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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332302/preoperative-cognitive-impairment-as-a-predictor-of-postoperative-outcomes-in-a-collaborative-care-model
#1
Kahli Zietlow, Shelley R McDonald, Richard Sloane, Jeffrey Browndyke, Sandhya Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Mitchell T Heflin
OBJECTIVES: To compare postoperative outcomes of individuals with and without cognitive impairment enrolled in the Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program at Duke University, a comanagement model involving surgery, anesthesia, and geriatrics. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of individuals enrolled in a quality improvement program. SETTING: Tertiary academic center. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults undergoing surgery and referred to POSH (N = 157)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331966/effectiveness-and-safety-of-oral-sedation-in-adult-patients-undergoing-dental-procedures-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#2
Jimmy de Oliveira Araújo, Rogério Heládio Lopes Motta, Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi, Caio Chaves Guimarães, Juliana Cama Ramacciato, Natalia Karol de Andrade, Mabel Fernandes Fiqueiró, Luciane Cruz Lopes
INTRODUCTION: The management of anxious patients undergoing dental procedures is still a challenge in clinical practice. Despite a wide variety of drugs for oral sedation in adult patients, there are relatively few systematic reviews that compare the effectiveness and safety of different drugs administered via this route. Thus, this study will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral sedation with benzodiazepines and other agents to patients undergoing dental surgical procedures...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331922/minimum-alveolar-concentration-key-concepts-and-a-review-of-its-pharmacological-reduction-in-dogs-part-1
#3
REVIEW
Rachel Reed, Thomas Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature in regard to pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacologic agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, maropitant, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and NMDA antagonists. Part 1 will focus on summarizing the relevance, measurement, and mechanisms of MAC and review the effects of alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol on MAC...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331846/functional-neuroimaging-in-rasmussen-syndrome
#4
Ichiro Kuki, Kazumi Matsuda, Yuko Kubota, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Haruo Shintaku
PURPOSE: For a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), clinical course together with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are considered important, but there are few reports on functional neuroimaging. This study investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR)-SPECT, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in RS patients, and correlated neuroimaging results with MRI and pathological findings...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#5
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#6
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330020/predictors-of-deep-brain-stimulation-outcome-in-tremor-patients
#7
Claire Sandoe, Vibhor Krishna, Diellor Basha, Francesco Sammartino, Joao Tatsch, Marina Picillo, Lazzaro di Biase, Yu-Yan Poon, Clement Hamani, Duemani Reddy, Renato P Munhoz, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Alfonso Fasano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation of the ventro-intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is an established treatment for tremor of differing etiologies but factors that may predict the short- and especially long-term outcome of surgery are still largely unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, pharmacological, electrophysiological and anatomical features that might predict the initial response and preservation of benefit in all patients who underwent deep brain stimulation for tremor...
January 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#8
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#9
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325531/costs-of-potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-in-residential-aged-care-facilities
#10
S L Harrison, L Kouladjian O'Donnell, R Milte, S M Dyer, E S Gnanamanickam, C Bradley, E Liu, S N Hilmer, M Crotty
BACKGROUND: The potential harms of some medications may outweigh their potential benefits (inappropriate medication use). Despite recommendations to avoid the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older adults, the prevalence of PIM use is high in different settings including residential aged care. However, it remains unclear what the costs of these medications are in this setting. The main objective of this study was to determine the costs of PIMs in older adults living in residential care...
