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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#1
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933106/-review-for-sedative-and-hypnotic-mechanism-of-sedative-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-relative-active-components-on-neurotransmitters
#2
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Zhang, Jing-Jing Li, Ying Zhou, Xiao-Yu Xu
The sedative traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety and antidepression which might be related to certain neurotransmitters and cytokines and so on. This review summarized the mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and its active monomers based on neurotransmitters, including GABA, Glu, 5-HT, DA, NE and their metabolites 5-HIAA, HVA, DOPAC. The results showed that the most research about the sedative medicine at present was throught serotonergic and GABA ergic system...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929258/inhibitory-neurotransmitter-serotonin-and-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dopamine-both-decrease-food-intake-in-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#3
Yu-Hui He, Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Luo Zhao, Yan-Peng Zhang
Aminergic neurotransmitters play important roles in the regulation of food intake. However, their effects on feeding in fish have been less explored and still unclear. In the present study, the effects of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) on food intake were evaluated through intraventricular (ICV) administration in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) and the mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected. At 1 h post-injection, 5-HT significantly decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929122/serotonin-and-its-receptor-as-a-new-antioxidant-therapeutic-target-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Yu Yang, Hui Huang, Zheng Xu, Jun-Kai Duan
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a widespread chronic microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), affects almost 30-50% of patients, and represents a leading cause of death of DM. Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a multifunctional bioamine that has crucial roles in many physiological pathways. Recently, emerging evidence from experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated that 5-HT is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. The 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) antagonists exert renoprotective effects by suppressing oxidative stress, suggesting that 5-HTR can be used as a potential target for treating DKD...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928661/ginkgo-biloba-extract-gbe-stimulates-the-hypothalamic-serotonergic-system-and-attenuates-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Renata M Banin, Iracema S de Andrade, Suzete M Cerutti, Lila M Oyama, Mônica M Telles, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause is associated with increased risk to develop obesity but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved diet-induced obesity. Since GbE might be effective in the treatment of obesity related to menopause, avoiding the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, we investigated the effect of GbE on hypothalamic systems controlling energy homeostasis. Wistar rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or Sham-operated. After 2 months, either 500 mg...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928659/brain-pharmacokinetics-and-the-pharmacological-effects-on-striatal-neurotransmitter-levels-of-pueraria-lobata-isoflavonoids-in-rat
#6
Bingxin Xiao, Zengxian Sun, Fangrui Cao, Lisha Wang, Yonghong Liao, Xinmin Liu, Ruile Pan, Qi Chang
Isoflavonoids are putatively active components of Pueraria lobata and has been demonstrated prominent neuro-protection effect against cerebrovascular disorders, hypertension or Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of Pueraria lobata on nervous systems has not been well revealed. The present study aims to assess striatum exposure to main active isoflavonoids and changes of striatal extracellular neurotransmitters levels in rat brain after intravenous administration of Pueraria lobata isoflavonoids extracts (PLF), to further elucidate its' substantial bases for neuro activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922849/medullary-serotonin-neuron-abnormalities-in-an-australian-cohort-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#7
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to key autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord regulating critical homeostatic functions. Multiple abnormalities in markers of 5-HT function in the medulla in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been reported, informing the hypothesis that at least a subset of SIDS cases is caused by deficits in 5-HT function resulting in impaired homeostatic responses to potentially life-threatening events during sleep...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921462/bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-cect-7765-ameliorates-neuroendocrine-alterations-associated-with-an-exaggerated-stress-response-and-anhedonia-in-obese-mice
#8
Ana Agusti, A Moya-Pérez, I Campillo, S Montserrat-de la Paz, V Cerrudo, A Perez-Villalba, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity, besides being a problem of metabolic dysfunction, constitutes a risk factor for psychological disorders. Experimental models of diet-induced obesity have revealed that obese animals are prone to anxious and depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 could reverse the neurobehavioral consequences of obesity in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse model via regulation of the gut-brain axis. Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, supplemented with either placebo or the bifidobacterial strain for 13 weeks...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#9
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917641/changes-in-innervation-of-lumbar-motoneurons-and-organization-of-premotor-network-following-training-of-transected-adult-rats
#10
Loubna Khalki, Karina Sadlaoud, Julie Lerond, Jacques-Olivier Coq, Jean-Michel Brezun, Laurent Vinay, Patrice Coulon, Hélène Bras
Rats with complete spinal cord transection (SCT) can recover hindlimb locomotor function under strategies combining exercise training and 5-HT agonist treatment. This recovery is expected to result from structural and functional re-organization within the spinal cord below the lesion. To begin to understand the nature of this reorganization, we examined synaptic changes to identified gastrocnemius (GS) or tibialis anterior (TA) motoneurons (MNs) in SCT rats after a schedule of early exercise training and delayed 5-HT agonist treatment...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916638/pharmacological-and-physiological-assessment-of-serotonin-formation-and-degradation-in-isolated-preparations-from-mouse-and-human-heart
