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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331791/magnesium-sulfate-reduces-formalin-induced-orofacial-pain-in-rats-with-normal-magnesium-serum-levels
#1
Dragana P Srebro, Sonja M Vučković, Ivan S Dožić, Branko S Dožić, Katarina R Savić Vujović, Aleksandar P Milovanović, Branislav V Karadžić, Milica Š Prostran
BACKGROUND: In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were injected with 1...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331172/blood-phenylalanine-reduction-corrects-cns-dopamine-and-serotonin-deficiencies-and-partially-improves-behavioral-performance-in-adult-phenylketonuric-mice
#2
Shelley R Winn, Tanja Scherer, Beat Thöny, Ming Ying, Aurora Martinez, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Cary O Harding
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in human phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we confirmed the occurrence of brain dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in association with severe behavioral alterations and cognitive impairments in hyperphenylalaninemic C57BL/6-Pahenu2/enu2 mice, a model of human PKU. Phenylalanine-reducing treatments, including either dietary phenylalanine restriction or liver-directed gene therapy, initiated during adulthood were associated with increased brain monoamine content along with improvements in nesting behavior but without a change in the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by these mice...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309142/discovery-of-1-5-diphenylpyrazole-3-carboxamide-derivatives-as-potent-reversible-and-selective-monoacylglycerol-lipase-magl-inhibitors
#3
Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Stefania Baraldi, Emanuela Ruggiero, Lucia De Stefano, Flavio Rizzolio, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Carla Ghelardini, Andrea Chicca, Margherita Lapillo, Jürg Gertsch, Clementina Manera, Marco Macchia, Adriano Martinelli, Carlotta Granchi, Filippo Minutolo, Tiziano Tuccinardi
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a serine hydrolase that plays an important role in the degradation of the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which is implicated in many physiological processes. Beyond the possible utilization of MAGL inhibitors as anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-cancer agents, their application has encountered obstacles due to the unwanted effects caused by the irreversible inhibition of this enzyme. The possible application of reversible MAGL inhibitors has only recently been explored, mainly due to the deficiency of known compounds possessing efficient reversible inhibitory activities...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299922/stabilization-of-human-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-maltodextrin-nanoparticles-for-delivery-to-neuronal-cells-and-tissue
#4
Maria Teresa Bezem, Fredrik Gullaksen Johannessen, Kunwar Jung-Kc, Edvin Tang Gundersen, Ana Jorge-Finnigan, Ming Ying, Didier Betbeder, Lars Herfindal, Aurora Martinez
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a therapeutic approach envisioned decades ago for the correction of genetic disorders, but it is only after improvements in recombinant protein expression and purification that the applicability of this approach has increased. Customarily, ERT has been less successful for the correction of disorders with neurological manifestations. In this work we have tested the functionality of nanoparticles (NP) composed of maltodextrin with a lipid core to bind and stabilize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is a complex and unstable brain enzyme that catalyzes the rate limiting step in the synthesis of dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters...
January 4, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276488/prebiotic-effect-of-fructooligosaccharides-from-morinda-officinalis-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rodent-models-by-targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#5
Diling Chen, Xin Yang, Jian Yang, Guoxiao Lai, Tianqiao Yong, Xiaocui Tang, Ou Shuai, Gailian Zhou, Yizhen Xie, Qingping Wu
Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO) exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Thus, the present study investigated whether OMO is effective in alleviating AD by targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235100/embryonic-exposure-to-valproic-acid-affects-the-histaminergic-system-and-the-social-behavior-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Diego Baronio, Henri A J Puttonen, Maria Sundvik, Svetlana Semenova, Essi Lehtonen, Pertti Panula
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histamine modulates several behaviors and physiological functions and its deficiency is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Gestational intake of valproic acid (VPA) is linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is characterized by impaired sociability and stereotypies. VPA effects on the neurochemistry and functional morphology of the histaminergic system in ASD are unclear. Zebrafish are highly social and given the similarities between zebrafish and human neurotransmitter systems, we decided to use zebrafish to study VPA effects on histamine...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218504/temporal-spatial-profiling-of-pedunculopontine-galanin-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-lactacystin-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208957/neuronal-signals-regulate-obesity-induced-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-by-foxm1-dependent-mechanism
#8
Junpei Yamamoto, Junta Imai, Tomohito Izumi, Hironori Takahashi, Yohei Kawana, Kei Takahashi, Shinjiro Kodama, Keizo Kaneko, Junhong Gao, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Tomoichiro Asano, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Etsuo A Susaki, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Yasushi Ishigaki, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Under insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, pancreatic β-cells proliferate to prevent blood glucose elevations. A liver-brain-pancreas neuronal relay plays an important role in this process. Here, we show the molecular mechanism underlying this compensatory β-cell proliferation. We identify FoxM1 activation in islets from neuronal relay-stimulated mice. Blockade of this relay, including vagotomy, inhibits obesity-induced activation of the β-cell FoxM1 pathway and suppresses β-cell expansion. Inducible β-cell-specific FoxM1 deficiency also blocks compensatory β-cell proliferation...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208364/dopamine-promotes-cellular-iron-accumulation-and-oxidative-stress-responses-in-macrophages
#9
Stefanie Dichtl, David Haschka, Manfred Nairz, Markus Seifert, Chiara Volani, Oliver Lutz, Günter Weiss
