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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141189/role-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-in-diminution-of-dissimilar-stress-induced-depressive-behaviour-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#1
Tahira Perveen, Shaista Emad, Saida Haider, Sana Sadaf, Sara Qadeer, Zehra Batool, Yousra Sarfaraz, Sheeza Sheikh
Memory functions can be considerably affected by various life events and stress has shown to be a chief regulator. Different stress patterns have distinct effects on the overall functioning of the brain. Stress provokes inflammation not only in the periphery but also in the brain. Neuroinflammation causes alterations in neuronal structure and function, which eventually progress to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammatory reactions are modulated through communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141182/optogenetic-activation-of-5-ht-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-suppresses-seizure-induced-respiratory-arrest-and-produces-anticonvulsant-effect-in-the-dba-1-mouse-sudep-model
#2
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Chang Zeng, Christa Van Dort, Carl L Faingold, Norman E Taylor, Ken Solt, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) occurs in many witnessed SUDEP patients and animal models as an initiating event leading to death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying S-IRA will advance the development of preventive strategies against SUDEP. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important modulator for many vital functions, including respiration and arousal, and a deficiency of 5-HT signaling is strongly implicated in S-IRA in animal models, including the DBA/1 mouse...
November 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139561/the-novel-potent-and-highly-selective-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-yh12852-significantly-improves-both-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-motility
#3
Eun Jeong Jeong, Soo Yong Chung, Han Na Hong, Se-Woong Oh, Jae Young Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been shown to be effective to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, a lack of selectivity against off-targets has been a limiting factor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The binding affinity and selectivity of YH12852 for human 5-HT4(a) receptor in CHO-K1 cells were evaluated using radioligand binding assays, and agonistic activity was assessed using a beta-lactamase reporter system. Contractile activity and propulsive motility were measured in isolated guinea pig distal colon...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139255/-association-rules-analysis-for-exploring-combined-medication-characteristics-of-fufang-kushen-injection-real-world-study-based-on-49-597-cases
#4
Yin Zhang, Yan-Ming Xie, Yan-Nan Li, Chang Zhang, Cen Chen, Yan Zhuang
The present study aimed to analyze the association rules of Fufang Kushen injection in combined medications in the real world based on electrical medical records in hospital information system, and provide reference for its reasonable clinical application. The electrical medical records of the hospitalized patients using Fufang Kushen injection were extracted to analyze the frequency distribution characteristics in combined application with Western medicine, and analyze the specific association rules between these combinations by using Apriori algorithm...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138029/synthesis-and-antidepressant-activity-of-a-series-of-arylalkanol-and-aralkyl-piperazine-derivatives-targeting-ssri-5-ht1a-5-ht7
#5
Zheng-Song Gu, Ying Xiao, Qing-Wei Zhang, Jian-Qi Li
A series of arylalkanol and aralkyl piperazine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT reuptake inhibitory abilities and binding affinities at the 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptors. Antidepressant activities of the compounds in vivo were screened using the forced swimming test (FST). The results indicated that the compound 8j exhibited high affinities for the 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptors (5-HT1A, ki = 0.84 nM; 5-HT7, ki = 12 nM) coupling with moderate 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity (RUI, IC50 = 100 nM) and showed a marked antidepressant-like activity in the FST model...
November 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135714/ritanserin-a-serotonin-2-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-infarction
#6
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#7
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133842/serotonin-regulates-prostate-growth-through-androgen-receptor-modulation
#8
Emanuel Carvalho-Dias, Alice Miranda, Olga Martinho, Paulo Mota, Ângela Costa, Cristina Nogueira-Silva, Rute S Moura, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Riccardo Autorino, Estêvão Lima, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Aging and testosterone almost inexorably cause benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Human males. However, etiology of BPH is largely unknown. Serotonin (5-HT) is produced by neuroendocrine prostatic cells and presents in high concentration in normal prostatic transition zone, but its function in prostate physiology is unknown. Previous evidence demonstrated that neuroendocrine cells and 5-HT are decreased in BPH compared to normal prostate. Here, we show that 5-HT is a strong negative regulator of prostate growth...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129751/hypoglossal-motoneurons-are-endogenously-activated-by-serotonin-during-the-active-period-of-circadian-cycle
#9
Leszek Kubin, Graziella L Mann
In obstructive sleep apnea patients, contraction of lingual muscles protects the pharyngeal airway from collapse. Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate the muscles of the tongue and are themselves under wake-related excitatory drives, including that mediated by serotonin (5-HT). Estimates of endogenous 5-HT activation vary among different studies. We tested whether endogenous drive mediated by 5-HT is present in rat XII motoneurons when measured during the active period of the circadian cycle. We monitored sleep-wake states and lingual and nuchal electromyograms (EMGs) while perfusing the XII nucleus with a vehicle or a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (mianserin, 0...
