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Alcohol and nicotine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096868/comparisons-of-subthreshold-versus-full-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-distinguished-by-subjective-functional-impairment-among-train-drivers-a-population-based-nationwide-study-in-south-korea
#1
Ji Hyun Baek, Ji-Hae Kim, Bin-Na Kim, Seung Jin Park, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Dongsoo Lee, Hong Jin Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (SPTSD), a condition that meets the full symptomatic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) without subjective functional impairment, has yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of SPTSD. METHODS: The web-based survey including psychiatric diagnosis and experience of human error was conducted in actively working train drivers in South Korea...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077940/physician-tobacco-screening-and-advice-to-quit-among-u-s-adolescents-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-2013
#2
Lauren Collins, Sabrina L Smiley, Rakiya A Moore, Amanda L Graham, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Initiating tobacco use in adolescence increases the risk of nicotine dependence and continued smoking. Physician screening for tobacco use increases the odds of physicians intervening with patients who smoke; However, without appropriate follow-through by the physician, screening for tobacco use is not enough to significantly increase cessation rates. Given the critical phase of development adolescence poses in tobacco use and evidence that physician intervention improves adult cessation efforts, we sought to examine physician tobacco use screening and advice to quit among adolescents (12-17 years)...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058022/role-of-original-and-modified-frey-s-procedures-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#3
Chun-Lu Tan, Hao Zhang, Min Yang, Shao-Jun Li, Xu-Bao Liu, Ke-Zhou Li
AIM: To retrospectively review patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with CP treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014 in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery. A cross-sectional study of postoperative pain relief, quality of life (QoL), and alcohol and nicotine abuse was performed by clinical interview, letters and telephone interview in January 2016...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051978/long-term-outcomes-after-residential-substance-use-treatment-relapse-morbidity-and-mortality
#4
Kathleen P Decker, Stephanie L Peglow, Carl R Samples, Tina D Cunningham
A cohort of 207 veterans admitted to a residential substance use treatment program was followed for 5 years following discharge to determine factors associated with reduced relapse or mortality following discharge. Subsequent utilization of medical and psychiatric hospitalization and emergency room utilization was also examined. Retrospective chart review was conducted using demographic, diagnostic, and prior treatment as independent variables. Dependent variables included aftercare compliance and subsequent morbidity as measured by relapse, emergency room visits, subsequent hospitalizations, and mortality...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038363/relationship-of-nicotine-deprivation-and-indices-of-alcohol-use-behavior-to-implicit-alcohol-and-cigarette-approach-cognitions-in-smokers
#5
Amy Cohn, Sarah Ehlke, Caroline O Cobb
Alcohol and smoking frequently co-occur and alcohol is a primary trigger for smoking behavior and relapse back to smoking. This study examined whether several indices of alcohol use behavior and consequences of use would be associated with changes in implicit alcohol-approach versus implicit cigarette-approach cognitions under cigarette deprived and non-deprived cognitions in 109 smokers who drank at risky or non-risky levels. An Implicit Association Task (IAT) measured how quickly respondents paired alcohol and cigarette pictures with approach and avoid words...
December 9, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032407/cyp2a6-metabolism-in-the-development-of-smoking-behaviors-in-young-adults
#6
Emily Olfson, Joseph Bloom, Sarah Bertelsen, John P Budde, Naomi Breslau, Andrew Brooks, Robert Culverhouse, Grace Chan, Li-Shiun Chen, David Chorlian, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Sarah Hartz, Dorothy Hatsukami, Victor M Hesselbrock, Eric O Johnson, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Jacquelyn L Meyers, John Nurnberger, Bernice Porjesz, Nancy L Saccone, Marc A Schuckit, Jerry Stitzel, Jay A Tischfield, John P Rice, Alison Goate, Laura J Bierut
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) encodes the enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine metabolism. Previous studies support that slow metabolizers smoke fewer cigarettes once nicotine dependent but provide conflicting results on the role of CYP2A6 in the development of dependence. By focusing on the critical period of young adulthood, this study examines the relationship of CYP2A6 variation and smoking milestones. A total of 1209 European American young adults enrolled in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism were genotyped for CYP2A6 variants to calculate a previously well-validated metric that estimates nicotine metabolism...
December 29, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029173/a-randomized-trial-evaluating-whether-topiramate-aids-smoking-cessation-and-prevents-alcohol-relapse-in-recovering-alcohol-dependent-men
#7
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Esther Wong, Jessie Tibbs, Katie Russell, Melodie Isgro, Elizabeth Dinh, Chris Wehrle, Matthew J Worley, Neal Doran
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and nicotine dependence frequently co-occur, and quitting smoking might enhance long-term alcohol abstinence. Topiramate appears to help non-alcohol-dependent individuals quit smoking, and our pilot work suggested efficacy only in men. It also prevents relapse to alcohol in recently detoxified alcoholics. We evaluated topiramate in abstinent alcohol-dependent men to assess whether this medication (i) promotes smoking cessation and (ii) prevents alcohol and other drug relapse in the context of smoking cessation treatment...
December 28, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011981/nicotine-induced-enhancement-of-pavlovian-alcohol-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#8
Jean-Marie N Maddux, Nadia Chaudhri
RATIONALE: Nicotine enhances responding elicited by Pavlovian cues that predict positive outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that nicotine acting at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) would augment Pavlovian alcohol-seeking. METHODS: Male, Long-Evans rats with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to drinking 15% ethanol in their home cages and then given Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which each trial of a 15-s conditioned stimulus (CS, 12 trials/session) was paired with 0...
