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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101829/autism-spectrum-disorders%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder commonly seen in children. It is characterized by age inappropriate, impaired social communication and the presence of stereotypic behavior. This disorder is hypothesized to result from cerebral dysfunction arising from a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD should be suspected in children failing ASD specific screening tests, in the presence of red flags in social, language and/or play domains, in children with developmental or language delay, abnormal behavior, poor school performance or in those who are at high risk...
January 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035465/gene-based-analyses-reveal-novel-genetic-overlap-and-allelic-heterogeneity-across-five-major-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Huiying Zhao, Dale R Nyholt
Studies using genome-wide association (GWA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level data have indicated genetic overlap across the five major disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC): attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BPD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, such SNP-level analyses reveal little about the underlying biology and are reliant on correlated SNP effects across disorders. In contrast to SNPs, genes are more closely related to biology and gene-based tests can incorporate allelic heterogeneity...
December 29, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017919/relationship-of-a-common-oxtr-gene-variant-to-brain-structure-and-default-mode-network-function-in-healthy-humans
#3
Junping Wang, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Joshua Faskowitz, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Chunshui Yu, Paul M Thompson
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity)...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984339/diagnostic-evaluation-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-clinician-compliance-with-published-guidelines
#4
Alexis Tchaconas, Andrew Adesman
OBJECTIVE: To assess to what extent child neurologists (CNs) and developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs) order diagnostic tests that are not recommended/indicated and/or fail to order tests that are recommended/indicated when evaluating children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: CNs and DBPs in the United States were asked which laboratory tests they would "routinely order" for a preschool child with ASD and IQ = 58 (ASD + Intellectual Disability (ID)), and a preschool child with ASD and IQ = 85 (ASD-ID)...
January 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965598/defining-precision-medicine-approaches-to-autism-spectrum-disorders-concepts-and-challenges
#5
Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy, Will Spooren
The tremendous clinical and etiological variability between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has made precision medicine the most promising treatment approach. It aims to combine new pathophysiologically based treatments with objective tests (stratification biomarkers) to predict which treatment may be beneficial for a particular person. Here we discuss significant advances and current challenges for this approach: rare monogenic forms of ASD have provided a major breakthrough for the identification of treatment targets by providing a means to trace causal links from a gene to specific molecular alterations and biological pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933285/developmental-profile-and-diagnoses-in-children-presenting-with-motor-stereotypies
#6
Francesco Cardona, Francesca Valente, Daniela Miraglia, Caterina D'Ardia, Valentina Baglioni, Flavia Chiarotti
INTRODUCTION: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient) from symptoms or among different disorders ["primary stereotypies," associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, and sensory impairment]. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We studied 23 children (3 girls), aged 36-95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920663/asd-and-genetic-associations-with-receptors-for-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-avpr1a-avpr1b-and-oxtr
#7
Sunday M Francis, Soo-Jeong Kim, Emily Kistner-Griffin, Stephen Guter, Edwin H Cook, Suma Jacob
Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) and ASD diagnosis, as well as ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affects social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#8
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855195/paternal-aging-affects-behavior-in-pax6-mutant-mice-a-gene-environment-interaction-in-understanding-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
Kaichi Yoshizaki, Tamio Furuse, Ryuichi Kimura, Valter Tucci, Hideki Kaneda, Shigeharu Wakana, Noriko Osumi
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846046/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-three-genomic-rearrangements-at-chromosome-22q13-3-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Hsin-I Chen, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Yann-Jang Chen, Jye-Siung Fang, Kuei-Fang Lee, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVES: Chromosome 22q13 is a hot region of genomic rearrangements that may result in deletion, duplication, and translocation, and that may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders in affected patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out an array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis to detect copy number variations (CNVs) of genomic DNA in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who were consecutively recruited into our molecular genetic study of ASD...
November 11, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825394/shared-atypical-brain-anatomy-and-intrinsic-functional-architecture-in-male-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-unaffected-brothers
#11
H-Y Lin, W-Y I Tseng, M-C Lai, Y-T Chang, S S-F Gau
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for definite genetic etiologies remains elusive. Delineating ASD endophenotypes can boost the statistical power to identify the genetic etiologies and pathophysiology of ASD. We aimed to test for endophenotypes of neuroanatomy and associated intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) via contrasting male youth with ASD, their unaffected brothers and typically developing (TD) males...
