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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#1
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#2
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071723/hcn1-channels-reduce-the-rate-of-exocytosis-from-a-subset-of-cortical-synaptic-terminals
#3
Zhuo Huang, Gengyu Li, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Lujan, Mala M Shah
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1) channels are predominantly located in pyramidal cell dendrites within the cortex. Recent evidence suggests these channels also exist pre-synaptically in a subset of synaptic terminals within the mature entorhinal cortex (EC). Inhibition of pre-synaptic HCN channels enhances miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto EC layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these channels decrease the release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069295/short-term-memory-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-bacterial-pathogens-involves-creb-transcription-factor
#4
Udayakumar Prithika, Ramaraj Vikneswari, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028724/correlation-study-of-basic-chinese-medicine-syndromes-and-neurotransmitter-levels-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia
#5
Rong Zhang, Yun-Shuang Yang, Xiao-Chen Liu, Jin-Liang Yang, Yan-Hui Li, Peng-Zhan Shi, Chao Yang, Bin Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between basic Chinese medicine (CM) syndromes (deficiency and excess syndromes) and intracranial neurotransmitter levels in primary insomnia (PI), to provide objective indicators and syndrome-based medical evidence for the differentiation of PI. METHODS: A total of 158 patients with PI were recruited for CM syndrome differentiation. Another 30 healthy people without sleep disorders were selected as control group. An encephalofluctuograph analyzer was used to test the levels of intracranial neurotransmitters, including γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), etc...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998908/loss-of-laminin-%C3%AE-4-results-in-pre-and-postsynaptic-modifications-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#6
Kirat K Chand, Kah Meng Lee, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes
Synaptic basal lamina such as laminin-421 (α4β2γ1) mediate differentiation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Laminins interact with their pre- or postsynaptic receptors to provide stability and alignment of the pre- to postsynaptic specializations. Knockout of the lama4 gene does not alter gross NMJ morphogenesis. However, mice deficient in laminin-α4 (lama4(-/-)) display disruptions in the alignment of the active zones and postsynaptic folds at the NMJ, although the physiological consequences of this loss have not been examined...
December 20, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991864/gs%C3%AE-deficiency-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-underlies-obesity-associated-with-gs%C3%AE-mutations
#7
Min Chen, Yogendra B Shrestha, Brandon Podyma, Zhenzhong Cui, Benedetta Naglieri, Hui Sun, Thuy Ho, Eric A Wilson, Yong-Qi Li, Oksana Gavrilova, Lee S Weinstein
Gsα, encoded by Gnas, mediates hormone and neurotransmitter receptor-stimulated cAMP generation. Heterozygous Gsα-inactivating mutations lead to obesity in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) patients, but only when the mutations occur on the maternal allele. This parent-of-origin effect is due to Gsα imprinting in the CNS, although the relevant CNS regions are unknown. We have now shown that mice with a Gnas gene deletion disrupting Gsα expression on the maternal allele, but not the paternal allele, in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) developed obesity and reduced energy expenditure without hyperphagia...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984018/sphingolipids-modulate-the-function-of-human-serotonin1a-receptors-insights-from-sphingolipid-deficient-cells
#8
Md Jafurulla, Suman Bandari, Thomas J Pucadyil, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes and are known to modulate a variety of cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly clear that membrane lipids play a crucial role in modulating the function of integral membrane proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this work, we utilized LY-B cells, that are sphingolipid-auxotrophic mutants defective in sphingolipid biosynthesis, to monitor the role of cellular sphingolipids in the function of an important neurotransmitter receptor, the serotonin1A receptor...
October 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956032/alterations-in-hypoglossal-motor-neurons-due-to-gad67-and-vgat-deficiency-in-mice
#9
Matthew J Fogarty, Refik Kanjhan, Yuchio Yanagawa, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
There is an emerging body of evidence that glycinergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs onto motor neurons (MNs) help regulate the final number of MNs and axonal muscle innervation patterns. Using mutant glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT) deficient mice, we describe the effect that deficiencies of presynaptic GABAergic and/or glycinergic release have on the post-synaptic somato-dendritic structure of motor neurons, and the development of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to MNs...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940130/simultaneous-measurement-of-monoamine-metabolites-and-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-children
#10
Tomoyuki Akiyama, Yumiko Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Takashi Shibata, Mari Akiyama, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Yu Tsuyusaki, Masaya Kubota, Harumi Yoshinaga, Katsuhiro Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: We describe a new method for simultaneous measurement of monoamine metabolites (3-O-methyldopa [3-OMD], 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol [MHPG], 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA], and homovanillic acid [HVA]) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and its use on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from pediatric patients. METHODS: Monoamine metabolites and 5-MTHF were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection...
