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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933260/older-and-newer-strategies-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-agitation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#1
Giovanni Amodeo, Andrea Fagiolini, Gabriele Sachs, Andreas Erfurth
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute agitation in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is a multifaceted and dynamic task, which presents unique and complex challenges to healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and describe which medications are best to use in agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Method: Selective review of current guidelines and of the literature pertaining to the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Results: Pharmacologic treatment of agitation should be based on an assessment of the most likely cause of the agitation...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#2
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931308/clinical-factors-associated-with-adherence-to-the-premedication-protocol-for-withdrawal-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-terminally-ill-patients-a-4-year-experience-at-a-single-medical-center-in-asia
#3
Chao-Hui Wang, Pei-Wei Huang, Chia-Yen Hung, Shu-Hui Lee, Chen-Yi Kao, Hung-Ming Wang, Yu-Shin Hung, Po-Jung Su, Yung-Chia Kuo, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Wen-Chi Chou
PURPOSE: Data on end-of-life care practices in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors associated with the recommended premedication protocol for mechanical ventilation withdrawal, in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 135 terminally ill patients who had mechanical ventilation withdrawn between 2013 and 2016 from a single medical center in Taiwan were enrolled. A premedication protocol of morphine and midazolam intravenous bolus was routinely recommended for the patients before mechanical ventilation withdrawal...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930799/characterizing-the-interrelationships-of-prescription-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drugs-with-worker-health-and-workplace-hazards
#4
Michele Kowalski-McGraw, Judith Green-McKenzie, Sudha P Pandalai, Paul A Schulte
OBJECTIVE: Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine drug use, which has risen significantly, can affect worker health. Exploration of the scientific literature assessed (1) interrelationships of such drug use, occupational risk factors, and illness and injury, and (2) occupational and personal risk factor combinations that can affect their use. METHODS: The scientific literature from 2000 to 2015 was searched to determine any interrelationships. RESULTS: Evidence for eight conceptual models emerged based on the search yield of 133 articles...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929924/the-search-for-a-subtype-selective-pet-imaging-agent-for-the-gabaa-receptor-complex-evaluation-of-the-radiotracer-11-c-ado-in-nonhuman-primates
#5
Shu-Fei Lin, Frederic Bois, Daniel Holden, Nabeel Nabulsi, Richard Pracitto, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jo-Ku Teng, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Richard E Carson, Charles S Elmore, Neil Vasdev, Yiyun Huang
The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929198/-substance-abuse-detection-in-substitution-therapy-oral-fluid-versus-urine-screening
#6
Johannes Stein, Max Geraedts
BACKGROUND: A patient's health in an opioid maintenance program is potentially endangered due to concurrent consumption of drugs. Therefore, the German Medical Association requests evidence of compliant substitute intake while type and frequency of drug screening is chosen by the physician. This study comparatively assessed the feasibility and potential advantage of oral fluid drug testing versus urine screening in day-to-day practice. METHODS: Urine and oral fluid-samples of a randomly chosen third of a total of 361 patients, treated in four different practices in a major German city, were tested...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921528/practitioner-review-treatment-of-chronic-insomnia-in-children-and-adolescents-with-neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#7
REVIEW
Oliviero Bruni, Marco Angriman, Fabrizio Calisti, Alessandro Comandini, Giovanna Esposito, Samuele Cortese, Raffaele Ferri
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, in particular insomnia, represent a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Currently, there are no approved medications for insomnia in children by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency and therefore they are prescribed off-label. We critically reviewed pediatric literature on drugs as well as nonpharmacological (behavioral) interventions used for sleep disturbances in children with NDDs. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid (including PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(®) , and Embase), and Web of Knowledge databases were searched through February 12, 2017, with no language restrictions...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921042/symptomatic-treatment-of-dyspnea-in-advanced-cancer-patients-a%C3%A2-narrative-review-of-the-current-literature
#8
REVIEW
Matthäus Strieder, Martin Pecherstorfer, Gudrun Kreye
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a common, very distressing symptom in advanced cancer patients that challenges them, their relatives, and healthcare professionals. This narrative review summarizes important literature dealing with the evidence for opioids, benzodiazepines, oxygen, and steroids for treating dyspnea in advanced cancer patients. METHODS: A selective literature search was undertaken in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library and extended with literature from the reference lists of included studies up to April 2016...
September 18, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920564/intentional-overdose-of-the-novel-anti-epileptic-drug-eslicarbazepine-presenting-with-recurrent-seizures-and-ventricular-dysrhythmias
#9
Jesse Thompson, James D Powell, Daniel H Ovakim
Eslicarbazepine is a novel anti-epileptic agent indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. We present the case of an 18 year old female that presented to the Emergency Department four hours after a reported intentional ingestion of an estimated 5600 mg of eslicarbazepine. Although initially hemodynamically stable and neurologically normal, shortly after arrival she developed confusion, rigidity and clonus, followed by recurrent seizures, hypoxemia and cardiac arrest which responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and wide complex tachycardia requiring defibrillation...