December 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998373/sleep-quality-in-an-adult-american-indian-community-sample
#9
Cindy L Ehlers, Derek N Wills, Philip Lau, David A Gilder
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have found that insufficient sleep (< 7 h/night) is more common among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). In this study we sought to identify specific demographic, clinical, and cultural factors that may be associated with reduced sleep quality in an American Indian community sample. METHODS: Information on demography along with personal medical, psychiatric, and drinking history was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996310/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-negatively-related-to-hypothalamic-and-prefrontal-cortical-gray-matter-density-in-heavy-drinking-smokers
#10
Kyle Bullock, Anita Cservenka, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND: While research has examined brain structure in individuals who use alcohol or nicotine, heavy drinking smokers comprise a unique subpopulation of substance users for whom less is known about the relationship between alcohol or nicotine use and structural brain abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined gray matter morphometry in a sample of 39 heavy drinking smokers (24 males, 15 females) in relation to alcohol and nicotine dependence and quantity of use...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984095/acute-oral-18-methoxycoronaridine-18-mc-decreases-both-alcohol-intake-and-iv-nicotine-self-administration-in-rats
#11
Amir H Rezvani, Marty C Cauley, Susan Slade, Corinne Wells, Stanley Glick, Jed E Rose, Edward D Levin
The ibogaine derivative 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) has been found to decrease self-administration of morphine, nicotine and alcohol in rats after systemic injection. However oral dosing is the preferred route clinically. The current study evaluated the effect of oral 18-MC dosing in rats on alcohol and nicotine self-administration. For the nicotine study, young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with IV jugular infusion catheters and trained for nicotine self-administration in 45min. sessions...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942232/prevalence-of-different-pain-categories-based-on-pain-spreading-on-the-bodies-of-older-adults-in-sweden-a-descriptive-level-and-multilevel-association-with-demographics-comorbidities-medications-and-certain-lifestyle-factors-pains65
#12
E Dragioti, B Larsson, L Bernfort, L Å Levin, B Gerdle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge about the prevalence of pain and its relation to comorbidities, medication, and certain lifestyle factors in older adults. To address this limitation, this cross-sectional study examined the spreading of pain on the body in a sample of 6611 subjects ≥65 years old (mean age = 75.0 years; standard deviation [SD] = 7.7) living in southeastern Sweden. METHODS: Sex, age, comorbidities, medication, nicotine, alcohol intake, and physical activity were analyzed in relation to the following pain categories: local pain (LP) (24...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934854/interactions-between-genetic-lifestyle-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Tomas Olsson, Lisa F Barcellos, Lars Alfredsson
Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) only explains a fraction of the disease risk; lifestyle and environmental factors are key contributors to the risk of MS. Importantly, these nongenetic factors can influence pathogenetic pathways, and some of them can be modified. Besides established MS-associated risk factors - high latitude, female sex, smoking, low vitamin D levels caused by insufficient sun exposure and/or dietary intake, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection - strong evidence now supports obesity during adolescence as a factor increasing MS risk...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929656/epilogue-to-special-issue-on-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-links-and-implications
#14
Steven A Schroeder
This paper summarizes The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse special issue and offers suggestions for future steps. People who use alcohol or other addictive substances are much more likely to use tobacco. Yet, clinicians and scientists have long regarded these addiction categories as separate and unrelated. The resultant benign neglect of tobacco use has had disastrous consequences on patients. This special issue is an important step toward remedying that situation. It has reviewed what is known and what more needs to be discovered regarding the co-occurrence of tobacco use disorder (TUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs)...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917809/autonomic-cardiac-activity-in-patients-with-smoking-and-alcohol-addiction-by-heart-rate-variability-analysis
#15
Ramazan Yuksel, Rabia Nazik Yuksel, Tijen Sengezer, Senol Dane
PURPOSE: Smoking and alcohol addictions are common and worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of these addictions on cardiac rhythm using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. METHODS: Addicts (n=42 men: 22 cigarette; 20 cigarette and alcohol) and age-matched controls (n=34 men) were included in the study. All patients fulfill the criteria for dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. Electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were obtained for a total of 30 minutes...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917437/nicotine-plus-a-high-fat-diet-triggers-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#16
Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman, Mark Falz, Victor Chalfant, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan, Jorge Espinoza-Derout, Desean L Lee, Carl Sims, Peter Tran, Sushil K Mahata, Amiya P Sinha-Hikim
Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0...
December 5, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#17
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904164/consequences-and-possible-predictors-of-health-damaging-behaviors-and-mental-health-problems-in-pregnancy-a-review
#18
REVIEW
F Ulrich, F Petermann
In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy...
November 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901240/prevalence-of-chronic-spinal-pain-and-identification-of-associated-factors-in-a-sample-of-the-population-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#19
Jidiene Dylese Presecatan Depintor, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho Bracher, Dayane Maia Costa Cabral, José Eluf-Neto
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891376/smokeless-tobacco-and-stroke-a-clinico-epidemiological-follow-up-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#20
Subhransu Sekhar Jena, Shobhitendu Kabi, Baikuntha Nath Panda, B C Kameswari, Payal, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Subrat Kumar Tripathy, Seemanchana Mahanta
INTRODUCTION: Among the modifiable risk factors for stroke, tobacco smoking is well recognized. In some studies the use of Smokeless Tobacco (ST) has also been contributed as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Use of ST is very common in South-East Asia. The form of ST varies according to the geographical and cultural variation. AIM: To study the various clinical symptoms and radiological findings of stroke due to different types of ST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective hospital based study carried out over a period of 2 years...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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