December 7, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#11
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907065/statistical-frailty-modeling-for-quantitative-analysis-of-exocytotic-events-recorded-by-live-cell-imaging-rapid-release-of-insulin-containing-granules-is-impaired-in-human-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Giuliana Cortese, Nikhil R Gandasi, Sebastian Barg, Morten Gram Pedersen
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released when secretory granules or synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, a process denoted exocytosis. Modern imaging techniques, in particular total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, allow the investigator to monitor secretory granules at the plasma membrane before and when they undergo exocytosis. However, rigorous statistical approaches for temporal analysis of such exocytosis data are still lacking. We propose here that statistical methods from time-to-event (also known as survival) analysis are well suited for the problem...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891231/a-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-metabolite-identification-of-the-ghb-receptor-antagonist-ncs-382-in-mouse-informs-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-ghb-intoxication
#13
Garrett R Ainslie, K Michael Gibson, Kara R Vogel
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), a known GHB receptor antagonist, has shown significant efficacy in a murine model of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a heritable neurological disorder featuring chronic elevation of GHB that blocks the final step of GABA degradation. NCS-382 exposures and elimination pathways remain unknown; therefore, the goal of the present work was to obtain in vivo pharmacokinetic data in a murine model and to identify the NCS-382 metabolites formed by mouse and human...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870896/m30-antagonizes-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activation-and-neurodegeneration-induced-by-corticosterone-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Chun-Sing Lam, George Lim Tipoe, Johnny Kong-Ching Wong, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862146/maternal-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-is-inversely-correlated-with-foetal-serotonin
#16
Padma Murthi, Miranda Davies-Tuck, Martha Lappas, Harmeet Singh, Joanne Mockler, Rahana Rahman, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw, James Doery, Euan M Wallace, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVE: Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to impaired neurocognitive development in childhood. The mechanism by which vitamin D affects childhood neurocognition is unclear but may be via interactions with serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in foetal brain development. In this study, we aimed to explore associations between maternal and foetal vitamin D concentrations, and foetal serotonin concentrations at term. STUDY DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, nmol/l) and serotonin (5-HT, nmol/l) concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from mother-infant pairs (n = 64)...
November 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798097/genetic-and-pharmacological-correction-of-aberrant-dopamine-synthesis-using-patient-ipscs-with-bh4-metabolism-disorders
#17
Taizo Ishikawa, Keiko Imamura, Takayuki Kondo, Yasushi Koshiba, Satoshi Hara, Hiroshi Ichinose, Mahoko Furujo, Masako Kinoshita, Tomoko Oeda, Jun Takahashi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter in the brain, playing a central role in several disease conditions, including tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) metabolism disorders and Parkinson's disease (PD). BH4 metabolism disorders present a variety of clinical manifestations including motor disturbance via altered DA metabolism, since BH4 is a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for DA synthesis. Genetically, BH4 metabolism disorders are, in an autosomal recessive pattern, caused by a variant in genes encoding enzymes for BH4 synthesis or recycling, including 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) or dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778340/maternal-protein-restriction-during-gestation-and-lactation-in-the-rat-results-in-increased-brain-levels-of-kynurenine-and-kynurenic-acid-in-their-adult-offspring
#18
Paula Honório de Melo Martimiano, André de Sa Braga Oliveira, Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Mikaël Croyal, Audrey Aguesse, Isabelle Grit, Khadija Ouguerram, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Bertrand Kaeffer, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez
Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), quinolinic (QA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776515/protective-effects-of-hydroponic-teucrium-polium-on-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-in-ovariectomized-rats
#19
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762066/a-new-brain-dopamine-deficient-drosophila-and-its-pharmacological-and-genetic-rescue
#20
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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