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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550279/cinnamon-induces-browning-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#1
Hiu Yee Kwan, Jiahui Wu, Tao Su, Xiao-Juan Chao, Bin Liu, Xiuqiong Fu, Chi Leung Chan, Rebecca Hiu Ying Lau, Anfernee Kai Wing Tse, Quan Bin Han, Wang Fun Fong, Zhi-Ling Yu
Browning is the process of increasing the number of brite cells, which helps to increase energy expenditure and reduce obesity. Consumption of natural and non-toxic herbal extracts that possess the browning effect is an attractive anti-obesity strategy. In this study, we examined the browning effect of cinnamon extract. We found that cinnamon extract (CE) induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes markers and reduced white adipocytes markers in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549558/the-kv1-3-channel-blocker-vm24-enhances-muscle-glucose-transporter-4-mobilization-but-does-not-reduce-body-weight-gain-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#2
Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, Georgina B Gurrola, Miguel Cisneros, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lourival D Possani, Jean-Louis Charli
AIMS: Voltage-gated potassium channels 1.3 (Kv1.3) can be targeted to reduce diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Since species-specific differences in Kv1.3 expression and pharmacology have been observed, we tested the effect of Vm24, a high-affinity specific blocker of Kv1.3 channels from Vaejovis mexicanus smithi, on body weight (BW), glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young adult male Wistar rats were switched to a high-fat/high-fructose (HFF) diet...
May 23, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549096/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-obesity-paradox
#3
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Clinical observations suggest a complex relationship between human obesity and cardiovascular disease. Whilst abdominal (visceral) adiposity leads to deleterious metabolic disturbances, subcutaneous fat accumulation has a benign effect on cardiometabolic risk. Notably, an accumulating body of evidence paradoxically links increased body mass index with a better prognosis in patients with established cardiovascular disease, a finding that has been termed the 'obesity paradox'. While this is now acknowledged to be an epidemiological finding, a metabolically healthy obese group associated with low cardiovascular risk has also been identified...
May 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#4
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543963/ageing-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-remodelling-and-loss-of-white-fat-browning-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#5
Leidyanne Ferreira Gonçalves, Thaissa Queiroz Machado, Camila Castro-Pinheiro, Nathalia Guimaraes de Souza, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Caroline Fernandes-Santos
Fat storage changes throughout life and affects body metabolism. Ageing impact on brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deserves attention, especially in females, because they are less prone to age-induced weight gain. While in male mice the impact of ageing on adipose tissue remodelling is well characterized, the effects in female mice remain largely unclear. Thus, we investigated BAT and WAT remodelling during ageing in female C57BL/6 mice. At 3 months, body weight was 24 ± 0.3 g (mean±SD), and it increased from 6 to 9 months of age (+20%, P < 0...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539390/mfn2-deletion-in-brown-adipose-tissue-protects-from-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-thermogenesis
#6
Kiana Mahdaviani, Ilan Y Benador, Shi Su, Raffi A Gharakhanian, Linsey Stiles, Kyle M Trudeau, Maria Cardamone, Violeta Enríquez-Zarralanga, Eleni Ritou, Tamar Aprahamian, Marcus F Oliveira, Barbara E Corkey, Valentina Perissi, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
BAT-controlled thermogenic activity is thought to be required for its capacity to prevent the development of insulin resistance. This hypothesis predicts that mediators of thermogenesis may help prevent diet-induced insulin resistance. We report that the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in BAT is essential for cold-stimulated thermogenesis, but promotes insulin resistance in obese mice. Mfn2 deletion in mice through Ucp1-cre (BAT-Mfn2-KO) causes BAT lipohypertrophy and cold intolerance. Surprisingly however, deletion of Mfn2 in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) results in improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity, while impaired cold-stimulated thermogenesis is maintained...
May 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539389/let-s-burn-whatever-you-have-mitofusin-2-metabolically-re-wires-brown-adipose-tissue
#7
Marcel Scheideler, Stephan Herzig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539232/adipose-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-via-promoting-adipose-tissue-adipogenesis-and-browning
#8
Chengting Luo, Na Lv, Zai Chang, Qiannuo Qu, Jianzhen Huang
Adipose tissue is a complicated organ that not only stores excess energy, but also secrets many adipokines regulating whole-body energy hemostasis. Dysfunction of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we generated a mouse model with overexpression of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue specifically. Under a normal diet, ATRAP transgene (TgATRAP) mice showed similar bodyweight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity with wild-type controls (WT)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538730/blocking-fsh-induces-thermogenic-adipose-tissue-and-reduces-body-fat
#9
Peng Liu, Yaoting Ji, Tony Yuen, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Victoria E DeMambro, Samarth Dhawan, Wahid Abu-Amer, Sudeh Izadmehr, Bin Zhou, Andrew C Shin, Rauf Latif, Priyanthan Thangeswaran, Animesh Gupta, Jianhua Li, Valeria Shnayder, Samuel T Robinson, Yue Eric Yu, Xingjian Zhang, Feiran Yang, Ping Lu, Yu Zhou, Ling-Ling Zhu, Douglas J Oberlin, Terry F Davies, Michaela R Reagan, Aaron Brown, T Rajendra Kumar, Solomon Epstein, Jameel Iqbal, Narayan G Avadhani, Maria I New, Henrik Molina, Jan B van Klinken, Edward X Guo, Christoph Buettner, Shozeb Haider, Zhuan Bian, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen, Mone Zaidi
Menopause is associated with bone loss and enhanced visceral adiposity. A polyclonal antibody that targets the β-subunit of the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) increases bone mass in mice. Here, we report that this antibody sharply reduces adipose tissue in wild-type mice, phenocopying genetic haploinsufficiency for the Fsh receptor gene Fshr. The antibody also causes profound beiging, increases cellular mitochondrial density, activates brown adipose tissue and enhances thermogenesis. These actions result from the specific binding of the antibody to the β-subunit of Fsh to block its action...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536316/-adipose-stem-cell-system
#10
Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Adipose tissues are the major organ that controls systemic energy metabolism and maintain homeostasis by storing lipids, dissipating them as heat, and producing various adipokines. There are two major classes of adipocytes: white and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes store and release lipids, while brown adipocytes burn substrates to produce heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissues consisting of brown adipocytes, cold exposure and β3 stimulation induce development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#11
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533304/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-impacts-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-potential-role-for-bile-acids
#12
Aafke Wf Janssen, Tom Houben, Saeed Katiraei, Wieneke Dijk, Lily Boutens, Nieke van der Bolt, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen, Stéphane Mandard, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Folkert Kuipers, Ko Willems van Dijk, Jacques Vervoort, Rinke Stienstra, Guido Jej Hooiveld, Sander Kersten
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide, yet the pathogenesis of NAFLD is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the role of the gut bacteria in NAFLD by stimulating the gut bacteria via feeding mice the fermentable dietary fiber guar gum and suppressing the gut bacteria via chronic oral administration of antibiotics. Guar gum feeding profoundly altered the gut microbiota composition, in parallel with reduced diet-induced obesity and improved glucose tolerance...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532548/mtorc1-in-agrp-neurons-integrates-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-food-related-cues-in-the-modulation-of-adaptive-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#13
Luke K Burke, Tamana Darwish, Althea R Cavanaugh, Sam Virtue, Emma Roth, Joanna Morro, Shun-Mei Liu, Jing Xia, Jeffrey W Dalley, Keith Burling, Streamson Chua, Toni Vidal-Puig, Gary J Schwartz, Clémence Blouet
Energy dissipation through interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis is an important contributor to adaptive energy expenditure. However, it remains unresolved how acute and chronic changes in energy availability are detected by the brain to adjust iBAT activity and maintain energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that AGRP inhibitory tone to iBAT represents an energy-sparing circuit that integrates environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability. We establish a role for the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling pathway within AGRP neurons in the detection of environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability, and in the bi-directional control of iBAT thermogenesis during nutrient deficiency and excess...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531807/high-post-natal-mortality-associated-with-defects-in-lung-maturation-and-reduced-adiposity-in-mice-with-gestational-exposure-to-high-fat-and-n-acetylcysteine
#14
Lyda Williams, Maureen J Charron, Rani S Sellers
Studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) increases offspring susceptibility to metabolic disease. This study was initiated to identify the mechanistic contribution of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Two weeks prior to mating, dams were fed either HFD or Control diet with or without supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Pups born to HFD dams had reduced crown rump length (CRL) at birth and higher neonatal mortality compared to pups from Control dams...
May 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529941/humans-and-mice-display-opposing-patterns-of-browning-gene-expression-in-visceral-and-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-depots
#15
Maria A Zuriaga, Jose J Fuster, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
Visceral adiposity is much more strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in humans than subcutaneous adiposity. Browning, the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), has been shown to protect mice against metabolic dysfunction, suggesting the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. In mice, subcutaneous WAT depots express higher levels of browning genes when compared with visceral WAT, further suggesting that differences in WAT browning could contribute to the differences in the pathogenicity of the two depots...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529127/antioxidant-peroxiredoxin-3-expression-is-regulated-by-17beta-estradiol-in-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#16
Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, M Bel Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, J Francisco García-Palmer, Magdalena Gianotti, M Ana Proenza, Isabel Lladó
Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529065/brown-adipose-tissue-and-lipid-metabolism-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Paulus, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Felix M Mottaghy, Matthias Bauwens
PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) research has evolved from an underestimated to a fast developing field. Its assumed curing properties for the world wide epidemic obesity, and its related diseases, makes this tissue an interesting target for a broad amount of non-invasive molecular BAT tracers. Apart from (18)F-FDG PET/CT there are several methods to detect BAT and measure its metabolism in a more appropriate way. Especially interesting is the measure of lipid turnover, because fatty acids comprise the main fuel for active BAT...
May 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#18
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520584/eating-disorders-and-bone-metabolism-in-women
#19
Lauren Robinson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating Disorders are psychiatric disorders associated with a high risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Low BMD is a consequence of undernutrition, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. This review summarizes recent findings regarding novel strategies for assessing bone outcomes in patients with eating disorders, factors contributing to altered bone metabolism, and possible therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging research in this field suggests that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa results in lower BMD compared to controls...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515438/mitochondrial-retrograde-signaling-connects-respiratory-capacity-to-thermogenic-gene-expression
#20
Minwoo Nam, Thomas E Akie, Masato Sanosaka, Siobhan M Craige, Shashi Kant, John F Keaney, Marcus P Cooper
Mitochondrial respiration plays a crucial role in determining the metabolic state of brown adipose tissue (BAT), due to its direct roles in thermogenesis, as well as through additional mechanisms. Here, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to genetic and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. In mouse BAT, ablation of LRPPRC (LRP130), a potent regulator of mitochondrial transcription and respiratory capacity, triggers down-regulation of thermogenic genes, promoting a storage phenotype in BAT...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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