Iron is essential for many biological functions including neurotransmitter synthesis, where the metal is a co-factor of tyrosine hydroxylase, which converts tyrosine to dopamine and further to norepinephrine. As the shared chemical structure, called catechol, may potentially bind iron we questioned whether tyrosine derived hormones would impact on cellular iron homeostasis in macrophages, which are central for the maintenance of body iron homeostasis. Using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), we investigated the effect of catecholamines and found that only dopamine but neither tyrosine, nor norepinephrine, affected cellular iron homeostasis...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200724/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-neuroprotective-fatty-acids-from-nigella-sativa-against-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced-neurotoxicity
#10
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Hoda Monaghash, Farahnaz Ahmadi, Nastaran Ghiasvand, Yalda Shokoohinia
Objective: Parkinson's disease, a slowly progressive neurological disease, is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The main aspects of researches are the protection of normal neurons against degeneration. Fatty acids (FAs), the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are carboxylic straight chains and notable parameters in nutritional and industrial usefulness of a plant. Materials and Methods: Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs which were extracted using hexane...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199177/inhibition-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-stimulates-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-expression-in-male-rats
#11
Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Karen P Briski
The glucose polymer glycogen is a vital fuel reserve in the brain. The mediobasal hypothalamic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains glucostasis via neurotransmitter mechanisms that suppress [γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA] or stimulate [nitric oxide; steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1)] counter-regulatory outflow. This study investigated whether glycogen-derived fuel supply is a critical screened variable in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) monitoring of neuro-metabolic stability during glucostasis and/or insulin (I)-induced hypoglycemia...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184379/neurotransmitters-and-sodium-channelopathies-possible-link
#12
COMMENT
Michael F Hammer, Alejandra D C Encinas
Investigators from the University of British Columbia, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and the National Hospital reported their findings on neurotransmitter deficiencies in two patients with mutations in voltage-gated sodium genes (SCN2A and SCN8A) discovered by whole exome sequencing.
November 2017: Pediatric Neurology Briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175628/neuronal-death-apoptosis-induced-by-intracellular-zinc-deficiency-associated-with-changes-in-amino-acid-neurotransmitters-and-glutamate-receptor-subtypes
#13
Kun Tian, Yu-Xiang Wang, Li-Xia Li, Yan-Qiang Liu
In the present study, a model of zinc deficiency was developed by exposing primary neurons to an N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN)-containing medium. The cell survival rate, apoptosis rate, intracellular and extracellular concentrations of 4 amino acids, and the expression of 2 glutamate receptor subtypes α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (GluR2)and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) were evaluated in zinc-deficient cells. The results revealed that zinc deficiency led to a decrease in cell viability and an increase in the apoptosis rate...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172658/-tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-deficiency-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
János Bókay
Since the initial breaking discovery of Følling that the severe neurological consequences of phenylketonuria could be prevented by use of low phenylalanine (Phe) diet, it has been shortly recognised that defective phenylalanine metabolism may also arise from the deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor, required for phenylalanine-hydroxylase activity. Furthermore, as BH4 is in Phe metabolism, it is also a cofactor for the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophane hydroxylase, enzymes required for the synthesis of catecholamines and serotonin neurotransmitters...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162912/histamine-n-methyltransferase-regulates-aggression-and-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#15
Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Takeo Yoshikawa, Tomomitsu Iida, Yamato Miura, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Atushi Yanai, Asuka Mogi, Takatoshi Mochizuki, Nobuyuki Okamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Histamine is a neurotransmitter that regulates diverse physiological functions including the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies have reported that histaminergic dysfunction in the brain is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is an enzyme expressed in the central nervous system that specifically metabolises histamine; yet, the exact physiological roles of HNMT are unknown. Accordingly, we phenotyped Hnmt knockout mice (KO) to determine the relevance of HNMT to various brain functions...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#16
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155851/pac1-and-vpac2-receptors-in-light-regulated-behavior-and-physiology-studies-in-single-and-double-mutant-mice
#17
Jens Hannibal, Birgitte Georg, Jan Fahrenkrug
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#18
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#19
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137928/camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-nmdar-hypofunction-schizophrenia-putative-roles-for-igf-1r-and-tlr4
#20
O M Ogundele, C C Lee
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is linked to social behavioral deficits and other negative symptoms associated with hippocampal synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic mechanism of schizophrenia is characterized by loss of hippocampal N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) activity (NMDAR hypofunction) and dendritic spines. Previous studies show that genetic deletion of hippocampal synaptic regulatory calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) cause synaptic and behavioral defects associated with schizophrenia in mice...
November 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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