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Tiziana Leone, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Rula Gandour, Ernestina Coast, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts can undermine a country's health-care capacity and disrupt the delivery of basic health services. Yet the public health consequences of war remain difficult to quantify, mainly because adequate data do not exist. We hypothesised that the ongoing conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory (including the restrictions on free movement and the strain on health-care services) have had detrimental effects on maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We reconstructed data on delivery by caesarean section and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination with pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000-14...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Sarah C M Roberts, Diana Greene Foster, Heather Gould, M Antonia Biggs
OBJECTIVE: Research on effects of pregnancy termination on women's alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use suffers from methodological and conceptual problems. Improving on prior methodologies, this study examines changes in ATOD use over 5 years among women seeking terminations. METHOD: Data are from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking terminations at 30 U.S. facilities. Participants presented just below a facility's gestational limit and received terminations (Near-Limits) or just beyond the limit and were denied terminations (Turnaways)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Hayley Treloar Padovano, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: The present study used youth's in vivo reports of subjective responses to cannabis while smoking in their natural environments to identify real-world mechanisms of topiramate treatment for cannabis misuse. METHOD: Participants were 40 cannabis users (≥ twice weekly in past 30 days), ages 15-24 years (47.5% female), with at least one cannabis use episode during the final 3 weeks of a 6-week, randomized clinical trial. Youth reported subjective "high" while smoking, stimulation, sedation, stress, craving, and grams of marijuana used in the natural environment via wireless electronic devices...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Christine M Gunn, Barbara Bokhour, Tracy A Battaglia, Rebecca A Silliman, Amresh Hanchate
OBJECTIVES: A false-positive mammogram can result in anxiety, distress, and increased perceptions of breast cancer risk, potentially changing how women utilize healthcare. This study examined whether having an abnormal mammogram, considered a proxy for elevated risk perception, was associated with greater future health service use (outpatient visits and referrals). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data, spanning 2008 to 2012, from Boston Medical Center, a safety-net hospital...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Krishnendu Kundu, Akiva Feintuch, Shimon Vega
Recently it has been shown that experimental ELDOR spectra of amorphous glasses containing free radicals with inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectra can be analyzed using a set of coupled rate equations for the electron polarizations of frequency bins composing these spectra, named the eSD (electron spectral diffusion) model. The rate matrix defining these equations has elements depending on the microwave, the spin lattice relaxation rates and on eSD rate constants responsible for polarization exchange. In this study, we show that in addition to the static dipolar flip-flop terms in the Hamiltonian a zero-quantum electron cross-relaxation mechanism can be responsible for the polarization exchange process in our samples...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hiroyasu Kurokawa, Koji Shiratsuchi, Shunichi Suda, Yuko Nagura, Soshi Suzuki, Nobuyuki Moritake, Kabun Yamauchi, Masashi Miyazaki
In this study, we investigated the effect of light irradiation and primer/adhesive application on the polymerization reaction and elastic modulus (E) of self-adhesive resin cement (SAC) through ultrasonic velocity (V) measurements. The V values of longitudinal and shear waves were determined based on the transit time through the specimens and specimen thicknesses, and were used to calculate the E values. Analysis of variance and Tukey tests revealed that V increased rapidly, reaching a plateau at 2,700-2,900 m/s, when the SACs were light-irradiated...