#11
Ulrich Gergs, Franziska Jung, Igor B Buchwalow, Britt Hofmann, Andreas Simm, Hendrik Treede, Joachim Neumann
Using transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress the human 5-HT4a-receptor specifically in cardiomyocytes, we wanted to know whether 5-HT can be formed and degraded in the mammalian heart and whether this can likewise lead to inotropic and chronotropic effects in this TG model. We noted that the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP), can exert inotropic and chronotropic effects in cardiac preparations from TG but not from wild type (WT): similar results were found in human atrial preparations, as well as in intact TG animals using echocardiography...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916252/decreased-monoamine-oxidase-a-expression-and-activity-in-the-bladders-of-rats-with-partial-outlet-obstruction
#13
Mai Michishita, Kazuo Yano, Ken-Ichi Tomita, Satoru Yoshikawa, Osamu Matsuzaki, Ken-Ichi Kasahara
OBJECTIVE To investigate changes in expression and activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO). Previous studies suggested that monoamines, such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA), are involved in bladder hyperactivity secondary to pBOO. However, little is known about the role of MAO-A, an enzyme oxidizing 5-HT and NA, in the pathogenesis. METHODS Female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to sham or pBOO operations for 7 days, then their bladders were isolated...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915354/rose-essential-oil-delayed-ad-like-symptoms-by-skn-1-pathway-in-c-elegans
#14
Shuqian Zhu, Hong-Yu Li, Juan Dong, Wenqi Yang, Ting Liu, Yu Wang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Dejuan Zhi
There are no effective medications for delaying the progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. In this study, our results with C. elegans showed that rose essential oil (REO) significantly inhibited AD-like symptoms of worm paralysis and hypersensivity to exogenous 5-HT in a dose-dependent manner. Its main components of β-citronellol and geraniol acted less effectively than the oil itself. REO significantly suppressed Aβ deposits and reduced the Aβ oligomers to alleviate the toxicity induced by Aβ over-expression...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912689/monoamine-release-in-the-cat-lumbar-spinal-cord-during-fictive-locomotion-evoked-by-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region
#15
Brian R Noga, Riza P Turkson, Songtao Xie, Annette Taberner, Alberto Pinzon, Ian D Hentall
Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cat's lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906345/folic-acid-exerts-antidepressant-effects-by-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-glutamate-receptor-1-expression-in-brain
#16
Liangcai Gao, Xinnan Liu, Li Yu, Junlin Wu, Mingchu Xu, Yusi Liu
Folic acid is a vitamin with a variety of pharmacological effects. The present study aims to explore the beneficial effects of folic acid on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including open-field test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test were used to evaluate the antidepressant effects of folic acid. Then the changes of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) expression levels, and synaptic organization were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of folic acid...
September 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901281/review-5-ht1-5-ht2-5-ht3-and-5-ht7-receptors-and-their-role-in-the-modulation-of-pain-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Cortes-Altamirano José Luis, Olmos-Hernández Adriana, Bonilla-Jaime Herlinda, Carrillo-Mora Paul, Bandala Cindy, S Reyes-Long, Alfaro-Rodríguez Alfonso
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900141/dianxianning-improved-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-pathological-characteristics-partially-through-daf-2-daf-16-insulin-like-pathway-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#18
Dejuan Zhi, Dong Wang, Wenqi Yang, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Juan Dong, Na Wang, Ningbo Wang, Dongqing Fei, Zhanxin Zhang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Hongyu Li
Dianxianning (DXN) is a traditional Chinese formula, and has been approved in China for treating epilepsy since 1996. Here anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of DXN has been reported. DXN improved AD-like symptoms of paralysis and 5-HT sensitivity of transgenic Aβ1-42 C. elegans. In worms, DXN significantly increased Aβ monomers and decreased the toxic Aβ oligomers, thus reducing Aβ toxicity. DXN significantly suppressed the expression of hsp-16.2 induced by juglone, and up-regulated sod-3 expression. These results indicated that DXN increased stress resistance and protected C...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899729/serotonin-gating-of-cortical-and-thalamic-glutamate-inputs-onto-principal-neurons-of-the-basolateral-amygdala
#19
Ji-Dong Guo, Brendan M O'Flaherty, Donald G Rainnie
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key site for crossmodal association of sensory stimuli and an important relay in the neural circuitry of emotion. Indeed, the BLA receives substantial glutamatergic inputs from multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei. Modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the BLA regulates stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) also plays an important role in regulating stress-related behavior through activation of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899417/serotonin-augmentation-therapy-by-escitalopram-has-minimal-effects-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-like-disease-in-mice
#20
Christian Ulrich von Linstow, Jonas Waider, Manuela Grebing, Athanasios Metaxas, Klaus Peter Lesch, Bente Finsen
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system has been implicated in the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) species is a hallmark of AD and an instigator of pathology. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation therapy by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with AD has had mixed success in improving cognitive function, whereas SSRI administration to mice with AD-like disease has been shown to reduce Aβ pathology...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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