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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239961/in-pursuit-of-neurophenotypes-the-consequences-of-having-autism-and-a-big-brain
#1
David G Amaral, Deana Li, Lauren Libero, Marjorie Solomon, Judy Van de Water, Ann Mastergeorge, Letitia Naigles, Sally Rogers, Christine Wu Nordahl
A consensus has emerged that despite common core features, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has multiple etiologies and various genetic and biological characteristics. The fact that there are likely to be subtypes of ASD has complicated attempts to develop effective therapies. The UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project is a longitudinal, multidisciplinary analysis of children with autism and age-matched typically developing controls; nearly 400 families are participating in this study. The overarching goal is to gather sufficient biological, medical, and behavioral data to allow definition of clinically meaningful subtypes of ASD...
February 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239958/differential-sex-effects-of-systolic-blood-pressure-and-ldl-c-on-type-2-diabetes-life-course-data-from-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#2
Benjamin D Pollock, Wei Chen, Emily W Harville, Tian Shu, Vivian Fonseca, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Tanika N Kelly, Lydia A Bazzano
BACKGROUND: There may be sex-specific cardiometabolic mechanisms early in life that affect the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) through mid-adulthood. Yet, there have been few studies examining whether early life-course interactions between cardiometabolic risk factors and sex are associated with incident T2DM. METHODS: We followed n = 7,725 children from the Bogalusa Heart Study through mid-adulthood to examine whether low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), body mass index (BMI), or systolic blood pressure (SBP) differentially impact the risk of T2DM for females versus males...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239946/a-voxel-based-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#3
Jonathan Repple, Susanne Meinert, Dominik Grotegerd, Harald Kugel, Ronny Redlich, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Nils Opel, Christian Buerger, Katharina Förster, Theresa Nick, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel, Michael Deppe, Udo Dannlowski
OBJECTIVE: The absence of neurobiological diagnostic markers of bipolar disorder (BD) leads to its frequent misdiagnosis as unipolar depression (UD). We investigated if changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) could help to differentiate BD from UD in the state of depression. METHODS: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) we employed a voxel-based analysis approach to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in 86 patients experiencing an acute major depressive episode according to DSM-IV (N=39 BD, mean age 39...
February 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239905/estimators-for-longitudinal-latent-exposure-models-examining-measurement-model-assumptions
#4
Brisa N Sánchez, Sehee Kim, Mary D Sammel
Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time...
February 27, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239799/the-consistency-of-myocardial-strain-derived-from-heart-deformation-analysis
#5
Eric J Keller, Shanna Fang, Kai Lin, Benjamin H Freed, Peter M Smith, Bruce S Spottiswoode, Rachel Davids, Maria Carr, Marie-Pierre Jolly, Michael Markl, James C Carr, Jeremy D Collins
The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of semi-automated myocardial strain analysis by prototype software across field strengths, temporal resolutions, and examinations. 35 volunteers (48 ± 13 years; 20% women) and 25 patients (54 ± 12 years; 44% women) without significant cardiac dysfunction underwent cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 1.5 T with a temporal resolution of 39.2 msec. 34 subjects also underwent imaging at 3.0 T; 16 had repeat examinations within 14 days; and 9 underwent CMR with temporal resolutions of 12...