March 17, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
May A Beydoun, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Greg A Dore, Jose A Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30-64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4-10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Nobuhisa Morimoto, Chikako Kasuga, Airi Tanaka, Keiko Kamachi, Masumi Ai, Kevin Y Urayama, Akira Tanaka
An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Hamza A Rayes, Ankit Sakhuja, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Jeffrey B Geske, Jacob C Jentzer
The data on speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with sepsis are limited. This systematic review from 1975 to 2016 included studies in adults and children evaluating cardiovascular dysfunction in sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock utilizing STE for systolic global longitudinal strain (GLS). The primary outcome was short- or long-term mortality. Given the significant methodological and statistical differences between published studies, combining the data using meta-analysis methods was not appropriate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Lydia F Emery, Wendi L Gardner, Kathleen L Carswell, Eli J Finkel
Attachment shapes people's experiences in their close relationships and their self-views. Although attachment avoidance and anxiety both undermine relationships, past research has primarily emphasized detrimental effects of anxiety on the self-concept. However, as partners can help people maintain stable self-views, avoidant individuals' negative views of others might place them at risk for self-concept confusion. We hypothesized that avoidance would predict lower self-concept clarity and that less self-verification from partners would mediate this association...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Simon Little, Anna Stewart, Nicole Ryan
Restorative justice conferencing is a police diversionary strategy used extensively in Australian jurisdictions to channel young offenders away from formal court processing. Advocates view conferencing as culturally appropriate and a means to reduce the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people because it is rooted in Indigenous justice traditions. However, whether conferencing is effective at reducing recidivism by Indigenous young people compared with non-Indigenous young people remains unknown. We examine this using a longitudinal cohort of youth offenders from Australia...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Scott Ledger, Annett Howe, Stuart Turville, Anupriya Aggarwal, Borislav Savkovic, Andrew Ong, Orit Wolstein, Maureen Boyd, Michelle Millington, Paul R Gorry, John M Murray, Geoff Symonds
The gene therapeutic Cal-1 comprises the anti-HIV agents: sh5, a short hairpin RNA to CCR5 that down-regulates CCR5 expression; and maC46 (C46), a peptide that inhibits viral fusion with the cell membrane. These constructs were assessed for inhibition of viral replication and selective cell expansion in a number of settings. METHODS: HIV replication, selective outgrowth and cell surface viral binding were analysed with a single cycle infection assay of 6 pseudotyped HIV strains and a static and longitudinal passaging of MOLT4/CCR5 cells with HIV...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Benjamin W Fisher, Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
Although school security measures have become a common fixture in public schools across the United States, research on the relationship between security and adolescent victimization is mixed, with very few studies examining trends in adolescent victimization across time. Using two waves of data from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (N = 7659; 50.6% female; 56.7% White, 13.3% Black, 13.5% Hispanic, 11.3% Asian American, 5.4% other race), results from a series of multi-level models demonstrate that adolescents in schools with more security measures report higher odds of being threatened with harm, and no difference in odds of being in a physical altercation or having something stolen over time...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Ellen Grober, Amy E Veroff, Richard B Lipton
Introduction: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) performance identifies patients with preclinical disease at elevated risk for developing Alzheimer's dementia, predicting diagnosis better than other memory tests. Methods: Based on literature mapping FCSRT performance to clinical outcomes and biological markers, and on longitudinal preclinical data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we developed the Stages of Objective Memory Impairment (SOMI) model...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Seraphim Dempsey, Seán Lyons, Anne Nolan
We examine the association between living in an urban area with more or less green space and the probability of being obese. This work involves the creation of a new dataset which combines geo-coded data at the individual level from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with green space data from the European Urban Atlas 2012. We find evidence suggestive of a u-shaped relationship between green space in urban areas and obesity; those living in areas with the lowest and highest shares of green space within a 1...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
David Alonso-Caneiro, Danuta M Sampson, Avenell L Chew, Michael J Collins, Fred K Chen
Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yuki Matsumoto, Mario Tsuchiya, Shakespear Norshalena, Chikako Kaneko, Jin Kubo, Teiji Yamamoto, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kazuo Fujihara
A 26-year-old, 17-week pregnant woman developed aquaporin-4-IgG-positive severe longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis during the course of disseminated herpes zoster and became quadriparetic. She was unresponsive to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone but became able to walk without assistance after intravenous immunoglobulin. One and a half months later, left optic neuritis developed but her vision improved with intravenous immunoglobulin. The only sequela was left T5 girdle sensation, and she delivered a healthy baby...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Kaoutar Laslami, Sara Dhoum, Amine El Harchi, Iman Benkiran
Objectives: The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods: 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15) according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®); Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
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