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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345868/immune-system-activation-and-depression-roles-of-serotonin-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-periphery
#1
Matthew James Robson, Meagan A Quinlan, Randy D Blakely
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been recognized as a key contributor to the regulation of mood and anxiety and is strongly associated with the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although more known for its roles within the central nervous system (CNS), 5-HT is recognized to modulate several key aspects of immune system function that may contribute to the development of MDD. Copious amounts of research have outlined a connection between alterations in immune system function, inflammation status and MDD...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344757/leveraging-blood-serotonin-as-an-endophenotype-to-identify-de-novo-and-rare-variants-involved-in-autism
#2
Rui Chen, Lea K Davis, Stephen Guter, Qiang Wei, Suma Jacob, Melissa H Potter, Nancy J Cox, Edwin H Cook, James S Sutcliffe, Bingshan Li
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, but underlying molecular mechanisms are still unresolved due to extreme locus heterogeneity. Leveraging meaningful endophenotypes or biomarkers may be an effective strategy to reduce heterogeneity to identify novel ASD genes. Numerous lines of evidence suggest a link between hyperserotonemia, i.e., elevated serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) in whole blood, and ASD. However, the genetic determinants of blood 5-HT level and their relationship to ASD are largely unknown...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344131/specific-patterns-of-spinal-metabolites-underlying-%C3%AE-me-5-ht-evoked-pruritus-compared-with-histamine-and-capsaicin-assessed-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Taotao Liu, Zhigang He, Xuebi Tian, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Zhixiao Li, Zeyuan Liu, Huili Liu, Fuqiang Xu, Jie Wang, Hongbing Xiang
The mechanism behind itching is not well understood. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of spinal cord extracts provides a quick modality for evaluating the specific metabolic activity of α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus mice. In the current study, four groups of young adult male C57Bl/6 mice were investigated; one group treated with saline, while the other groups intradermally injected with α-Me-5-HT (histamine independent pruritogen), histamine (histamine dependent pruritogen) and capsaicin (algogenic substance), respectively...
March 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#4
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342749/characterizing-the-differential-roles-of-striatal-5-ht1a-auto-and-hetero-receptors-in-the-reduction-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#5
Samantha M Meadows, Nicole Chambers, Melissa M Conti, Sharon C Bossert, Crystal Tasber, Eitan Sheena, Mark Varney, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Christopher Bishop
l-DOPA remains the benchmark treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms, but chronic use leads to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The serotonin (5-HT) system has been established as a key modulator of LID and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) stimulation has been shown to convey anti-dyskinetic effects. However, 5-HT1AR agonists often compromise clinical efficacy or display intrinsic side effects and their site(s) of actions remain debatable. Recently, highly selective G-protein biased 5-HT1AR agonists, F13714 and F15599, were shown to potently target 5-HT1A auto- or hetero-receptors, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341594/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-hippocampus-in-spatial-memory-deficiency-rats-induced-by-simulated-microgravity
#6
Tingmei Wang, Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Guohua Ji, Yongliang Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
It has been demonstrated that simulated microgravity (SM) may lead to cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In present study, tail-suspension (30°) rat was employed to explore the effects of 28 days of SM on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory capability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that 28-day tail-suspension rats displayed decline of learning and memory ability in Morris water maze (MWM) test. Using iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, a total of 4774 proteins were quantified in hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337282/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-affects-endogenous-serotonergic-inputs-and-expression-of-synaptic-proteins-in-rat-hypoglossal-nucleus
#7
Xu Wu, Huan Lu, Lijuan Hu, Wankun Gong, Juan Wang, Cuiping Fu, Zilong Liu, Shanqun Li
Evidence has shown that hypoxic episodes elicit hypoglossal neuroplasticity which depends on elevated serotonin (5-HT), in contrast to the rationale of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that deficient serotonergic input to HMs fails to keep airway patency. Therefore, understanding of the 5-HT dynamic changes at hypoglossal nucleus (HN) during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) will be essential to central pathogenic mechanism and pharmacological therapy of OSA. Moreover, the effect of CIH on BDNF-TrkB signaling proteins was quantified in an attempt to elucidate cellular cascades/synaptic mechanisms following 5-HT alteration...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#8
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332205/evidence-that-5-ht-stimulates-intracellular-ca-2-signalling-and-activates-pannexin-1-currents-in-type-ii-cells-of-the-rat-carotid-body
#9