February 26, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239772/a-relationship-between-early-language-skills-and-adult-autistic-like-traits-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#6
Rebecca Armstrong, Andrew J O Whitehouse, James G Scott, David A Copland, Katie L McMahon, Sophie Fleming, Wendy Arnott
The current study examined the relationship between early language ability and autistic-like traits in adulthood, utilising data from 644 participants from a longitudinal study of the general population. Language performance at 2 years was measured with the Language Development Survey (LDS), and at 20 years the participants completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Vocabulary size at 2 years was negatively associated with Total AQ score, as well as scores on the Communication, and Social Skills subscales...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239640/serum-il-8-is-a-marker-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yanan Zhu, Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, M Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon-Seng Wong, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) have been implicated in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to examine serum inflammatory markers in preclinical stages of dementia and in AD, as well as to investigate their associations with concomitant CeVD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study including 96 AD, 140 cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND), and 79 noncognitively impaired participants...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239636/cognitive-impairment-and-decline-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-with-high-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Jenalle E Baker, Yen Ying Lim, Robert H Pietrzak, Jason Hassenstab, Peter J Snyder, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
INTRODUCTION: This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the nature and magnitude of amyloid (Aβ)-related cognitive impairment and decline in cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. METHOD: MEDLINE Ovid was searched from 2012 to June 2016 for studies reporting relationships between cerebrospinal fluid or positron emission tomography (PET) Aβ levels and cognitive impairment (cross-sectional) and decline (longitudinal) in CN older adults. Neuropsychological data were classified into domains of episodic memory, executive function, working memory, processing speed, visuospatial function, semantic memory, and global cognition...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239553/on-the-use-of-an-optoacoustic-and-laser-ultrasonic-imaging-system-for-assessing-peripheral-intravenous-access
#9
A S Bychkov, V P Zarubin, A A Karabutov, V A Simonova, E B Cherepetskaya
We describe a universal system for research in combined real-time optoacoustic (OA) and laser-ultrasonic (LU) imaging. The results of its testing on the task of needle insertion into the blood vessel model diagnostics are presented. In OA mode, where laser light is absorbed directly in the sample, the contents of blood vessel model is clearly visible. In LU mode, where the short ultrasonic probe pulse scattered on the sample is detected, the needle is clearly visible. The developed solution combining OA and LU imaging modalities due to the common detection system allowed real-time diagnostics of the position of medical needles (0...
March 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239525/reproducibility-of-tract-based-white-matter-microstructural-measures-using-the-enigma-dti-protocol
#10
Ashley Acheson, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Anderson Winkler, Charles W Mathias, L Elliot Hong, Neda Jahanshad, Binish Patel, Paul M Thompson, Stephen A McGuire, Paul M Sherman, Peter Kochunov, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: In preparation for longitudinal analyses of white matter development in youths with family histories of substance use disorders (FH+) or without such histories (FH-), we examined the reproducibility and reliability of global and regional measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) values, measured using the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA)-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) protocol. Highly reliable measures are necessary to detect any subtle differences in brain development...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239464/immunotherapy-resistance-the-answers-lie-ahead-not-in-front-of-us
#11
EDITORIAL
Miles C Andrews, Jennifer A Wargo
Mechanisms of innate and adaptive resistance to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy are under intense investigation with a view to broadening the therapeutic potential of this form of treatment. In a recent manuscript by Zaretsky and colleagues, mutational events were identified that effectively crippled ongoing immunotherapy responses in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. These results are discussed in the light of other recent and ongoing research efforts exploring both mutational and non-mutational resistance mechanisms, highlighting the critical translational importance of longitudinal tumor sampling...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239295/can-a-person-centred-care-intervention-improve-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Elisabeth Hansson, Eric Carlström, Lars-Eric Olsson, Jan Nyman, Ingalill Koinberg
BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer is increasing slightly. Head and neck cancer but also it's necessary and often successful treatment may affect general domains of health-related quality of life and provoke a variety of adverse symptoms and side effects, both during and after treatment. The objective of this study was to compare a person-centred care intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, disease-specific symptoms or problems, with traditional care as a control group for patients with head and neck cancer...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239247/bayesian-model-assessment-in-joint-modeling-of-longitudinal-and-survival-data-with-applications-to-cancer-clinical-trials
#13
Danjie Zhang, Ming-Hui Chen, Joseph G Ibrahim, Mark E Boye, Wei Shen
Joint models for longitudinal and survival data are routinely used in clinical trials or other studies to assess a treatment effect while accounting for longitudinal measures such as patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In the Bayesian framework, the deviance information criterion (DIC) and the logarithm of the pseudo marginal likelihood (LPML) are two well-known Bayesian criteria for comparing joint models. However, these criteria do not provide separate assessments of each component of the joint model. In this paper, we develop a novel decomposition of DIC and LPML to assess the fit of the longitudinal and survival components of the joint model, separately...
