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Alcohol and nicotine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192582/use-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-among-adolescents-status-of-the-evidence-and-public-health-recommendations
#2
Aarti D Kamat, Alison L Van Dyke
Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has been declining in recent years, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) such as of electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and hookahs has been steadily rising, especially among adolescents. ENDS are not only advertised to children, but their sale via the Internet has made them easily accessible to youth. In general, children perceive ENDS as safe, or at least safer than smoking traditional combustible tobacco products; however, exposure to nicotine may have deleterious effects on the developing brain...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183022/temporal-sequencing-of-nicotine-dependence-and-major-depressive-disorder-a-u-s-national-study
#3
José M Martínez-Ortega, Silvia Franco, Jorge M Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas, Shuai Wang, Manuel Gurpegui
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, little attention has been given to the temporal order between the two disorders. We compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded (ND-prior) or followed the onset of MDD (MDD-prior). Binary logistic regression models were computed to compare ND-prior (n=546) and MDD-prior (n=801) individuals from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n=43,093)...
February 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182448/when-alcohol-is-only-part-of-the-problem-an-event-level-analysis-of-negative-consequences-related-to-alcohol-and-other-substance-use
#4
Kimberly A Mallett, Rob Turrisi, Brittney A Hultgren, Nichole Sell, Racheal Reavy, Michael Cleveland
While alcohol remains the drug of choice for most college students, national data show that 40% of college students also use other substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, etc.). Longitudinal studies indicate that students who report use of both alcohol and other substances experience more consequences (e.g., blackout, arrests). The current study expands upon this research by using a multilevel approach to examine average and event-level alcohol combined with other substance use (ALC+) and its role on consequences experienced...
February 9, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182194/the-differential-effects-of-alcohol-and-nicotine-specific-nitrosamine-ketone-on-white-matter-ultrastructure
#5
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180912/-epidemiology-of-dupuytren-s-disease
#6
P Hahn
Dupuytren's disease is a chronic disease of the elderly. Assuming that life expectancy will increase considerably in the coming decades, Dupuytren's disease will gain more medical and socioeconomic relevance. In addition to well-known familial and genetic causes, other environmental factors (nicotine, diabetes, alcohol, trauma, work) are discussed. Knowledge of all factors and their influence on the onset and severity of the disease is important for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of the disease.
February 8, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165486/alcohol-and-nicotine-codependence-associated-dna-methylation-changes-in-promoter-regions-of-addiction-related-genes
#7
Hongqin Xu, Fan Wang, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Huiping Zhang
Altered DNA methylation in addiction-related genes may modify the susceptibility to alcohol or drug dependence (AD or ND). We profiled peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 addiction-related genes in 256 African Americans (AAs) (117 cases with AD-ND codependence and 139 controls) and 196 European Americans (103 cases with AD-ND codependence and 93 controls) using Illumina's GoldenGate DNA methylation array assays. AD-ND codependence-associated DNA methylation changes were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with consideration of batch effects and covariates age, sex, and ancestry proportions...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164394/smokeless-tobacco-snus-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-five-pooled-cohorts
#8
S Carlsson, T Andersson, M Araghi, R Galanti, A Lager, M Lundberg, P Nilsson, M Norberg, N L Pedersen, Y Trolle-Lagerros, C Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and nicotine exposure increase insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) is high in nicotine, and its use is prevalent in Scandinavian countries, but few studies have investigated snus use in relation to diabetes risk. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between snus use and risk of type 2 diabetes using pooled data from five cohorts. METHODS: Analyses were based on prospective studies conducted between 1990 and 2013 including 54 531 never-smoking men and 2441 incident cases of type 2 diabetes identified through screening, self-reporting and hospital and prescription registries...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162138/prevalence-of-mental-disorders-in-the-elderly-in-the-community-of-madrid-results-of-the-mentdis_icf65-study
#9
Berta Ausín, Manuel Muñoz, Ana Belén Santos-Olmo, Eloísa Pérez-Santos, Miguel A Castellanos
The MentDis_ICF65+ Project is an epidemiological study of mental disorders in people 65 to 85 years old in several European cities, including Madrid. Its aim is to determine the lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence of the main mental disorders in the elderly. The relationship of age and sex with each mental disorder was examined. The sample was collected through random sampling of people over 65 in Madrid, and consisted of 555 persons between 65 and 85 years old. The CIDI65+ was administered. Estimates of prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were made using sample frequencies and according to sex and age...
