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Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Yoshiro Okubo, Johan Lundberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The serotonin hypothesis may be the model of MDD pathophysiology with the most support. The majority of antidepressants enhance synaptic serotonin levels quickly, while it usually takes weeks to discern MDD treatment effect. It has been hypothesized that the time lag between serotonin increase and reduction of MDD symptoms is due to downregulation of inhibitory receptors such as the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). The research on 5-HT1BR has previously been hampered by a lack of selective ligands for the receptor...
March 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Magdalena Kolasa, Joanna Solich, Agata Faron-Górecka, Dariusz Żurawek, Paulina Pabian, Sylwia Łukasiewicz, Maciej Kuśmider, Kinga Szafran-Pilch, Marta Szlachta, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
Recently, it has been shown that serotonin 5-HT1A receptor interacts with dopamine D2 receptor in vitro. However, the existence of 5-HT1A -D2 heteromers in native tissue remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated 5-HT1A -D2 receptor heteromerization in mice treated acutely or chronically with paroxetine (10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 mg/kg). Receptor heteromerization was visualized and quantified in the mouse brain by in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Additionally, we aimed to determine the cellular localization of 5-HT1A -D2 receptor heteromers in mouse adult primary neuronal cells by immunofluorescent staining with markers for astrocytes (GFAP) and neurons (NeuN and MAP2)...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Alexander V Kulikov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Allan V Kalueff, Vladimir S Naumenko, Nina K Popova
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and most used antidepressant drugs. Acting by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SSRIs display a typical 3-4-week delay in their therapeutic effects, with nearly 40% of depressed patients remaining treatment-resistant. Recent evidence suggests complex interplay between 5-HT receptors and key proteins of 5-HT metabolism in molecular mechanisms of such delay and resistance to SSRIs. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interplay between 5-HT receptors in the delay of therapeutic effect of SSRIs, and the interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter in the SSRI resistance...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Weizhi Yu, Hong Xu, Ying Xue, Dong An, Huairui Li, Wei Chen, Deqin Yu, Yiping Sun, Jianmei Ma, Yiyuan Tang, Zhaoyang Xiao, Shengming Yin
Introduction: Social isolation enhances the aggressive behavior of animals, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Epigenetic studies have suggested that Htr2c RNA editing is closely related to aggressive behavior. This study aims to obtain a fundamental understanding of how social isolation impacts adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1, RNA editing enzyme) and Htr2c RNA editing, leading to aggressive behavior, and explore the effective solutions for the recovery of this behavior...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Fanxing Zeng, Jonathon A Nye, Ronald J Voll, Leonard Howell, Mark M Goodman
Nine pyridyloxypyridyl indole carboxamides were synthesized and displayed high affinities for 5-HT2C receptors and high selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B . Among them, 6-methyl- N -[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]1 H -indole-3-carboxamide ( 8 ) exhibits the highest 5-HT2C binding affinity ( K i = 1.3 nM) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A (∼1000 times) and 5-HT2B (∼140 times). [11 C] 8 was synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction between pinacolboranate 16 and [11 C]CH3 I with an average radiochemical yield of 27 ± 4% ( n = 8, decay-corrected from end of [11 C]CH3 I synthesis)...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Joshua S Elmore, Michael H Baumann
Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic compound found in psychoactive "spice" products that activates cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to synthetic cannabinoids increases 5-HT2A/2C receptor function in the brain, an effect which might contribute to psychotic symptoms. Here, we hypothesized that repeated exposures to JWH-018 would enhance behavioral responsiveness to the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fitted with subcutaneously (sc) temperature transponders received daily injections of JWH-018 (1...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Houari Boukersi, Nemcha Lebaili, Nathalie Samson, Sylvie Granon
The objective of this work was to investigate the implication of serotonin (5-HT) produced in the dorsal and medial raphé nuclei (DRN and MRN) in water homeostasis in desert animal Gerbillus tarabuli. For that, we measured the density of 5-HT immunolabeled neurons in hydrated and dehydrated animals (over 1 and six months). In this work, 5-HT positive neurons showed some change in shape and colour intensity in dehydrated gerbils comparing with hydrated gerbils. Furthermore a differential increase of 5-HT neurons density was observed in DRN subregions and in MRN following 1 and 6 months of dehydration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Iris Lim, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers
This study investigated the role of calcium sensitisation in the regulation of ureteral contractility with ageing. Isolated ureteral strips from young (6-month old) and older (3-year old) pigs were mounted in Krebs bicarbonate solution and contractility induced by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (30 and 300 μM) and 5-HT (10 and 100 μM), recorded in the absence and presence of the rho-kinase inhibitors Y-27632 (10 μM) and fasudil (30 μM). Ureteral strips developed bursts of contractile activity which was measured as area under the curve (AUC) and frequency...