November 9, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816473/characterization-of-soluble-n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor-attachment-protein-receptor-gene-stx18-variations-for-possible-roles-in-congenital-heart-diseases
#12
Xia Li, Shuai Shi, Fei-Feng Li, Rui Cheng, Ying Han, Li-Wei Diao, Qiong Zhang, Ji-Xin Zhi, Shu-Lin Liu
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the most prevalent and complex congenital anatomic malformations in newborns. Interactions of cardiac progenitor with a broad range of cellular regulatory factors play key roles in the formation of mammalian heart and pathogenesis of CHD. STX18 is a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, which is involved in numeral cellular activities such as organelle assembly and the cell cycle. The aim of this work was to find evidence on whether STX18 variations might be associated with CHD in Chinese Han populations...
January 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809408/gender-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-divergence-among-specific-core-symptoms
#13
Anita Beggiato, Hugo Peyre, Anna Maruani, Isabelle Scheid, Maria Rastam, Frederique Amsellem, Carina I Gillberg, Marion Leboyer, Thomas Bourgeron, Christopher Gillberg, Richard Delorme
Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated...
November 3, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771533/high-resolution-snp-genotyping-platform-identified-recurrent-and-novel-cnvs-in-autism-multiplex-families
#14
Laila Y AlAyadhi, Jamil A Hashmi, Muhammad Iqbal, Alia M Albalawi, Mohammad I Samman, Nadra E Elamin, Shahid Bashir, Sulman Basit
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-based genotyping using microarray platform is now frequently used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. Here, we report CNVs identified using Illumina Human Omni 2.5M oligonucleotide microarrays in 11 multiplex families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) referred to Autism Research and Treatment Center (ART) and Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital (MMCH). Of the 11 families, 22 patients with ASD (all males) and their parents, were recruited for the present study...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755371/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-heterozygous-missense-variant-of-the-en2-gene-in-two-unrelated-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Areerat Hnoonual, Thanya Sripo, Pornprot Limprasert
To identify the underlying genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we performed whole-exome sequencing in 10 unrelated Thai patients with ASD. We identified a novel heterozygous missense variant (c.425C>G, p.Pro142Arg) in the Engrailed 2 (EN2) gene in two patients. The G variant has never been reported in public databases and was absent in 100 Thai patients with ASD and 435 Thai controls. A case-control study showed that the G allele of c.425C>G was significantly associated with ASD (Fisher's exact test, P=0...
October 14, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755291/clinical-utility-of-folate-pathway-genetic-polymorphisms-in-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Naushad Shaik Mohammad, P Sai Shruti, Venkat Bharathi, Chintakindi Krishna Prasad, Tajamul Hussain, Salman A Alrokayan, Usha Naik, Akella Radha Rama Devi
BACKGROUND: The rationale of the current study was to test the clinical utility of the folate pathway genetic polymorphisms in predicting the risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to address the inconsistencies in the association of MTHFR C677T and hyperhomocysteinemia with ASD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed from the data of 138 autistic and 138 nonautistic children using GCPII C1561T, SHMT1 C1420T, MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G as the predictors of autism risk...
December 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752029/nkx2-5-molecular-screening-and-assessment-of-variant-rate-and-risk-factors-of-secundum-atrial-septal-defect-in-a-moroccan-population
#17
Ihssane El Bouchikhi, Laila Bouguenouch, Fatima Zohra Moufid, Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini, Khadija Belhassan, Imane Samri, Ayoub Tahri Joutei, Karim Ouldim, Samir Atmani
OBJECTIVE: Secundum atrial septal defect (ASDII) has multifactorial etiology that is combination of environmental (e.g., mother's exposure to toxicity, ethnicity) and genetic causes. Aim of the present study was to screen a Moroccan population with ASDII for NKX2-5 variants and to assess risk factors that may contribute to emergence of the disorder. METHODS: Thirty-two non-syndromic ASDII patients were screened for NKX2-5 variants using direct sequencing of polymerase chain reactionamplified coding regions...
October 12, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739237/hyperactivity-and-male-specific-sleep-deficits-in-the-16p11-2-deletion-mouse-model-of-autism
#18
Christopher C Angelakos, Adam J Watson, W Timothy O'Brien, Kyle S Krainock, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Ted Abel
Sleep disturbances and hyperactivity are prevalent in several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence from genome-wide association studies indicates that chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) are associated with increased prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, CNVs in chromosomal region 16p11.2 profoundly increase the risk for ASD and ADHD, disorders that are more common in males than females...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713683/specific-medical-conditions-are-associated-with-unique-behavioral-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Ditza A Zachor, Esther Ben-Itzchak
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708559/does-prenatal-valproate-interact-with-a-genetic-reduction-in-the-serotonin-transporter-a-rat-study-on-anxiety-and-cognition
#20
Bart A Ellenbroek, Caren August, Jiun Youn
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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