February 6, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146248/disruption-of-reward-processing-in-addiction-an-image-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#10
Maartje Luijten, Arnt F Schellekens, Simone Kühn, Marise W J Machielse, Guillaume Sescousse
Importance: Disrupted reward processing, mainly driven by striatal dysfunction, is a key characteristic of addictive behaviors. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported conflicting results, with both hypoactivations and hyperactivations during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in addiction. Objective: To determine the nature and direction of reward-processing disruptions during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in individuals with addiction using image-based meta-analyses of fMRI studies...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131519/urine-drug-testing-results-and-paired-oral-fluid-comparison-from-patients-enrolled-in-long-term-medication-assisted-treatment-in-tennessee
#11
Katie L Miller, Brandi L Puet, Ali Roberts, Cheryl Hild, Jason Carter, David L Black
Urine drug testing is recommended for individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment. It provides objective information for practitioners to consider and may serve as a protective factor against drug-related mortality. The primary objective of our study was to describe urine drug testing results for patients undergoing long-term medication-assisted treatment (≥6months). The secondary objective was to provide further evidence to establish oral fluid as a reliable alternative to urine. All subjects (n=639) included in the study were enrolled in one of five treatment centers in the state of Tennessee, and all urine specimens were positive for either methadone or buprenorphine...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129487/predictors-of-tanning-dependence-in-white-non-hispanic-females-and-males
#12
B Cartmel, A E Bale, S T Mayne, J E Gelernter, A T DeWan, P Spain, D J Leffell, S Pagoto, L M Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that some individuals may exhibit symptoms of dependence on ultraviolet (UV) light, a known carcinogen, in the context of tanning; however, few studies have investigated predictors of tanning dependence (TD). OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of tanning dependence (TD). METHODS: Non-Hispanics of European-ancestry who had previously participated in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma completed an online survey to ascertain TD and other behaviors (alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), exercise 'addiction', and depression)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128809/-psychopathology-screening-in-medical-school-students
#13
Jesús Francisco Galván-Molina, María E Jiménez-Capdeville, José María Hernández-Mata, José Ramón Arellano-Cano
OBJECTIVE: Screening of psychopathology and associated factors in medical students employing an electronic self-report survey. METHOD: A transversal, observational, and comparative study that consisted of the following instruments: Sociodemographic survey; 2. Adult Self-Report Scale-V1 (ASRS); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Zung and Conde Self-Rating Depression Scale, Almonte-Herskovic Sexual Orientation Self-Report; Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Identification (AUDIT); Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; 9...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096868/comparisons-of-subthreshold-versus-full-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-distinguished-by-subjective-functional-impairment-among-train-drivers-a-population-based-nationwide-study-in-south-korea
#14
Ji Hyun Baek, Ji-Hae Kim, Bin-Na Kim, Seung Jin Park, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Dongsoo Lee, Hong Jin Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (SPTSD), a condition that meets the full symptomatic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) without subjective functional impairment, has yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of SPTSD. METHODS: The web-based survey including psychiatric diagnosis and experience of human error was conducted in actively working train drivers in South Korea...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077940/physician-tobacco-screening-and-advice-to-quit-among-u-s-adolescents-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-2013
#15
Lauren Collins, Sabrina L Smiley, Rakiya A Moore, Amanda L Graham, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Initiating tobacco use in adolescence increases the risk of nicotine dependence and continued smoking. Physician screening for tobacco use increases the odds of physicians intervening with patients who smoke; However, without appropriate follow-through by the physician, screening for tobacco use is not enough to significantly increase cessation rates. Given the critical phase of development adolescence poses in tobacco use and evidence that physician intervention improves adult cessation efforts, we sought to examine physician tobacco use screening and advice to quit among adolescents (12-17 years)...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058022/role-of-original-and-modified-frey-s-procedures-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