November 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128806/emotional-disorders-induced-by-hemopressin-and-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-in-rats
#10
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sara Martinotti, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in regulating emotional disorders, and is involved, directly or indirectly, in psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, and RVD-hemopressin(α), a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, act as antagonist/inverse agonist and negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, respectively. METHODS: Considering the possible involvement of these peptides on emotional behaviour, the aim of our study was to investigate the behavioural effects of a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of hemopressin (0...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123483/impact-of-vortioxetine-on-synaptic-integration-in-prefrontal-subcortical-circuits-comparisons-with-escitalopram
#12
Shreaya Chakroborty, Thomas R Geisbush, Elena Dale, Alan L Pehrson, Connie Sánchez, Anthony R West
Prefrontal-subcortical circuits support executive functions which often become dysfunctional in psychiatric disorders. Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that is currently used in the clinic to treat major depressive disorder. Mechanisms of action of vortioxetine include serotonin (5-HT) transporter blockade, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism. Vortioxetine facilitates 5-HT transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), however, the impact of this compound on related prefrontal-subcortical circuits is less clear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122693/vitamin-a-improves-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-decreases-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-a-pilot-study
#13
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Xiao Liu, Juan Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77.9% of autistic children were found to have vitamin A deficiency, and the concentration of vitamin A was negatively associated with the CARS score. In the present study, we sought to test whether vitamin A supplementation could improve autistic symptoms and decrease serum 5-HT levels...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121520/effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-gene-targeted-ablation-on-ghrelin-induced-feeding
#14
Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Chiara Di Nisio, Michele Vacca, Giustino Orlando, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals...
November 6, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121450/urethral-afferent-signalling-role-of-5-ht-paraneurons
#15
EDITORIAL
K-E Andersson
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Kullmann et al. examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells in mouse urethral epithelium that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons.(1) They propose that the paraneurons function as important detectors and transmitters in the urethral sensory mechanisms. Signalling from the afferent nerves of the lower urinary tract (LUT) is required for sensation of pain, bladder filling, and initiation and maintenance of the micturition reflex...
November 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119912/the-glutamate-and-the-immune-systems-new-targets-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-ocd
#16
Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Federico Mucci, Armando Piccinni
BACKGROUND: In the last decades the pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been significantly promoted by the effectiveness of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the subsequent development of the 5-HT hypothesis of OCD. However, since a large majority of patients (between 40% and 60 %) do not respond to SSRIs or strategies based on the modulation of the 5-HT system, it is now essential to search for other possible therapeutic targets...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119704/pharmacokinetics-of-rp5063-following-single-doses-to-normal-healthy-volunteers-and-multiple-doses-over-10-days-to-stable-schizophrenic-patients
#17
Marc Cantillon, Robert Ings, Laxminarayan Bhat
RP5063, a multimodal dopamine (D)-serotonin (5-HT) stabilizer, possesses high affinity for D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptors and moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter. Two phase I studies characterized the pharmacokinetics of a single dose (10 and 15 mg fasting, 15 mg fed/fasting) in healthy volunteers and multiple doses (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg fed) over 10 days in patients with stable schizophrenia. RP5063 displayed a dose-dependent Cmax at 4 to 6 h, linear dose proportionality for both Cmax and AUC, and a half-life between 40 and 71 h...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118192/endocannabinoid-mediated-potentiation-of-non-nociceptive-synapses-contributes-to-behavioral-sensitization
#18
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, can elicit long-term depression of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. This latter effect will result in disinhibition and would therefore be expected to produce an increase in neural circuit output. However, there have been no examples directly linking endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition to a change in a functional neurobehavioral circuit. The present study uses the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, to examine the functional/behavioral relevance of endocannabinoid modulation of an identified afferent synapse...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117778/serotonin-a-mediator-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Tsveta S Malinova, Christine D Dijkstra, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116368/n-acetyl-cysteine-reverses-bio-behavioural-changes-induced-by-prenatal-inflammation-adolescent-methamphetamine-exposure-and-combined-challenges
#20
Twanette Swanepoel, Marisa Möller, Brian Herbert Harvey
RATIONALE: Schizophrenia is associated with prenatal inflammation and/or postnatal stressors such as drug abuse, resulting in immune-redox dysfunction. Antioxidants may offer therapeutic benefits. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as a therapeutic antioxidant to reverse schizophrenia-like bio-behavioural changes in rats exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA), adolescent methamphetamine (MA) or a combination thereof...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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