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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778069/differential-correlations-between-maternal-hair-levels-of-tobacco-and-alcohol-with-fetal-growth-restriction-clinical-subtypes
#1
Sally Sabra, Ebba Malmqvist, Laura Almeida, Eduard Gratacos, Maria Dolores Gomez Roig
Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain...
January 4, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776355/can-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-be-used-to-treat-substance-use-disorders-sud-a-systematic-review
#2
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Imke Gerkensmeier, Maria Schuchinsky
BACKGROUND: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive method of stimulating widespread cortical areas and, presumably, deeper neural networks. The current study assessed the effects of DTMS in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) using a systematic review. METHODS: Electronic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline until April 2017) identified k = 9 studies (k = 4 randomized-controlled trials, RCTs, with inactive sham and k = 5 open-label studies)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#3
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#4
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#5
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763835/predictors-of-reduced-smoking-quantity-among-recovering-alcohol-dependent-men-in-a-smoking-cessation-trial
#6
Matthew J Worley, Melodie Isgro, Jaimee L Heffner, Soo Yong Lee, Belinda E Daniel, Robert M Anthenelli
INTRODUCTION: Adults with alcohol dependence (AD) have exceptionally high smoking rates and poor smoking cessation outcomes. Discovery of factors that predict reduced smoking among AD smokers may help improve treatment. This study examined baseline predictors of smoking quantity among AD smokers in a pharmacotherapy trial for smoking cessation. METHODS: The sample includes male, AD smokers (N = 129) with 1-32 months of alcohol abstinence who participated in a 12-week trial of medication (topiramate vs...
May 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761343/role-of-exogenous-progesterone-in-the-treatment-of-men-and-women-with-substance-use-disorders-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
MacKenzie R Peltier, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Substance use disorders (SUDs) remain problematic as many individuals are untreated or do not benefit from the currently available interventions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel pharmacological interventions to treat SUDs. Evidence suggests that the female sex hormone, progesterone, attenuates the craving for and the euphoric effects of drugs of abuse. Research to date has demonstrated that progesterone may modulate responses to drugs of abuse and may have utility as a novel treatment for SUDs...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758381/exploring-the-role-of-low-frequency-and-rare-exonic-variants-in-alcohol-and-tobacco-use
#8
Andries T Marees, Anke R Hammerschlag, Lisa Bastarache, Hilde de Kluiver, Florence Vorspan, Wim van den Brink, Dirk J Smit, Damiaan Denys, Eric R Gamazon, Ruifang Li-Gao, Elemi J Breetvelt, Mark C H de Groot, Tessel E Galesloot, Sita H Vermeulen, Jan L Poppelaars, Patrick C Souverein, Renske Keeman, Renée de Mutsert, Raymond Noordam, Frits R Rosendaal, Najada Stringa, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Ilonca Vaartjes, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Martin den Heijer, Natasja M van Schoor, Olaf H Klungel, Anke H Maitland-Van der Zee, Marjanka K Schmidt, Tinca J C Polderman, Andries R van der Leij, Danielle Posthuma, Eske M Derks
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and tobacco use are heritable phenotypes. However, only a small number of common genetic variants have been identified, and common variants account for a modest proportion of the heritability. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low-frequency and rare variants in alcohol and tobacco use. METHODS: We meta-analyzed ExomeChip association results from eight discovery cohorts and included 12,466 subjects and 7432 smokers in the analysis of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753887/peri-adolescent-drinking-of-ethanol-and-or-nicotine-modulates-astroglial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-in-female-alcohol-preferring-rats
#9
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicated that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746451/tobacco-cessation-interventions-and-smoke-free-policies-in-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-treatment-facilities-united-states-2016
#10
Kristy Marynak, Brenna VanFrank, Sonia Tetlow, Margaret Mahoney, Elyse Phillips, Ahmed Jamal Mbbs, Anna Schecter, Doug Tipperman, Stephen Babb
Persons with mental or substance use disorders or both are more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as persons without such disorders and are more likely to die from smoking-related illness than from their behavioral health conditions (1,2). However, many persons with behavioral health conditions want to and are able to quit smoking, although they might require more intensive treatment (2,3). Smoking cessation reduces smoking-related disease risk and could improve mental health and drug and alcohol recovery outcomes (1,3,4)...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746421/reducing-the-health-risks-derived-from-exposure-to-addictive-substances
#11
Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual, Jürgen Rehm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the health risks due to exposure to alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine and how these risks might be reduced. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, worldwide, alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine were responsible for some 10 million deaths. There is evolutionary and biological evidence that humans are predisposed to consuming alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine - present-day problems are caused by high levels of potency, exposure and drug delivery systems...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740333/flavonoids-in-kidney-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Félix Vargas, Paola Romecín, Ana I García-Guillén, Rosemary Wangesteen, Pablo Vargas-Tendero, M Dolores Paredes, Noemí M Atucha, Joaquín García-Estañ
This review summarizes the latest advances in knowledge on the effects of flavonoids on renal function in health and disease. Flavonoids have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory effects, among other therapeutic activities. Many of them also exert renoprotective actions that may be of interest in diseases such as glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and chemically-induced kidney insufficiency. They affect several renal factors that promote diuresis and natriuresis, which may contribute to their well-known antihypertensive effect...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736064/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-six-month-follow-up-study
