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Alcohol and nicotine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144544/effects-of-nicotine-on-alcohol-drinking-in-female-mice-selectively-bred-for-high-or-low-alcohol-preference
#1
Marcus M Weera, Molly A Fields, Danielle N Tapp, Nicholas J Grahame, Julia A Chester
BACKGROUND: Studies show that repeated nicotine use associates with high alcohol consumption in humans, and that nicotine exposure sometimes increases alcohol consumption in animal models. However, the relative roles of genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, the alcohol drinking patterns, and the timing of nicotine exposure both with respect to alcohol drinking and developmental stage remain unclear. The studies here manipulated all these variables, using mice selectively bred for differences in free-choice alcohol consumption to elucidate the role of genetics and nicotine exposure in alcohol consumption behaviors...
November 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134961/the-impact-of-combinations-of-alcohol-nicotine-and-cannabis-on-dynamic-brain-connectivity
#2
Victor M Vergara, Barbara J Weiland, Kent Hutchison, Vince D Calhoun
Alcohol, nicotine and cannabis are among the most commonly used drugs. A prolonged and combined use of these substances can alter normal brain wiring in different ways depending on the consumed cocktail mixture. Brain connectivity alterations and their change with time can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because of its spatial and temporal content. Here, we estimated dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) as derived from fMRI data to investigate the effects of single or combined use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis...
November 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130427/reduction-of-anxiety-sensitivity-in-relation-to-nicotine-withdrawal-symptoms-during-smoking-cessation-an-examination-among-successful-quitters
#3
Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kirsten J Langdon, Adam M Leventhal, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity has been implicated as a potential risk factor for post-quit withdrawal symptoms. The present study examined relations between the extent of change in anxiety sensitivity and the course of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced during the initial two weeks of a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample consisted of 29 adult daily smokers (34% female; Mage = 47.7, SD = 13.1) who successfully quit and maintained their abstinence. After adjusting for the effects of gender, treatment condition, use of nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine dependence, alcohol use problems, baseline levels of anxiety sensitivity, and reductions in negative affect, greater reductions in anxiety sensitivity were related to faster decreases in withdrawal symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119914/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-comorbid-bipolar-disorders-clinical-features-and-treatment-implications
#4
Federico Mucci, Cristina Toni, Ettore Favaretto, Giulia Vannucchi, Donatella Marazziti, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms within the context of a bipolar disorder (BD) have been described since the 19th century. Interestingly, the existence of a relevant overlap between the aforementioned psychiatric syndromes has been confirmed by a number of recent epidemiological and family studies. AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to review the clinical features and the therapeutic implications of the OCD-BD comorbidity. DISCUSSION: In the last two decades, the frequent association between OCD and BD has been earning a growing interest given its relevant nosological and therapeutic implications...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#5
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112713/st-product-characteristics-and-relationships-with-perceptions-and-behaviors-among-rural-adolescent-males-a-qualitative-study
#6
Elizabeth T Couch, Ellen F Darius, Margaret M Walsh, Benjamin W Chaffee
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools...
November 3, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112285/alcohol-induced-impairment-of-balance-is-antagonized-by-energy-drinks
#7
Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
BACKGROUND: The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. METHODS: Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
November 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109977/prior-alcohol-use-enhances-vulnerability-to-compulsive-cocaine-self-administration-by-promoting-degradation-of-hdac4-and-hdac5
#8
Edmund A Griffin, Philippe A Melas, Royce Zhou, Yang Li, Peter Mercado, Kimberly A Kempadoo, Stacy Stephenson, Luca Colnaghi, Kathleen Taylor, Mei-Chen Hu, Eric R Kandel, Denise B Kandel
Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference. Long-term, but not short-term, alcohol consumption promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the nuclear histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region critical for reward-based memory...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109060/cannabinoid-1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-reduces-binge-like-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-induced-accumbal-dopaminergic-signaling
#9
Andrea Balla, Bin Dong, Borehalli M Shilpa, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Subhash C Pandey, Henry Sershen, Raymond F Suckow, K Yaragudri Vinod
Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is associated with profound adverse effects on our health and society. Rimonabant (SR141716A), a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, was previously shown to be effective for nicotine cessation and obesity. However, studies using rimonabant were discontinued as it was associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety. In the present study, we examined the pharmacokinetics and effects of AM4113, a novel CB1 receptor neutral antagonist on binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice using a two-bottle choice drinking-in-dark (DID) paradigm...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098672/similarities-and-differences-in-diagnostic-scales
#10
Bin Xuan, Peng Li, Liping Yang, Mingzhu Li, Jing Zhou