2017: Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239239/identifying-subgroups-of-enhanced-predictive-accuracy-from-longitudinal-biomarker-data-using-tree-based-approaches-applications-to-fetal-growth
#14
Jared C Foster, Danping Liu, Paul S Albert, Aiyi Liu
Longitudinal monitoring of biomarkers is often helpful for predicting disease or a poor clinical outcome. In this paper, We consider the prediction of both large and small-for-gestational-age births using longitudinal ultrasound measurements, and attempt to identify subgroups of women for whom prediction is more (or less) accurate, should they exist. We propose a tree-based approach to identifying such subgroups, and a pruning algorithm which explicitly incorporates a desired type-I error rate, allowing us to control the risk of false discovery of subgroups...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A, (Statistics in Society)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239217/sibling-relationship-quality-and-mexican-origin-adolescents-and-young-adults-familism-values-and-adjustment
#15
Sarah E Killoren, Sue A Rodríguez De Jesús, Kimberly A Updegraff, Lorey A Wheeler
We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: Positive, Negative and Affect-Intense. Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using longitudinal data. Siblings in the Positive profile reported the highest familism values, followed by siblings in the Affect-Intense profile and, finally, siblings in the Negative profile. Older siblings in the Positive and Affect-Intense profiles reported fewer depressive symptoms than siblings in the Negative profile...
March 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239198/parental-assistance-negative-life-events-and-attainment-during-the-transition-to-adulthood
#16
Teresa Toguchi Swartz, Heather McLaughlin, Jeylan T Mortimer
Responding to the longer and more variable transition to adulthood, parents are stepping in to help their young adult children. Little is known, however, about the extent to which parental support promotes success, and whether parental support has different effects for young adult sons and daughters. Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that parental scaffolding assistance for educational expenses predicts college graduation for both men and women. Negative life events experienced during the transition to adulthood are associated with lower earnings by the early 30s, although there is some variation by type of event...
2017: Sociological Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239162/time-trends-and-factors-in-body-mass-index-and-obesity-among-children-in-china-1997-to-2011
#17
H Wang, H Xue, S Du, J Zhang, Y Wang, B Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Research on the shift in children's Body Mass Index (BMI) distribution is limited and conditional mean models used in the previous research have limitations in capturing cross-distribution variations in effects. The objectives are to analyze the shift in Chinese children's BMI distribution and to test the associations between BMI distribution and other factors. METHODS: We analyzed data collected from children 7-17 years old from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, from 2814 participants with 6799 observations...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239075/time-dependent-changes-in-psychosocial-distress-in-japanese-patients-with-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators
#18
Nao Saito, Chiemi Taru, Ikuko Miyawaki
This prospective study clarified changes in the mood states of Japanese patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators as well as factors related to the mood states. Using a longitudinal repeated-measure design, 29 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators completed the Profile of Mood States-Short Form Japanese Version questionnaire before discharge and 1, 4, 7, and 13 months after implantation. One month after discharge, the mood states of the patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators improved...
December 2, 2016: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239009/life-begins-at-60-identifying-the-social-support-needs-of-african-american-women-aging-with-hiv
#19
Lari Warren-Jeanpiere, Heather Dillaway, Pilar Hamilton, Mary Young, Lakshmi Goparaju
HIV chronicity has resulted in increased life expectancy for many African American women who acquired the disease during the epidemic's peak years. As these women live longer and age, their social support needs may increase. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington, DC with 23 HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65 to explore women's perceptions about how aging and HIV chronicity affects their social support needs. Participants were recruited from the longitudinal Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participant pool...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239005/public-housing-relocations-and-relationships-of-changes-in-neighborhood-disadvantage-and-transportation-access-to-unmet-need-for-medical-care
#20
Danielle F Haley, Sabriya Linton, Ruiyan Luo, Josalin Hunter-Jones, Adaora A Adimora, Gina M Wingood, Loida Bonney, Zev Ross, Hannah L Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional research suggests that neighborhood characteristics and transportation access shape unmet need for medical care. This longitudinal analysis explores relationships of changes in neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and trans- portation access to unmet need for medical care. METHODS: We analyzed seven waves of data from African American adults (N = 172) relocating from severely distressed public housing complexes in Atlanta, Georgia...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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