#13
D Ramya Shruthi, S Sunil Kumar, Nagaraj Desai, Rajesh Raman, T S Sathyanarayana Rao
Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) caused by coronary atherosclerosis include ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, and unstable angina. The relation between psychiatric disorders and coronary artery disease is a complex one which includes the effect of the psychosocial factors on heart and vice versa. Point prevalence studies have been reported, but there is paucity of follow-up studies from India. Materials and Methods: The study is a follow-up evaluation at discharge of 248 consecutive patients presented with ACS at JSS Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, over a period of 6 months to assess the psychiatric comorbidities...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735578/lifestyle-and-environmental-factors-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Lars Alfredsson, Tomas Olsson
Lifestyle and environmental factors potently influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), because genetic predisposition only explains a fraction of the risk increase. There is strong evidence for associations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, smoking, sun exposure/vitamin D, and adolescent obesity to risk of MS. There is also circumstantial evidence on organic solvents and shift work, all associate with greater risk, although certain factors like nicotine, alcohol, and a high coffee consumption associate with a reduced risk...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730999/skin-picking-disorder-prevalence-correlates-and-associations-with-quality-of-life-in-a-large-sample
#15
Myrela O Machado, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Ai Koyanagi, João Quevedo, Jair C Soares, Thomas N Hyphantis, Donatella Marazziti, Michael Maes, Dan J Stein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear. METHODS: Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform...
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728074/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-combining-varenicline-with-nicotine-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-with-mental-illnesses-and-addictions-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Chris Bullen, Marjolein Verbiest, Susanna Galea-Singer, Tomasz Kurdziel, George Laking, David Newcombe, Varsha Parag, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are higher in New Zealand (NZ) adults with mental illnesses and alcohol and other drug (AOD) addictions, compared to the overall population. Quit attempts using "gold standard" smoking cessation treatments often fail in people with these conditions, so more flexible treatment regimens that adapt to a person's responsiveness to treatment are worth investigating. The STATUS trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combining varenicline with nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation among varenicline non-responders in treatment for mental health illnesses and/or AOD addictions...
May 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718268/health-conditions-functional-status-and-health-care-utilization-in-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#17
Robert J Fortuna, Ashley Holub, Margaret A Turk, Jon Meccarello, Philip W Davidson
Aim: Health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are well described, yet health is less defined with advancing age. We examined health conditions, functional status and health care utilization in adults with CP across age groups. Methods: We collected cross-sectional data on health conditions, functional status and utilization from the medical records of adults with CP across a large university-affiliated primary care network using the Rochester Health Status Survey IV (RHSS-IV), a 58-item validated survey...
April 27, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709488/spectral-reflectance-measurement-of-evaporating-chemical-films-initial-results-and-application-to-skin-permeation
#18
H Frederick Frasch, Larry Lee, Ana M Barbero
The current study has two aims. First the method of spectral reflectance was used to measure evaporation rates of thin (∼25-300 μm) films of neat liquid volatile organic chemicals exposed to a well-regulated wind speed u. Gas phase evaporation mass transfer coefficient (kevap ) measurements of 10 chemicals, 9 of which were measured at similar u, are predicted (slope of log-log data = 1.01; intercept = 0.08; R2 = 0.996) by a previously proposed mass transfer correlation. For one chemical, isoamyl alcohol, the dependence of kevap on u0...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705534/increasing-kynurenine-brain-levels-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-mice-by-inhibiting-dopamine-release-in-nucleus-accumbens
#19
Pablo Giménez-Gómez, Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores Gutiérrez-López, Rebeca Vidal, Cristina Abuin-Martínez, Esther O'Shea, María Isabel Colado
Recent research suggests that ethanol (EtOH) consumption behaviour can be regulated by modifying the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been well elucidated. To further explore the implication of the kynurenine pathway in EtOH consumption we inhibited kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity with Ro 61-8048 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), which shifts the KYN metabolic pathway towards kynurenic acid (KYNA) production. KMO inhibition decreases voluntary binge EtOH consumption and EtOH preference in mice subjected to "drinking in the dark" (DID) and "two-bottle choice" paradigms, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704599/erysodine-a-competitive-antagonist-at-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-decreases-ethanol-consumption-in-alcohol-preferring-uchb-rats
#20
Gabriel Quiroz, Nicolás Guerra-Díaz, Patricio Iturriaga-Vásquez, Mario Rivera-Meza, María Elena Quintanilla, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Alcohol abuse is a worldwide health problem with high economic costs to health systems. Emerging evidence suggests that modulation of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be a therapeutic target for alcohol dependence. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of four doses of erysodine (1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 8.0 mg/kg/day, i.p.), a competitive antagonist of nAChRs, on voluntary ethanol consumption behavior in alcohol-preferring UChB rats, administered during three consecutive days. Results show that erysodine administration produces a dose-dependent reduction in ethanol consumption respect to saline injection (control group)...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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