A scale plays an important role as a diagnostic tool in discriminating between addicts and non-addicts. At the beginning of this chapter, we have briefly introduced the development of substance and non-substance addiction scales, which not only include alcohol addiction, nicotine addiction and pathological gambling, but also the disputed exercise and sex addiction. While it was found that almost all addiction scales contain items relating to social impairment, preoccupation, withdrawal, and tolerance, the variability is more pronounced with non-substance addiction scales...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096691/problematic-khat-use-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-harmful-use-of-other-psychoactive-substances-a-mixed-method-study-in-ethiopia
#11
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders along with neuropsychiatric disorders contributed about 14% of the global burden of disease. Harmful alcohol use, is a known contributor for many harms (accidents, suicide, violence, and complication of other psychiatric and medical disorders). In the Western countries, alcohol and nicotine are gateway drugs to cannabis use, and cannabis use is a risk factor for other illicit drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Khat use is another psychoactive substance which is common in East African and Arabian Peninsula...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076779/cigarette-smoking-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-nationwide-analysis
#12
Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Robert F Rudy, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Timothy R Smith, Kai U Frerichs, William B Gormley, M Ali Aziz-Sultan, Rose Du
OBJECTIVE Although cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for cerebral aneurysm development and rupture, there are limited data evaluating the impact of smoking on outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additionally, two recent studies suggested that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with improved neurological outcomes among smokers who had sustained an SAH compared with smokers who did not receive nicotine. METHODS Patients who underwent endovascular or microsurgical repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2009-2011) and stratified by cigarette smoking...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065847/long-term-administration-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-and-influence-of-substance-and-drug-abuse-on-the-disease-outcome
#13
F-M Werner, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
October 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059442/financial-incentives-for-smoking-abstinence-in-homeless-smokers-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Travis P Baggett, Yuchiao Chang, Awesta Yaqubi, Claire McGlave, Stephen T Higgins, Nancy A Rigotti
Introduction: Three-quarters of homeless people smoke cigarettes. Financial incentives for smoking abstinence have appeared promising in non-experimental studies of homeless smokers but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data are lacking. Methods: We conducted a pilot RCT of financial incentives for homeless smokers. Incentive arm participants (N=25) could earn escalating $15-$35 rewards for brief smoking abstinence (exhaled carbon monoxide <8 parts per million) assessed 14 times over 8 weeks...
August 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058303/transmucosal-delivery-of-nicotine-in-combination-with-tincture-of-benzoin-inhibits-apoptosis
#15
Alex Battaglia, Thanh Nguyen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tincture of benzoin (TOB) facilitates immediate transmucosal nicotine absorption while simultaneously promoting a safe and sustained delivery of the nicotine. METHODS: In combination with TOB, nicotine toxicity and diffusion across human mucosal cells were measured using a 3-D human mucosal tissue model. RESULTS: Nicotine was delivered 2.1 times more quickly in combination with TOB than in combination with saline (p < 0...
October 20, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056353/the-ghr-r-antagonist-jmv-2959-neither-induces-malaise-nor-alters-the-malaise-property-of-licl-in-the-adult-male-rat
#16
Juan A Rodriguez, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Paul J Wellman
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion...
January 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056152/orexin-hypocretin-system-role-in-food-and-drug-overconsumption
#17
Jessica R Barson, Sarah F Leibowitz
The neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin (OX), while largely transcribed within the hypothalamus, is released throughout the brain to affect complex behaviors. Primarily through the hypothalamus itself, OX homeostatically regulates adaptive behaviors needed for survival, including food intake, sleep-wake regulation, mating, and maternal behavior. However, through extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, OX promotes seeking and intake of rewarding substances of abuse, like palatable food, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#18
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038721/gender-differences-in-substance-use-patterns-and-disorders-among-an-iranian-patient-sample-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#19
Amir Ghaderi, Maryam Motmaen, Iraj Abdi, Morad Rasouli-Azad
BACKGROUND: The current prevalence rate of substance abuse and dependence, represents an increasing trend of substance abuse and dependence among women, and the results of epidemiology studies indicate that substance use patterns are different between men and women. This study aimed to determine gender differences in substance use patterns and disorders among the patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from September 2012 through March 2013 in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clinics of Mashhad, Iran...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019642/spine-conditions-occupational-spine-conditions
#20
Marc A Childress
Neck and back conditions have significant effects on employee health and productivity. More than $7 billion in lost revenue in the United States annually can be attributed to workplace back pain among employees ages 40 to 65 years. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2012 back pain was the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition resulting in workplace absenteeism. The incidence of these conditions is higher among individuals in certain professions, such as bus drivers, police officers, and correctional officers...
October 2017: FP Essentials
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