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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914295/sarcopenia-and-post-hospital-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda, Aldo Sgaravatti, Elsa Dent
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation. METHODS: This is a longitudinal analysis of consecutive patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Management and Evaluation Unit (GEMU) ward...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914246/tract-based-analysis-of-white-matter-integrity-in-psychotic-and-nonpsychotic-bipolar-disorder
#3
Andrew Ji, Douglass Godwin, Jerrel Rutlin, Sridhar Kandala, Joshua S Shimony, Daniel Mamah
BACKGROUND: At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) present with psychosis during their lifetime. Psychotic symptoms have sometimes been linked to specific genetic and phenotypic markers. This study aims to explore potential differences between bipolar disorder subtypes by measuring white matter integrity of the brain and relationships with clinical measures. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging and clinical measures were acquired from 102 participants, grouped as psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) (n=48), non-psychotic bipolar disorder (NBD) (n=24), and healthy controls (n=30)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#4
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914178/longitudinal-assessment-of-examiner-experience-and-the-accuracy-of-sonographic-fetal-weight-estimation-at-term
#5
Florian Faschingbauer, Jutta Heimrich, Eva Raabe, Sven Kehl, Michael Schneider, Matthias Schmid, Matthias W Beckmann, Tobias Hepp, Anika Lübke, Andreas Mayr, Ralf L Schild
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of examiner experience on the accuracy of sonographic weight estimation and to further analyze examiners' individual learning curves. METHODS: In this multicenter study, 4613 sonographic weight estimations performed by 18 examiners at the beginning of their ultrasound training were included. To assess the effect of experience on the accuracy of weight estimation, a multivariable mixed regression model analysis was performed, with percentage error and absolute percentage error as outcome variables and the examiner, the examiner's experience (number of examinations), birth weight, gestational age, scan-to-delivery interval, and maternal body mass index as fixed effects and the perinatal center as random intercepts...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914115/molecular-phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-a-new-freshwater-hymenostomatid-from-northeastern-china-with-the-establishment-of-a-new-genus-anteglaucoma-gen-n-protista-ciliophora-oligohymenophorea
#6
Xuming Pan, Zihan Shi, Chundi Wang, William A Bourland, Ying Chen, Weibo Song
The morphology, infraciliature and SSU rDNA sequence of a new freshwater hymenostomatid ciliate, Anteglaucoma harbinensis gen. nov., spec. nov., collected from a farmland pond in Harbin, China, were investigated. The new genus Anteglaucoma is characterized as follows: small to medium-sized Glaucomidae with oral apparatus in anterior one-third of cell; paroral membrane composed of almost longitudinally arranged dikinetids; three adoral membranelles nearly equal in length and arranged almost longitudinally in parallel; silverline pattern tetrahymenid...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914028/suboptimal-weight-loss-and-weight-regain-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-postoperative-status-of-energy-intake-eating-behavior-physical-activity-and-psychometrics
#7
Tina Amundsen, Magnus Strømmen, Catia Martins
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL, <50%, n = 22) or SigWR (total weight regain ≥15%, n = 38), with respective control groups...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913902/a-new-multiscale-micromechanical-model-of-vertebral-trabecular-bones
#8
Rami Haj-Ali, Eyass Massarwa, Jacob Aboudi, Fabio Galbusera, Uwe Wolfram, Hans-Joachim Wilke
A new three-dimensional (3D) multiscale micromechanical model has been suggested as adept at predicting the overall linear anisotropic mechanical properties of a vertebral trabecular bone (VTB) highly porous microstructure. A nested 3D modeling analysis framework spanning the multiscale nature of the VTB is presented herein. This hierarchical analysis framework employs the following micromechanical methods: the 3D parametric high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) as well as the 3D sublaminate model...
December 2, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913814/life-course-socioeconomic-adversities-and-10-year-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health
#9
Dayse Rodrigues de Sousa Andrade, Lidyane V Camelo, Rodrigo Citton P Dos Reis, Itamar S Santos, Antonio Luiz Ribeiro, Luana Giatti, Sandhi Maria Barreto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether life course exposure to adverse socioeconomic positions (SEP) as well as maintaining a low SEP or decreasing the SEP intra- and intergeneration was associated with an increased 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk predicted by the Framingham Risk Score. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008-2010) of 13,544 active workers from ELSA-Brasil cohort. Maternal education, leg length, social class of first occupation and education were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913718/longitudinal-voice-outcomes-after-type-i-gore-tex-thyroplasty-for-nonparalytic-glottic-incompetence
#10
Lewis Overton, Katherine Adams, Rupali N Shah, Robert A Buckmire
OBJECTIVE: Type I Gore-tex thyroplasty (GTP) for nonparalytic glottic incompetence (GI) results in significantly improved subjective and perceptual voice outcomes. We endeavored to investigate the longitudinal course of voice outcomes measuring the same patients across time points stratified by diagnostic subgroup. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with nonparalytic GI treated with GTP in the past 9 years were retrospectively reviewed and grouped according to their primary diagnoses (atrophy, scar, hypomobility, and paresis)...