Sindhubarathi Murali, Min Zhang, Colin A Nurse
Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor (type I) cells can synthesize and release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and increased autocrine-paracrine 5-HT2 receptor signalling contributes to sensory long-term facilitation during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, recent studies suggest that adjacent glial-like type II cells can respond to CB paracrine signals by elevating intracellular calcium (Δ[Ca(2+) ]i ) and activating carbenoxolone-sensitive, ATP-permeable, pannexin-1 (Panx-1)-like channels. Here, using dissociated rat CB cultures, we found that 5-HT induced Δ[Ca(2+) ]i responses in a subpopulation of type I cells, and in most (∼67%) type II cells identified by their sensitivity to the P2Y2 receptor agonist, UTP...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331177/baseline-dependent-effects-of-amphetamine-on-attention-are-associated-with-striatal-dopamine-metabolism
#10
Karly M Turner, James Peak, Thomas H J Burne
Psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, are widely used to treat attentional deficits. In humans, response to dopaminergic medications is complex with improvement often dependent on baseline performance. Our goal was to determine if attention in rats could be improved by low dose amphetamine in a baseline-dependent manner by examining the relationship between task performance, drug response and monoamine levels in corticostriatal tissue. Firstly, rats performed a signal detection task with varying signal durations before administration of saline, 0...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326015/serotonin-regulates-the-firing-of-principal-cells-of-the-subiculum-by-inhibiting-a-t-type-ca-2-current
#11
Anders V Petersen, Camilla S Jensen, Valérie Crépel, Mathias Falkerslev, Jean-François Perrier
The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. The subiculum receives a high density of fibers originating from the raphe nuclei, suggesting that serotonin (5-HT) modulates subicular neurons. Here we investigated if and how 5-HT modulates the firing pattern of bursting neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324844/serotonin-transporter-and-receptor-ligands-with-antidepressant-activity-as-neuroprotective-and-proapoptotic-agents
#12
REVIEW
Zdzislaw Chilmonczyk, Andrzej J Bojarski, Andrzej Pilc, Ingebrigt Sylte
Serotonin exhibits multiple non-neural functions involved in essential hypertension, early embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behaviour. The growth stimulatory effects of the neurotransmitter have been described for a variety of cell types. 5-HT was found to induce migration of the human prostate cancer cell lines - PC-3 and Du145 - and several 5-HT1A antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors were reported to inhibit the growth of different tumour cell lines in vitro. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis is involved in the action of antidepressants and an involvement of antidepressants in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been demonstrated...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#13
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322276/identifying-fast-onset-antidepressants-using-rodent-models
#14
M J Ramaker, S C Dulawa
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322152/serotonin-receptor-binding-characteristics-of-geissoschizine-methyl-ether-an-indole-alkaloid-in-uncaria-hook
#15
Yasushi Ikarashi, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Kazushige Mizoguchi
Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is one of the indole alkaloids in Uncaria hook, and an active ingredient of yokukansan (YKS) that improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with several types of dementia. The pharmacological action of GM has been related to various serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes. Here we describe previous findings and our own data to review the binding characteristics of GM to the 5-HT receptor subtypes. Competitive receptor-binding assays showed that GM bound the following 5-HT receptor subtypes: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7...
March 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#16
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320272/neurotrophic-factors-bdnf-and-gdnf-and-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
N K Popova, T V Ilchibaeva, V S Naumenko
Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316078/5-ht3a-driven-gfp-delineates-gustatory-fibers-innervating-sour-responsive-taste-cells-a-labeled-line-for-sour-taste
#18
J M Stratford, E D Larson, R Yang, E Salcedo, T E Finger
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) - the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#19
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301190/involvement-of-serotonin-and-oxytocin-in-neural-mechanism-regulating-amicable-social-signal-in-male-mice-implication-for-impaired-recognition-of-amicable-cues-in-balb-c-strain
#20
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Social signals play a primary role in regulating social relationships among male mice. The present series of experiments investigated the neural mechanisms underlying an induction of amicable cues that facilitate social approach in male mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) strains. Male mice exhibit approach behavior and suppression of territorial scent marking toward amicable counterparts. Exposure of a group-housed mouse that maintains an amicable relationship induced social approach in B6 recipient mice, as expressed by increased preference of stay in proximity and decreased scent marks relevant to those of a single-housed mouse...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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