Chun-Lu Tan, Hao Zhang, Min Yang, Shao-Jun Li, Xu-Bao Liu, Ke-Zhou Li
AIM: To retrospectively review patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with CP treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014 in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery. A cross-sectional study of postoperative pain relief, quality of life (QoL), and alcohol and nicotine abuse was performed by clinical interview, letters and telephone interview in January 2016...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051978/long-term-outcomes-after-residential-substance-use-treatment-relapse-morbidity-and-mortality
#17
Kathleen P Decker, Stephanie L Peglow, Carl R Samples, Tina D Cunningham
A cohort of 207 veterans admitted to a residential substance use treatment program was followed for 5 years following discharge to determine factors associated with reduced relapse or mortality following discharge. Subsequent utilization of medical and psychiatric hospitalization and emergency room utilization was also examined. Retrospective chart review was conducted using demographic, diagnostic, and prior treatment as independent variables. Dependent variables included aftercare compliance and subsequent morbidity as measured by relapse, emergency room visits, subsequent hospitalizations, and mortality...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038363/relationship-of-nicotine-deprivation-and-indices-of-alcohol-use-behavior-to-implicit-alcohol-and-cigarette-approach-cognitions-in-smokers
#18
Amy Cohn, Sarah Ehlke, Caroline O Cobb
Alcohol and smoking frequently co-occur and alcohol is a primary trigger for smoking behavior and relapse back to smoking. This study examined whether several indices of alcohol use behavior and consequences of use would be associated with changes in implicit alcohol-approach versus implicit cigarette-approach cognitions under cigarette deprived and non-deprived cognitions in 109 smokers who drank at risky or non-risky levels. An Implicit Association Task (IAT) measured how quickly respondents paired alcohol and cigarette pictures with approach and avoid words...
April 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032407/cyp2a6-metabolism-in-the-development-of-smoking-behaviors-in-young-adults
#19
Emily Olfson, Joseph Bloom, Sarah Bertelsen, John P Budde, Naomi Breslau, Andrew Brooks, Robert Culverhouse, Grace Chan, Li-Shiun Chen, David Chorlian, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Sarah Hartz, Dorothy Hatsukami, Victor M Hesselbrock, Eric O Johnson, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Jacquelyn L Meyers, John Nurnberger, Bernice Porjesz, Nancy L Saccone, Marc A Schuckit, Jerry Stitzel, Jay A Tischfield, John P Rice, Alison Goate, Laura J Bierut
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) encodes the enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine metabolism. Previous studies support that slow metabolizers smoke fewer cigarettes once nicotine dependent but provide conflicting results on the role of CYP2A6 in the development of dependence. By focusing on the critical period of young adulthood, this study examines the relationship of CYP2A6 variation and smoking milestones. A total of 1209 European American young adults enrolled in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism were genotyped for CYP2A6 variants to calculate a previously well-validated metric that estimates nicotine metabolism...
December 29, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029173/a-randomized-trial-evaluating-whether-topiramate-aids-smoking-cessation-and-prevents-alcohol-relapse-in-recovering-alcohol-dependent-men
#20
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Esther Wong, Jessie Tibbs, Katie Russell, Melodie Isgro, Elizabeth Dinh, Chris Wehrle, Matthew J Worley, Neal Doran
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and nicotine dependence frequently co-occur, and quitting smoking might enhance long-term alcohol abstinence. Topiramate appears to help non-alcohol-dependent individuals quit smoking, and our pilot work suggested efficacy only in men. It also prevents relapse to alcohol in recently detoxified alcoholics. We evaluated topiramate in abstinent alcohol-dependent men to assess whether this medication (i) promotes smoking cessation and (ii) prevents alcohol and other drug relapse in the context of smoking cessation treatment...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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