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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747467/isoflurane-ketamine-xylazine-and-urethane-markedly-alter-breathing-even-at-sub-therapeutic-doses
#1
Cory A Massey, George B Richerson
Anesthetics are widely used for animal research on respiratory control in vivo, but their effect on breathing and CO2 chemoreception has not been well characterized in mice, a species now often used for these studies. We previously demonstrated that 1% isoflurane markedly reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in adult mice in vivo and masks serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neuron chemosensitivity in vitro Here we investigated effects of 0.5% isoflurane on breathing in adult mice, and also found a large reduction in the HCVR even at this sub-anesthetic concentration...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746839/depletion-of-5-hydroxy-triptamine-5-ht-affects-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-in-mice
#2
Vanessa Marques da Silva Leal, Vivian Taciany Bonassoli, Lígia Mendes Soares, Humberto Milani, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the genesis of depression as well as in antidepressant drug effects. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) exert antidepressant-like effect in several animal models, but also interfere with the locomotor activity. The involvement of different isoforms of NOS in the antidepressant-like effects is not clearly established. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acute or repeated administration of selective inhibitors of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and induced NOS (iNOS), 7 nitroindazole (7NI) and 1400W, respectively, in mice subjected to open field (OF) and forced swim test (FST)...
July 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745513/modulating-the-serotonin-receptor-spectrum-of-pulicatin-natural-products
#3
Zhenjian Lin, Misty D Smith, Gisela P Concepcion, Margo G Haygood, Baldomero M Olivera, Alan Light, Eric W Schmidt
Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are important in health and disease, but the existence of 14 subtypes necessitates selective ligands. Previously, the pulicatins were identified as ligands that specifically bound to the subtype 5-HT2B in the 500 nM to 10 μM range and that exhibited in vitro effects on cultured mouse neurons. Here, we examined the structure-activity relationship of 30 synthetic and natural pulicatin derivatives using binding, receptor functionality, and in vivo assays. The results reveal the 2-arylthiazoline scaffold as a tunable serotonin receptor-targeting pharmacophore...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743458/s-phenylpiracetam-a-selective-dat-inhibitor-reduces-body-weight-gain-without-influencing-locomotor-activity
#4
Liga Zvejniece, Baiba Svalbe, Edijs Vavers, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Elina Makarova, Vilnis Liepins, Ivars Kalvinsh, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741031/inhibition-of-serotonin-transporters-disrupts-the-enhancement-of-fear-memory-extinction-by-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma
#5
Matthew B Young, Seth D Norrholm, Lara M Khoury, Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila A M Rauch, Collin M Reiff, Boadie W Dunlop, Barbara O Rothbaum, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population...
July 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740098/puerarin-ameliorated-the-behavioral-deficits-induced-by-chronic-stress-in-rats
#6
Zhi-Kun Qiu, Guan-Hua Zhang, De-Sheng Zhong, Jia-Li He, Xu Liu, Ji-Sheng Chen, Da-Nian Wei
The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effects of puerarin via the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) procedure in rats. Similar to Sertraline (Ser), Chronic treatment of puerarin (60 and 120 mg/kg, i.g) elicited the antidepressant-like effects by reversing the decreased sucrose preference in sucrose preference test (SPT), by blocking the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT) and the increased immobility time in forced swimming test (FST) without affecting locomotor activity...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739086/a-preclinical-study-on-the-combined-effects-of-repeated-eltoprazine-and-preladenant-treatment-for-alleviating-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Wai Kin D Ko, Qin Li, Long Yun Cheng, Micaela Morelli, Manolo Carta, Erwan Bezard
Eltoprazine, a serotonergic (5-HT)1A/B receptor agonist, is a potential treatment for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) but notably compromises the anti-parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, as seen in rodent and monkey models of PD. Preladenant, a selective adenosine A2a receptor antagonist, mediates modest anti-parkinsonian effects in parkinsonian monkeys. In a recent investigation, combined eltoprazine and preladenant treatment with a sub-threshold dose of L-DOPA acutely attenuated dyskinesia without exacerbating PD disability in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737264/review-article-the-many-potential-roles-of-intestinal-serotonin-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-signalling-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
M D Coates, I Tekin, K E Vrana, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of every major gut-related function. Recent investigations also suggest that 5-HT can influence the development and severity of inflammation within the gut, particularly in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To review the roles that the intestinal serotonin signalling system plays in gut function, with a specific focus on IBD. METHODS: We reviewed manuscripts from 1952 to 2017 that investigated and discussed roles for 5-HT signalling in gastrointestinal function and IBD, as well as the influence of inflammation on 5-HT signalling elements within the gut...
