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Brown adipose tissue

Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hiroyuki Hattori, Kosei Yamauchi, Siaw Onwona-Agyeman, Thoru Mitsunaga
BACKGROUND: Grains of Paradise (GP) is the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is widely distributed throughout West Africa and has been used as a spice and a folk remedy for a long time. The anti-obesity effect by GP intake was demonstrated in our previous report. In this present study, we tried to isolate some compounds in GP and clarify the anti-obesity mechanism. RESULTS: Ten vanilloid compounds were determined. Among ten vanilloids, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-octen-5-one were determined as novel compounds and 6-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 6-shogaol were identified as the major constituents in GP extract...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Qingbo Chen, Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Lihua J Zhu, Yong-Xu Wang
Transcriptional co-activator Prdm16 controls brown fat development and white fat browning, but how this thermogenic function is modulated post-translationally is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cbx4, a Polycomb group protein, is a SUMO E3 ligase for Prdm16 and that Cbx4-mediated sumoylation of Prdm16 is required for thermogenic gene expression. Cbx4 expression is enriched in brown fat and is induced in adipose tissue by acute cold exposure. Sumoylation of Prdm16 at lysine 917 by Cbx4 blocks its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby augmenting its stability and thermogenic function...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Maryam Ahmadian, Sihao Liu, Shannon M Reilly, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Eiji Yoshihara, Pooja Jha, C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Sandra Jacinto, Andrew V Gomez, Yang Dai, Ruth T Yu, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Alan R Saltiel, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) adaptively transfers energy from glucose and fat into heat by inducing a gene network that uncouples mitochondrial electron transport. However, the innate transcription factors that enable the rapid adaptive response of BAT are unclear. Here, we identify estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a critical factor for maintaining BAT identity. ERRγ is selectively expressed in BAT versus WAT, in which, in the absence of PGC1α, it drives a signature transcriptional network of thermogenic and oxidative genes in the basal (i...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Jing Yang, Jian Yang, Chongzhao Ran
Recent large-scale clinical analysis indicates that brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass levels inversely correlate with body-mass index (BMI), suggesting that BAT is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. PET imaging with 18F-FDG is the most commonly used method for visualizing BAT. However, this method is not able to differentiate between BAT mass and BAT activation. This task, in fact, presents a tremendous challenge with no currently existing methods to separate BAT mass and BAT activation...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Xiaobo Wu, Irina Hutson, Antonina M Akk, Smita Mascharak, Christine T N Pham, Dennis E Hourcade, Rebecca Brown, John P Atkinson, Charles A Harris
Factor D (FD) is an essential component of the complement alternative pathway (AP). It is an attractive pharmaceutical target because it is an AP-specific protease circulating in blood. Most components of the complement activation pathways are produced by the liver, but FD is highly expressed by adipose tissue. Two critical questions are: 1) to what degree does adipose tissue contribute to circulating FD levels and 2) what quantity of FD is sufficient to maintain a functional AP? To address these issues, we studied a novel mouse strain with complete lipodystrophy (LD), the fld mouse with partial LD, an FD-deficient mouse, and samples from lipodystrophic patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Sy-Ying Leu, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Wen-Chi Chen, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although raspberry ketone (RK) has been reported to possess antiobesity activity, its effects on the formation of brown-like adipocytes remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of RK on WAT browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats with ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced obesity. RK (100 μM) significantly induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of browning-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16, PRDM16; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1α; uncoupling protein-1, UCP-1) and lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Tiange Li, Jing Gao, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xueying Mao
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrients
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Sicong He, Yitai An, Xuesong Li, Xiuqing Wei, Qiqi Sun, Zhenguo Wu, Jianan Y Qu
Activation of the thermogenic brown and beige fat is an effective means to increasing whole-body energy expenditure. In this work, a unique label-free method was developed to quantitatively assess the metabolism and thermogenesis of mouse adipose tissues in vivo. Specifically, an optical redox ratio based on the endogenous fluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes (NADH and FAD) was used to measure the metabolic state of adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that the optical redox ratio provides a label-free and real-time biomarker to determine the thermogenic response of brown, beige and white adipose tissues to a variety of physiological stimulations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Kinyui Alice Lo, Shiqi Huang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Meihui Liu, Lei Sun
Obesity induces profound transcriptome changes in adipocytes; recent evidence suggests that lncRNAs play key roles in this process. Here, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome study by RNA-Seq in adipocytes isolated from interscapular brown, inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissues in diet-induced obese mice. Our analysis reveals a set of obesity-dysregulated lncRNAs, many of which exhibit dynamic changes in fed vs. fasted state, potentially serving as novel molecular markers reflecting adipose energy status...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes
Landon Wood, Karen Roelofs, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Darleen A Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is currently our most effective strategy at weight loss, yet the mechanisms for its success remain unknown. Low exercise capacity, in humans and rodents, predicts poor metabolic outcome. The objective of this manuscript was to determine if bariatric surgery could restore metabolic perturbations in rats with low intrinsic exercise capacity. METHODS: We performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) or sham surgery in high fat-fed rats selectively bred for low running capacity...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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