January 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913689/how-is-low-parental-socioeconomic-status-associated-with-future-smoking-and-nicotine-dependence-in-offspring-a-population-based-longitudinal-13-year-follow-up
#11
Willy Pedersen, Tilmann Von Soest
AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) characterizes smoking and nicotine dependence in adult samples. However, less is known about how parental SES is linked to smoking in offspring and the potential mechanisms at work. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study (n=1380) from Norway was used. Participants were followed from their mid-teens until their late 20s using survey and register data. Data were collected on parental education, parental smoking, educational aspirations and expectations, school grades and school-related conduct problems...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913635/screening-and-analysis-of-janelia-flylight-project-enhancer-gal4-strains-identifies-multiple-gene-enhancers-active-during-hematopoiesis-in-normal-and-wasp-challenged-drosophila-larvae
#12
Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Mark S Brahier, Victoria Lam, Jessica R Stoller-Conrad, Paul T Kroeger, Robert A Schulz
A GFP expression screen has been conducted on greater than one thousand Janelia FlyLight Project enhancer-Gal4 lines to identify transcriptional enhancers active in the larval hematopoietic system. A total of 190 enhancers associated with 87 distinct genes showed activity in cells of the third instar larval lymph gland and hemolymph. That is, gene enhancers were active in cells of the lymph gland posterior signaling center (PSC), medullary zone (MZ), and/or cortical zone (CZ), while certain of the transcriptional control regions were active in circulating hemocytes...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913626/ring-enhancing-spinal-cord-lesions-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#13
Nicholas L Zalewski, Padraig P Morris, Brian G Weinshenker, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Yong Guo, Sean J Pittock, Karl N Krecke, Timothy J Kaufmann, Dean M Wingerchuk, Neeraj Kumar, Eoin P Flanagan
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the frequency and characteristics of ring-enhancing spinal cord lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) myelitis and myelitis of other cause. METHODS: We reviewed spinal cord MRIs for ring-enhancing lesions from 284 aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG seropositive patients at Mayo Clinic from 1996 to 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) AQP4-IgG seropositivity, (2) myelitis attack and (3) MRI spinal cord demonstrating ring-enhancement...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913614/relationship-between-employment-histories-and-frailty-trajectories-in-later-life-evidence-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#14
Wentian Lu, Rebecca Benson, Karen Glaser, Loretta G Platts, Laurie M Corna, Diana Worts, Peggy McDonough, Giorgio Di Gessa, Debora Price, Amanda Sacker
BACKGROUND: Given the acceleration of population ageing and policy changes to extend working lives, evidence is needed on the ability of older adults to work for longer. To understand more about the health impacts of work, this study examined the relationship between employment histories before retirement and trajectories of frailty thereafter. METHODS: The sample comprised 2765 women and 1621 men from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We used gendered typologies of life-time employment and a frailty index (FI)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913545/what-have-we-learned-from-large-population-studies-of-von-willebrand-disease
#15
Robert R Montgomery, Veronica H Flood
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a critical regulator of hemostatic processes, including collagen binding, platelet adhesion, and platelet aggregation. It also serves as a carrier protein to normalize plasma factor VIII synthesis, release, and survival. While VWF protein measurements by immunoassay are reasonably comparable between institutions, the measurement of VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) has significant variability. Other tests of VWF function, including collagen binding or platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa binding, are not universally available, yet these functional defects may cause major bleeding even with normal VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF:RCo assays...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#16
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913341/quantification-of-shear-wave-scattering-from-far-surface-defects-via-ultrasonic-wavefield-measurements
#17
Alexander J Dawson, Jennifer E Michaels, Joseph W Kummer, Thomas E Michaels
Nondestructive evaluation methods rely on prior knowledge of the expected interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects to inform detection and characterization decisions. Wavefield imaging, which refers to the measurement of signals originating from a spatially fixed source on a two-dimensional rectilinear grid, can be applied to visualize the effect of a subsurface scatterer on surface-measured wave motion. Here, obliquely-incident shear waves are directed at the far surface of a plate containing a through-hole using the well-known angle-beam ultrasonic inspection method...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913314/audiologic-characteristics-in-a-sample-of-recently-separated-military-veterans-the-noise-outcomes-in-servicemembers-epidemiology-study-noise-study
#18
J S Gordon, S E Griest, E J Thielman, K C Carlson, W J Helt, M S Lewis, C Blankenship, D Austin, S M Theodoroff, J A Henry
Military Service Members are often exposed to high levels of occupational noise, solvents, and other exposures that can be damaging to the auditory system. Little is known about hearing loss and how it progresses in Veterans following military service. This epidemiology study is designed to evaluate and monitor a cohort of Veterans for 20 years or more to determine how hearing loss changes over time and how those changes are related to noise exposure and other ototoxic exposures encountered during military service...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913280/neuropsychological-functioning-and-chronic-methadone-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
A Baldacchino, M Armanyous, D J K Balfour, G Humphris, K Matthews
INTRODUCTION: There is a presumption that neurocognition is commonly impaired in chronic methadone exposed individuals (CM) when compared with healthy controls (HP). Additionally, it remains unclear if short term (<1year) abstinence (AP) is associated with an altered cognitive profile when compared with CM. METHOD: A random effect model approach was used on data assembled into the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis programme. Cohen's d effect sizes and a significance levels of p<0...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913122/-postnatal-growth-at-hospital-discharge-in-extremely-premature-newborns-in-spain
#20
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Josep Figueras Aloy, Pedro Saavedra Santana, Alfredo García-Alix
INTRODUCTION: Postnatal growth restriction is considered a universal problem in extremely premature infants (EPI), and causes great concern due to the possible relationship between nutrition, sub-optimal postnatal growth, and neurodevelopment delay. OBJECTIVES: To describe the weight gain in EPI and to determine the changes in the length and head circumference (HC) at hospital discharge in survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 4,520 Caucasian EPI from single pregnancies and without severe malformations, born in the centres participating in the Spanish SEN1500 network (2002-2011)...
November 29, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
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