuan Ye, Lisheng Wang, Yincai Hong
Spon2 is a proto-oncogene matrix protein that plays an essential role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. The protein has recently been found to function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor through the activation of RhoGTPase. Here, computational modeling and bioinformatics analysis were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying Spon2 autoinhibition. It is revealed that the binding of PxxP motif to SH domain can stabilize the intramolecular interaction between the N-terminal helix and DH domain of Spon2, thus shifting the protein into an autoinhibitory state...
July 18, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762997/investigating-the-biosynthesis-of-natural-products-from-marine-proteobacteria-a-survey-of-molecules-and-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Marshall L Timmermans, Yagya P Paudel, Avena C Ross
The phylum proteobacteria contains a wide array of Gram-negative marine bacteria. With recent advances in genomic sequencing, genome analysis, and analytical chemistry techniques, a whole host of information is being revealed about the primary and secondary metabolism of marine proteobacteria. This has led to the discovery of a growing number of medically relevant natural products, including novel leads for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and cancer. Of equal interest, marine proteobacteria produce natural products whose structure and biosynthetic mechanisms differ from those of their terrestrial and actinobacterial counterparts...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761330/epigenetic-memory-of-oxidative-stress-does-nephrilin-exert-its-protective-effects-via-rac1
#18
Desmond D Mascarenhas, David N Herndon, Istvan Arany
AIM: Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of Rictor complex (mTORC2), exerts pleiotropic protective effects in metabolic, xenobiotic and traumatic stress models. Stress can generate enduring epigenetic changes in gene function. In this work we examine the possibility that nephrilin treatment protects against acute and enduring global changes in oxidative metabolism, with a focus on the Rictor-complex-mediated activation of Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox) via PKCs, Prex1 and p66shc...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759621/identification-of-novel-antibody-reactive-detection-sites-for-comprehensive-gluten-monitoring
#19
Niels Röckendorf, Barbara Meckelein, Katharina A Scherf, Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Andreas Frey
Certain cereals like wheat, rye or barley contain gluten, a protein mixture that can trigger celiac disease (CD). To make gluten-free diets available for affected individuals the gluten content of foodstuff must be monitored. For this purpose, antibody-based assays exist which rely on the recognition of certain linear gluten sequence motifs. Yet, not all CD-active gluten constituents and fragments formed during food processing/fermentation may be covered by those tests. In this study, we therefore assayed the coverage of reportedly CD-active gluten components by currently available detection antibodies and determined the antibody-inducing capacity of wheat gluten constituents in order to provide novel diagnostic targets for comprehensive gluten quantitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756193/a-photoclickable-peptide-microarray-platform-for-facile-and-rapid-screening-of-3-d-tissue-microenvironments
#20
Sadhana Sharma, Michael Floren, Yonghui Ding, Kurt R Stenmark, Wei Tan, Stephanie J Bryant
Microarrays are powerful experimental tools for high-throughput screening of cellular behavior in multivariate microenvironments. Here, we present a new, facile and rapid screening method for probing cellular behavior in 3D tissue microenvironments. This method utilizes a photoclickable peptide microarray platform developed using electrospun fibrous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels and microarray contact printing. We investigated the utility of this platform with five different peptide motifs and ten cell types including stem, terminally differentiated, cancer or immune cells that were from either primary origin or cell lines and from different species...
July 20, 2017: Biomaterials
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