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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#1
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435974/-antidepressant-effects-of-the-extract-of-dendrobium-nobile-lindl-on-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#2
Ning Jiang, Lin-Xi Fan, Yu-Jie Yang, Xin-Min Liu, Hai-Ying Lin, Li Gao, Qiong Wang
To investigate whether the extract of Dendrobium nobile Lindl (DNL) has an antidepressant effect on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive mice, 72 BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into the control group, the CUMS model group, the extract of DNL groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DNL, i.g.) and the paroxetine group (10 mg/kg, i.g.). The different doses of DNL or the paroxetine was administered orally once daily to CUMS mice for 8 weeks (containing two-week preventive medication before the modeling)...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434742/endocrine-and-metabolic-changes-in-transition-dairy-cows-are-affected-by-prepartum-infusions-of-a-serotonin-precursor
#3
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Helga Sauerwein, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#4
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#5
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430903/co-storage-of-enteroendocrine-hormones-evaluated-at-the-cell-and-subcellular-levels-in-male-mice
#6
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone co-expression within enteroendocrine cells (EEC), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EEC. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine, 5-HT, or the neuroendocrine protein, chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, co-expression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semi-automated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#7
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425496/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-increases-affiliative-behaviors-in-squirrel-monkeys-in-a-serotonin-2a-receptor-dependent-manner
#8
Elizabeth G Pitts, Adelaide R Minerva, Erika B Oliver, Jordan N Kohn, Meghan T Logun, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Leonard L Howell
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases sociality in humans and animals. Release of serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the increase in social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Despite the advantages of nonhuman primate models, no studies have examined the mechanisms of the social effects of MDMA in nonhuman primates. The behavior and vocalizations of four group-housed squirrel monkeys were examined following administration of MDMA, its enantiomers, and methamphetamine...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421966/regulatory-forum-review-utility-of-in-vitro-secondary-pharmacology-data-to-assess-risk-of-drug-induced-valvular-heart-disease-in-humans-regulatory-considerations
#9
Thomas Papoian, Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh, Muriel Saulnier, Natalie Simpson, Arippa Ravindran, Baichun Yang, Adebayo A Laniyonu, Imran Khan, Ana Szarfman
Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect linked to long-term treatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B (5-HT2B) agonists. Safety assessment for off-target pharmacodynamic activity is a common approach used to screen drugs for this undesired property. Such studies include in vitro assays to determine whether the drug is a 5-HT2B agonist, a necessary pharmacological property for development of VHD. Measures of in vitro binding affinity (IC50, Ki) or cellular functional activity (EC50) are often compared to maximum therapeutic free plasma drug levels ( fCmax) from which safety margins (SMs) can be derived...
April 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420875/down-regulation-of-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-habenula-induces-anhedonia-like-behavior
#10
Seungrie Han, Soo Hyun Yang, Jin Yong Kim, Seojung Mo, Esther Yang, Ki Myung Song, Byung-Joo Ham, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki, Hyun Woo Lee, Hyun Kim
Dysfunction of cholinergic signaling in the brain has long been believed to be associated with depressive disorders. However, the functional impact of habenular cholinergic signaling on the specified depressive behaviors is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression levels of cholinergic signaling genes (CHAT, VACHT, CHT, CHRNA3, CHRNB3 and CHRNB4) were down-regulated in a chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model of depression, in which rats display depression-like behaviors such as anhedonia and mood despair...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#11
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418735/polymorphisms-of-comt-c-649g-a-mao-a-c-1460c-t-net-c-1287g-a-genes-and-the-level-of-catecholamines-serotonin-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspianska, Agata Rozycka, Lukasz Wolny, Margarita Lianeri, Wojciech Kozubski, Jolanta Dorszewska
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT) in two collections, after a 30-min supine (I) and 5-min upright position (II), and polymorphisms of genes, COMT (c.649G>A), MAO-A (c.1460C>T), and NET (c.1287G>A), in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other degenerative parkinsonism and controls. The study was performed in 49 PD patients, 19 parkinsonism patients, and 48 controls. The level of NE, E, and 5-HT was determined by HPLC/EC...
April 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417559/asenapine-modulates-mood-related-behaviors-and-5-ht1a-7-receptors-mediated-neurotransmission
#13
Sarah Delcourte, Erika Abrial, Adeline Etiévant, Renaud Rovera, Jørn Arnt, Michael Didriksen, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Asenapine is a new atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of psychosis/bipolar disorders that presents higher affinity for serotonergic than dopaminergic receptors. The objective of this study was to investigate its antidepressant-like and antimanic-like properties on relevant animal models of depression and mania and to assess the acute and chronic effect of Asenapine on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT cell firing activity. METHODS: We assessed the effects of Asenapine using in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral assays in rats...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414094/effect-of-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-on-brain-monoamines-in-mice
#14
C U Von Linstow, M Severino, A Metaxas, J Waider, A A Babcock, K P Lesch, J B Gramsbergen, B Finsen
Aging is the greatest single risk factor of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). The monoaminergic system, including serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulates cognition, which is affected in AD. Changes in monoamine levels have been observed in AD, but these can both be age- and/or disease-related. We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high-pressured liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice...
April 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413860/distribution-and-characterisation-of-cck-containing-enteroendocrine-cells-of-the-mouse-small-and-large-intestine
#15
Josiane Fakhry, Joyce Wang, Patricia Martins, Linda J Fothergill, Billie Hunne, Pierre Prieur, Arthur Shulkes, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
There is general consensus that enteroendocrine cells, EEC, containing the enteric hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) are confined to the small intestine and predominate in the duodenum and jejunum. Contrary to this, EEC that express the gene for CCK have been isolated from the large intestine of the mouse and there is evidence for EEC that contain CCK-like immunoreactivity in the mouse colon. However, the human and rat colons do not contain CCK cells. In the current study, we use immunohistochemistry to investigate CCK peptide presence in endocrine cells, PCR to identify cck transcripts and chromatography to identify CCK peptide forms in the mouse small and large intestine...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413824/perturbation-of-serotonin-homeostasis-during-adulthood-affects-serotonergic-neuronal-circuitry
#16
Marta Pratelli, Sara Migliarini, Barbara Pelosi, Francesco Napolitano, Alessandro Usiello, Massimo Pasqualetti
Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2(fl)°(x) conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413715/brain-serotonin-4-receptor-binding-is-inversely-associated-with%C3%A2-verbal-memory-recall
#17
Dea S Stenbæk, Patrick M Fisher, Brice Ozenne, Emil Andersen, Liv V Hjordt, Brenda McMahon, Steen G Hasselbalch, Vibe G Frokjaer, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412215/involvement-of-serotonergic-noradrenergic-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-ginsenoside-rb1-a-major-active-ingredient-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#18
Guo-Li Wang, Zhong-Mei He, Hong-Yan Zhu, Yu-Gang Gao, Yan Zhao, He Yang, Liangxue Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rb1, a 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol, is a major active ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which as the King of Chinese herbs, has been wildly used for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Previous studies have shown that 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol possesses a novel antidepressant-like effect in the treatment of depression, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 in depression has been rarely reported. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and its relevant mechanisms...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408644/human-derived-gut-microbiota-modulates-colonic-secretion-in-mice-by-regulating-5-ht3-receptor-expression-via-acetate-production
#19
Yogesh Bhattarai, Bradley A Schmidt, David R Linden, Eric D Larson, Madhusudan Grover, Arthur Beyder, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study we determine if human-derived gut microbiota affect host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age matched Swiss Webster germ free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#20
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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