July 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736518/behavioral-effects-of-systemic-infralimbic-and-prelimbic-injections-of-a-serotonin-5-ht2a-antagonist-in-carioca-high-and-low-conditioned-freezing-rats
#9
Laura A León, Vitor Castro-Gomes, Santiago Zárate-Guerrero, Karen Corredor, Antonio P Mello Cruz, Marcus L Brandão, Fernando P Cardenas, J Landeira-Fernandez
The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and 5-HT2A receptors in anxiety has been extensively studied, mostly without considering individual differences in trait anxiety. Our laboratory developed two lines of animals that are bred for high and low freezing responses to contextual cues that are previously associated with footshock (Carioca High-conditioned Freezing [CHF] and Carioca Low-conditioned Freezing [CLF]). The present study investigated whether ketanserin, a preferential 5-HT2A receptor blocker, exerts distinct anxiety-like profiles in these two lines of animals...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735368/mdma-induced-indifference-to-negative-sounds-is-mediated-by-the-5-ht2a-receptor
#10
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, Farre, N Pizarro, L Xicota, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: MDMA has been shown to induce feelings of sociability, a positive emotional bias and enhanced empathy. While previous research has used only visual emotional stimuli, communication entails more than that single dimension and it is known that auditory information is also crucial in this process. In addition, it is, however, unclear what the neurobiological mechanism underlying these MDMA effects on social behaviour is. Previously, studies have shown that MDMA-induced emotional excitability and positive mood are linked to the action on the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#11
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730747/study-of-the-prevalence-of-5-ht-2c-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-egyptian-patients-with-lifelong-premature-ejaculation
#12
M F Roaiah, Y I Elkhayat, L A Rashed, S F GamalEl Din, A M El Guindi, M A Abd El Salam
We investigated the prevalence of 5HT2C receptor gene polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. A total of 350 participants were enrolled in a prospective study. Two hundred and forty-five cases with lifelong premature ejaculation joined this study, in addition to 105 controls. We instructed the partners of the cases to measure the IELT of the first intercourse only using a stopwatch for 1 month. Genotyping was carried out at the end of the study. The results showed that the majority of the patients and controls were Cys/Cys...
July 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725212/neurochemical-systems-of-the-retina-involved-in-the-control-of-movement
#13
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
Recent studies have revealed that the retina may exert control over deep brain function and may be importantly involved in the etiology, progression, and treatment of disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). While such a concept is uncharted territory and even less is known about the mechanism by which this might be achieved, this study was undertaken to determine how retinal dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and melatonin (MEL) neurotransmitter systems might be involved in the control of movement in their own right...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723348/central-serotonin-attenuates-lps-induced-systemic-inflammation
#14
Clarissa M D Mota, Caroline Rodrigues-Santos, Rodrigo A R Fernández, Ruither O G Carolino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Luiz G S Branco
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350 g, 8-9 weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10 AM with the performance of injections...
July 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719094/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibitor-as-a-prodrug
#15
Hailong Shi, Yaya Cui, Yifei Qin
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. Two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), TPH1 and TPH2 are the rate-limiting enzymes in the 5-HT biosynthesis process. TPH1 expression is mainly limited in the enterochromaffin cells and distributed in peripheries such as the skin and gut, while TPH2 is the predominant isoform in the CNS. In this study, mol002291 was screened as a drug-like compound from the TCM database for the inhibitor of TPH...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719042/serotonergic-paraneurons-in-the-female-mouse-urethral-epithelium-and-their-potential-role-in-peripheral-sensory-information-processing
#16
F Aura Kullmann, Huiyi H Chang, Christian Gauthier, Bronagh M McDonnell, Jih-Chao Yeh, Dennis R Clayton, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Gerard L Apodaca, Lori A Birder
AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurons and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#17
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#18
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713247/divergent-roles-of-central-serotonin-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Ning-Ning Song, Ying Huang, Xin Yu, Bing Lang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lei Zhang
The central serotonin (5-HT) system is the main target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line antidepressants widely used in current general practice. One of the prominent features of chronic SSRI treatment in rodents is the enhanced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which has been proposed to contribute to antidepressant effects. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to decipher how central 5-HT regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review how changes in the central serotonergic system alter adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712263/effects-of-colostrum-serum-on-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nuclei-of-exercised-rats
#20
Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Jinhee Seo
PURPOSE: The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that exhaustion, or the maximum level of exercise, induces excessive stress and increases serotonin concentrations in the brain, which in turn decreases central nervous system (CNS) function and induces fatigue. Our aim was to determine the effects of colostrum serum on the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe nuclei during exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control, exercise, exercise and treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of colostrum serum...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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