January 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322813/opioid-drug-poisonings-in-ohio-adolescents-and-young-adults-2002-2014
#11
Sarah Caupp, Janine Steffan, Junxin Shi, Krista K Wheeler, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Henry Xiang
CONTEXT: Opioids represent a drug class that adolescents and young adults intentionally misuse and abuse. When taken on their own or with other substances in this manner, opioids pose an increased risk of overdose and potential death. OBJECTIVE: To determine trends of opioid drug poisonings among adolescents and young adults in Ohio from 2002 to 2014 using Poison Control Center (PCC) data. METHODS: Data were obtained from Ohio PCCs from 2002 to 2014 for opioid drug poisonings amongst 10-29 year olds...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317396/pregabalin-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-benzodiazepine-discontinuation
#13
Kaylee Caniff, Emily Telega, Jolene R Bostwick, Kristen N Gardner
PURPOSE: The available evidence for the use of pregabalin as adjunctive therapy in the discontinuation of benzodiazepines is reviewed. SUMMARY: Pregabalin has been studied as an adjunctive pharmacologic treatment for the discontinuation of long-term benzodiazepine use. Unlike carbamazepine, pregabalin has little potential for drug interactions, and its adverse effects are mostly mild and transient. Pregabalin reduces the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by binding to regulatory subunits of voltage-activated calcium channels...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314716/maternal-exposure-to-benzodiazepine-and-risk-of-preterm-birth-and-low-birth-weight-a-case-control-study-using-a-claims-database-in-japan
#14
Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Toshi A Furukawa
PURPOSE: To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences. METHODS: A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW)...
January 3, 2018: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313339/regioselective-opening-of-nitroepoxides-with-unsymmetrical-diamines
#15
Yazdanbakhsh Lotfi Nosood, Azim Ziyaei Halimehjani, Florenci V González
Nitroepoxides are easily transformed into benzodiazepines, tetrahydrobenzodiazepines, imidazopyridines, and N-alkyl tetrahydroquinoxalines by treatment with 2-aminobenzylamines, 2-aminopyridines and N-alkyl 1,2-diaminobenzenes respectively. Regioselectivity is controlled through attack of the most nucleophilic nitrogen of the unsymmetrical diamine to the beta position of the epoxide. These reactions represent an efficient way to prepare privileged bioactive structures.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#16
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309232/opioid-prescription-rates-and-child-removals-evidence-from-florida
#17
Troy Quast, Eric A Storch, Svetlana Yampolskaya
A critical aspect of the opioid epidemic is its effect on the ability of opioid-dependent parents to care for their children. In this article we investigate the association between the rate of removals of children from their homes and the opioid prescription rate in Florida counties during 2012-15. We performed a panel data analysis of opioid prescriptions that also controlled for the prescription rates of benzodiazepines and stimulants and for other risk factors for child removal. We found that a one-standard-deviation increase in the opioid prescription rate was associated with a 32 percent increase in the removal rate for parental neglect...
January 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308937/management-of-reticular-oral-lichen-planus-patients-with-burning-mouth-syndrome-like-oral-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#18
Daniela Adamo, Michele Davide Mignogna, Giuseppe Pecoraro, Massimo Aria, Giulio Fortuna
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the efficacy of psychotropic drug in the management of BMS-like oral symptoms in patients with reticular oral lichen planus (R-OLP) refractory to conventional therapies, and its impact on anxious and depressive symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 28 cases of symptomatic R-OLP. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI), the Hamilton rating scales for Depression (HAM-D) and Anxiety (HAM-A) were performed at baseline (time 0), after 2 months of topical clonazepam (time 1) and after six months of benzodiazepine and antidepressant drugs (time 2)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308828/propofol-for-the-promotion-of-sleep-in-adults-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: People in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24-hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and people perceive the quality of their sleep to be poor whilst in the ICU. Propofol is an anaesthetic agent which can be used in the ICU to maintain patient sedation and some studies suggest it may be a suitable agent to replicate normal sleep...
January 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306307/observational-study-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-oncological-inpatients
#20
María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco, Miguel Almanchel-Rivadeneyra, Aina Tomás-Luiz, Sandra Pelegrín-Montesinos, Cristina Ramírez-Roig, Juan José Fernández-Ávila
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most  frequent interactions. A standard database was used. METHOD: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients  admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were  collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp®  database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X...
January 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
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