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neurotransmitter deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526038/phosphorylation-of-tau-at-y18-but-not-tau-fyn-binding-is-required-for-tau-to-modulate-nmda-receptor-dependent-excitotoxicity-in-primary-neuronal-culture
#1
Takashi Miyamoto, Liana Stein, Reuben Thomas, Biljana Djukic, Praveen Taneja, Joseph Knox, Keith Vossel, Lennart Mucke
BACKGROUND: Hyperexcitability of neuronal networks can lead to excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which in turn can cause neuronal damage by overactivating NMDA-type glutamate receptors and related signaling pathways. This process (excitotoxicity) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions, ranging from childhood epilepsies to stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing neuronal levels of the microtubule-associated protein tau counteracts network hyperexcitability of diverse causes, but whether this strategy can also diminish downstream excitotoxicity is less clear...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506393/partial-rescue-of-neuropathology-in-the-murine-model-of-pku-following-administration-of-recombinant-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-pegvaliase
#2
Marc Goldfinger, William L Zeile, Carley R Corado, Charles A O'Neill, Laurie S Tsuruda, Philip J Laipis, Jonathan D Cooper
Pegylated recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (pegvaliase) is an enzyme substitution therapy being evaluated for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). PKU is characterized by elevated plasma phenylalanine, which is thought to lead to a deficiency in monoamine neurotransmitters and ultimately, neurocognitive dysfunction. A natural history evaluation in a mouse model of PKU demonstrated a profound decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in several brain regions, beginning at 4weeks of age...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#3
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#4
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442935/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-a-focus-on-flibanserin
#5
REVIEW
Christopher J Jayne, Michael J Heard, Sarah Zubair, Dustie L Johnson
The objective of the authors is to highlight the historical complexities for the diagnosis and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) with a focus on Flibanserin. A systematic review of the medical literature published in PubMed using the search terms HSDD and Flibanserin was conducted. Each author reviewed the results of the systematic review for articles to include in this study. HSDD is defined as a persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty that is not better accounted for by another diagnosis...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439219/the-utility-of-csf-for-the-diagnosis-of-primary-and-secondary-monoamine-neurotransmitter-deficiencies
#6
A B Burlina, A Celato, G Polo, C Edini, A P Burlina
Biogenic amine defects constitute a complex and expanding group of neurotransmitter disorders affecting cognitive, motor and autonomic system development, mostly in the pediatric age. In recent years different enzymatic defects have been identified impairing the tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor pathway and/or biogenic amine synthesis, catabolism and transport, with subsequent new disease entities described. The lumbar puncture, with subsequent withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), remains a key step in the diagnostic procedure...
March 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#7
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
June 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410131/substance-use-disorder-a-bio-directional-subset-of-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#8
Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold, Zsolt Demetrovics, Trevor Archer, Panayotis K Thanos, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This commentary is to inform clinicians challenged with an increase in people seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), that the ninety percent revolving door, is, in part, due to post-withdrawal, untreated neurotoxicity. This impairment attenuates neurotransmitter signaling and compromises resting state functional connectivity, leading to unwanted sequelae including depression, sleep disturbances, sensation seeking, lack of satisfaction and impulsivity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that neurobiological recovery can take years...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402679/inhibition-of-osteogenesis-surrounding-the-titanium-implant-by-cgrp-deficiency
#9
Yao Liu, Guangsen Zheng, Li Liu, Zhi Wang, Yiyao Wang, Qianming Chen, En Luo
Previous studies have suggested one of the neurotransmitters, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), modulates local regulation of bone metabolism; however, the regulating signaling pathway is still being explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether CGRP deficiency affects the osteogenesis surrounding titanium implants in vivo. Titanium screws were implanted in 72 adult rats, which were divided into three groups randomly: Sham, inferior alveolar neurectomy (IAN), and IAN+CGRP. Saline solution containing CGRP (concentration: 100 nmol/L) was injected into the area surrounding the implants in the IAN+CGRP group every day post operation...