March 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Patrick D Ganzer, Carl R Beringer, Jed S Shumsky, Chiemela Nwaobasi, Karen A Moxon
Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) damages descending motor and serotonin (5-HT) fiber projections leading to paralysis and serotonin depletion. 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) subsequently upregulate following 5-HT fiber degeneration, and dendritic density decreases indicative of atrophy. 5-HT pharmacotherapy or exercise can improve locomotor behavior after SCI. One might expect that 5-HT pharmacotherapy acts on upregulated spinal 5-HTRs to enhance function, and that exercise alone can influence dendritic atrophy. In the current study, we assessed locomotor recovery and spinal proteins influenced by SCI and therapy...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Xuke Han, Huangan Wu, Ping Yin, Zeqin Chen, Xiaohua Cao, Yanhong Duan, Jian Xu, Lixing Lao, Shifen Xu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Wistar Kyoto (WKY) depressive model rats and explore the possible mechanism of EA on hippocampal CA1 region neuronal synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The male WKY rats were randomized to three experimental groups (EA, Sham EA, and Model group, n = 8/group), and Wistar rats as the normal control group (n = 8). EA treatment was administered once daily for 3 weeks at acupuncture points Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (EX-HN3)...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells which occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, which help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Eran Lottem, Dhruba Banerjee, Pietro Vertechi, Dario Sarra, Matthijs Oude Lohuis, Zachary F Mainen
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a variety of functions that involve patience or impulse control. Many of these effects are consistent with a long-standing theory that 5-HT promotes behavioral inhibition, a motivational bias favoring passive over active behaviors. To further test this idea, we studied the impact of 5-HT in a probabilistic foraging task, in which mice must learn the statistics of the environment and infer when to leave a depleted foraging site for the next. Critically, mice were required to actively nose-poke in order to exploit a given site...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Angela D'Ascola, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Gabriella Zanghì, Salvatore Campo, Pietro Medica, Stefania Campana, Guido Ferlazzo, Bernhard F Gibbs, Alida Maria Ferlazzo
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurohormone transported from plasma into platelets and leukocytes by a specific transporter (SERT). While it is known that the brain 5-HT system is modulated by physical exercise, the peripheral serotoninergic response to exercise is not yet fully elucidated. In particular, this study aimed to evaluate changes in plasma 5-HT levels and equine leukocyte SERT expression in response to treadmill exercise in untrained horses. Analyses were carried out pre- and post-treadmill exercise. 5-HT plasma levels were analysed by HPLC...
February 27, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Lianwei Mu, Dong Dong Xia, Teresa Michalkiewicz, Matthew Hodges, Gary Mouradian, Girija G Konduri, Margaret T T Wong-Riley
We have identified a critical period of respiratory development in rats at postnatal days P12-13, when inhibitory influence dominates and when the response to hypoxia is at its weakest. This critical period has significant implications for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), the cause of which remains elusive. One of the known risk factors for SIDS is prematurity. A common intervention used in premature infants is hyperoxic therapy, which, if prolonged, can alter the ventilatory response to hypoxia and induce sustained inhibition of lung alveolar growth and pulmonary remodeling...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
S D Dolzani, M V Baratta, J M Moss, N L Leslie, S G Tilden, A T Sørensen, L R Watkins, Y Lin, S F Maier
Stress is a potent etiological factor in the onset of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, significant efforts have been made to identify factors that produce resilience to the outcomes of a later stressor, in hopes of preventing untoward clinical outcomes. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has recently emerged as a prophylactic capable of preventing neurochemical and behavioral outcomes of a future stressor. Despite promising results of preclinical studies performed in male rats, the effects of proactive ketamine in female rats remains unknown...
January 2018: ENeuro
Tadashi Takada, Naoki Yoneda, Tetsushi Hirano, Shogo Yanai, Anzu Yamamoto, Youhei Mantani, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Nobuhiko Hoshi
It has been suggested that an increase in the use of pesticides affects neurodevelopment, but there has been no animal experiment showing a causal relation between neonicotinoid pesticides (NNs) and depression. We examined whether dinotefuran (DIN), the most widely used NN in Japan, induces depression. Male mice were administered DIN between 3 and 8 weeks of age, referring to the no-observed-effect level (NOEL). The mice were then subjected to a tail suspension test (TST) and a forced swimming test (FST). After these tests, their brains were dissected for immunohistochemical analyses of serotonin (5-HT)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ning Ding, Jing Jiang, Pingping Qin, Qiaoxia Wang, Jiatong Hu, Zhigang Li
Mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role in mediating the establishment of networks among the circulatory, nervous and immune system at acupoints. However, the changes which occur in MCs during acupoint sensitization, i.e. the dynamic transformation of an acupoint from a "silenced" to an "activated" status, remain uncharacterized. To investigate the morphological and functional changes of MCs as an aid to understanding the cellular mechanism underlying acupoint sensitization, a rat model of knee osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by an injection of mono-iodoacetate (MIA) on day 0...
2018: PloS One
Kerry L Price, Sarah C R Lummis
Cys-loop receptors are major sites of action for many important therapeutically active compounds, but the sites of action of those that do not act at the orthosteric binding site or at the pore are mostly poorly understood. To help understand these, we here describe a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of the 5-HT3 A receptor and the transmembrane domain of a prokaryotic homologue, ELIC. Alterations of some residues at the coupling interface are required for function, but the resulting receptor expresses well and responds to 5-HT with a lower EC50 (0...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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