April 12, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400091/metabolomic-changes-demonstrate-reduced-bioavailability-of-tyrosine-and-altered-metabolism-of-tryptophan-via-the-kynurenine-pathway-with-ingestion-of-medical-foods-in-phenylketonuria
#10
Denise M Ney, Sangita G Murali, Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine synthesized from Tyr and serotonin synthesized from Trp, are of concern in PKU. Our objective was to utilize metabolomics analysis to assess monoamine metabolites in subjects with PKU consuming amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) and glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). METHODS: Subjects with PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MF or GMP-MF for 3weeks each in a randomized, controlled, crossover study...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382610/the-role-of-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-in-neuropathology-and-neurodegeneration
#11
Che-Hong Chen, Amit U Joshi, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Aldehydes-induced toxicity has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Exposure to reactive aldehydes from (1) alcohol and food metabolism; (2) environmental pollutants, including car, factory exhausts, smog, pesticides, herbicides; (3) metabolism of neurotransmitters, amino acids and (4) lipid peroxidation of biological membrane from excessive ROS, all contribute to 'aldehydic load' that has been linked to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the α, β-unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), DOPAL (MAO product of dopamine), malondialdehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde, all readily form chemical adductions with proteins, DNA and lipids, thus causing neurotoxicity...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348520/the-role-of-serotonin-beyond-the-central-nervous-system-during-embryogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Junhua Lv, Feng Liu
Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a well-known neurotransmitter that plays vital roles in neural activities and social behaviors. Clinically, deficiency of serotonin is linked with many psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a large proportion of serotonin is also produced outside the central nervous system (CNS). There is increasing evidence demonstrating important roles of serotonin in the peripheral tissues. Here, we will describe the multiple biological functions of serotonin in hematopoietic system, such as development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), differentiation of hematopoietic cells, maintenance of vascular system, and relationship with hematological diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342849/comparative-effects-of-etoh-consumption-and-thiamine-deficiency-on-cognitive-impairment-oxidative-damage-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-overproduction-in-the-brain
#13
Yu-Shi Gong, Kun Hu, Lu-Qi Yang, Juan Guo, Yong-Qing Gao, Feng-Lin Song, Fang-Li Hou, Cui-Yi Liang
The effects of chronic EtOH consumption, associated or not with thiamine deficiency (TD), on cognitive impairment, oxidative damage, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain were investigated in male C57BL/6 mice. We established an alcoholic mouse model by feeding an EtOH liquid diet, a TD mouse model by feeding a thiamine-depleted liquid diet, and an EtOH treatment associated with TD mouse model by feeding a thiamine-depleted EtOH liquid diet for 7 weeks. The learning and memory functions of the mice were detected through the Y-maze test...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341594/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-hippocampus-in-spatial-memory-deficiency-rats-induced-by-simulated-microgravity
#14
Tingmei Wang, Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Guohua Ji, Yongliang Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
It has been demonstrated that simulated microgravity (SM) may lead to cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In present study, tail-suspension (30°) rat was employed to explore the effects of 28 days of SM on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory capability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that 28-day tail-suspension rats displayed decline of learning and memory ability in Morris water maze (MWM) test. Using iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, a total of 4774 proteins were quantified in hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#15
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293733/type-a-monoamine-oxidase-and-serotonin-are-coordinately-involved-in-depressive-disorders-from-neurotransmitter-imbalance-to-impaired-neurogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai
Type A monoamine oxidase (MAOA) catabolizes monoamine transmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, and plays a major role in the onset, progression and therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In depressive disorders, increase in MAOA expression and decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine are proposed as the major pathogenic factors. The functional polymorphism of MAOA gene and genes in serotonin signal pathway are associated with depression. This review presents recent advance in studies on the role of MAOA in major depressive disorder and related emotional disorders...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284396/pyridoxal-phosphate-supplementation-in-neuropediatric-disorders
#17
Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Marta Molero-Luis, Hsjd Working Group, Rafael Artuch, Àngels García-Cazorla
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and a cofactor in many enzyme reactions including neurotransmitter metabolism. PLP metabolism disturbances may mostly lead to refractory seizures. In this report, we review the main pathophysiological factors related with PLP deficiency and our experience in PLP treatment in pediatric patients with low-normal cerebrospinal fluid PLP values who presented epilepsy. Only one case had a definite diagnosis (Phelan-McDermid syndrome). The results of extensive metabolic workups and targeted genetic studies were normal for all patients...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284394/impaired-neurotransmission-in-early-treated-phenylketonuria-patients
#18
María Julieta González, Rosa Gassió, Rafael Artuch, Jaume Campistol
Cerebral neurotransmitter (NT) deficiency has been suggested as a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU), even in early-treated phenylketonuric patients. The study aimed to review dopamine and serotonin status in PKU, and the effect of the impaired neurotransmission. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of PKU, primarily characterized by impaired dopamine and serotonin synthesis. These deficits are related to executive dysfunctions and social-emotional problems, respectively, in early treated patients...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284389/biochemical-analyses-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-the-diagnosis-of-neurometabolic-conditions-what-can-we-expect
#19
Marta Batllori, Marta Molero-Luis, Mercedes Casado, Cristina Sierra, Rafael Artuch, Aida Ormazabal
In this article, we review the state-of-the-art analysis of different biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of genetically conditioned, rare, neurometabolic diseases, including glucose transport defects, neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid) and pterin deficiencies, and vitamin defects (folate, vitamin B6, and thiamine) that affect the brain. The analysis of several key metabolites are detailed, which thus highlights the preanalytical and analytical factors that should be cautiously controlled to avoid misdiagnosis; moreover, these factors may facilitate an adequate interpretation of the biochemical profiles in the context of severe neuropediatric disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283561/alteration-of-neuronal-excitability-and-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-mental-illness
#20
Gregg W Crabtree, Ziyi Sun, Mirna Kvajo, Jantine A C Broek, Karine Fénelon, Heather McKellar, Lan Xiao, Bin Xu, Sabine Bahn, James M O'Donnell, Joseph A Gogos
Using a genetic mouse model that faithfully recapitulates a DISC1 genetic alteration strongly associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of this mutation within the prefrontal cortex. Although cortical layering, cytoarchitecture, and proteome were found to be largely unaffected, electrophysiological examination of the mPFC revealed both neuronal hyperexcitability and alterations in short-term synaptic plasticity consistent with enhanced neurotransmitter release. Increased excitability of layer II/III pyramidal neurons was accompanied by consistent reductions in voltage-activated potassium currents near the action potential threshold as well as by enhanced recruitment of inputs arising from superficial layers to layer V...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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