September 18, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917807/simultaneous-determination-of-designer-benzodiazepines-in-human-serum-using-non-aqueous-capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry-with-successive-multiple-ionic-polymer-layer-coated-capillary
#10
Martin Švidrnoch, Barbora Boráňová, Jana Tomková, Peter Ondra, Vítězslav Maier
A novel non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis - tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of nine designer benzodiazepines (bentazepam, etizolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, nimetazepam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam) was developed. A non-aqueous running electrolyte consisting of 25mM ammonium acetate with 100mM trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile was used. The separation was carried out using a semipermanent coated capillary (successive multiple ionic-polymer coating) with a strong anodic electroosmotic flow at a negative separation voltage within twelve minutes...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917389/alternative-treatment-strategies-for-catatonia-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Scott R Beach, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Jeff C Huffman, Gregory L Fricchione
BACKGROUND: Catatonia is a commonly encountered syndrome, affecting 10-20% of various psychiatric populations and carrying significant medical co-morbidities. However, there are few established alternative treatment strategies when benzodiazepines are ineffective and electroconvulsive therapy is unavailable. OBJECTIVE: The authors systematically review evidence for alternative treatment strategies for catatonia using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917332/-benzodiazepine-withdrawal-syndrome-in-the-elderly-patient
#12
Aurélien Martin-Kleisch, Abrar-Ahmad Zulfiqar
Withdrawal syndrome is a well known diagnostic entity. As the symptomatology related to this syndrome is extremely unspecific, care must be taken not to ignore withdrawal syndrome, the consequences of which, while rare, can lead to often long and complicated hospitalisations.
September 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915133/complications-and-unplanned-admissions-in-nonoperating-room-procedures
#13
Kate Leslie, Benjamin Kave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review complications and unplanned hospital admissions in patients presenting for ambulatory procedures requiring anesthesia care in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites. RECENT FINDINGS: The range of ambulatory diagnostic and therapeutic procedures being undertaken in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites is expanding rapidly. Recent observational studies in gastrointestinal endoscopy confirm low incidences of complications and unplanned admissions...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914663/physicians-decision-making-when-implementing-buprenorphine-with-new-patients-conjoint-analyses-of-data-from-a-cohort-of-current-prescribers
#14
Hannah K Knudsen, Michelle R Lofwall, Sharon L Walsh, Jennifer R Havens, Jamie L Studts
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have considered how providers make decisions to prescribe buprenorphine to new patients with opioid use disorder. This study examined the relative importance of patients' clinical, financial, and social characteristics on physicians' decision-making related to willingness to prescribe buprenorphine to new patients and the number of weeks of medication that they are willing to initially prescribe after induction. METHODS: A national sample of 1174 current prescribers was surveyed...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903606/metabolic-profile-of-oxazepam-and-related-benzodiazepines-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#15
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Anxiolytic drugs, namely benzodiazepines, are the most commonly used psychoactive substances since anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders particularly in the Western world. Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine and one of the most frequently prescribed anxiolytic drugs. It is also the active metabolite of a wide range of other benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, ketazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, demoxazepam, halazepam, medazepam, prazepam, pinazepam, and chlorazepate. Therefore, relevant clinical and forensic outocomes may arise, namely those related to interference in driving performance...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903165/association-of-panic-disorder-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-benzodiazepine-treatment-during-pregnancy-with-risk-of-adverse-birth-outcomes
#16
Kimberly Ann Yonkers, Kathryn Gilstad-Hayden, Ariadna Forray, Heather S Lipkind
Importance: Registry data show that maternal panic disorder, or anxiety disorders in general, increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, diagnoses from registries may be imprecise and may not consider potential confounding factors, such as treatment with medication and maternal substance use. Objective: To determine whether panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in pregnancy, or medications used to treat these conditions, are associated with adverse maternal or neonatal pregnancy outcomes...
September 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899507/ziziphus-spinosa-seeds-for-insomnia-a-review-of-chemistry-and-psychopharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Johannah Linda Shergis, Xiaojia Ni, Jerome Sarris, Anthony Lin Zhang, Xinfeng Guo, Charlie C Xue, Chuanjian Lu, Helmut Hugel
BACKGROUND: In Chinese medicine, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou is widely used for the treatment of insomnia. PURPOSE/SECTIONS: This paper summarises the chemistry, psychopharmacology, and compares the pharmaceutical effects of the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba plant, Ziziphus spinosa (ZS) seeds, with benzodiazepines. Whole extracts and constituent compounds have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: ZS secondary metabolites modulate GABAergic activity and the serotonergic system...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895076/new-botanical-anxiolytics-for-use-in-companion-animals-and-humans
#18
Rui Liu, Fida Ahmed, Christian Cayer, Martha Mullally, Ana Francis Carballo, Marco Otarola Rojas, Mario Garcia, John Baker, Aleksandar Masic, Pablo E Sanchez, Luis Poveda, Zul Merali, Tony Durst, John T Arnason
As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor and reduced corticosterone levels...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891380/stories-of-hell-and-healing-internet-users-construction-of-benzodiazepine-distress-and-withdrawal
#19
Alison M Fixsen, Damien Ridge
Benzodiazepines are a group of drugs used mainly as sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants. Consumption is recommended for 2 to 4 weeks only, due to fast onset of dependency and potentially distressing withdrawal symptoms. Few peer-review studies have drawn on the user experiences and language to appreciate firsthand experiences of benzodiazepine withdrawal or discontinuation syndrome. We looked extensively at patient stories of benzodiazepine withdrawal and recovery on Internet support sites and YouTube...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891099/opioid-and-benzodiazepine-weaning-in-pediatric-patients-review-of-current-literature
#20
Norman E Fenn, Kimberly S Plake
Pediatric opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal are avoidable complications of pain and sedation management that is well described in the literature. To prevent withdrawal from occurring, practitioners regularly employ a steady decrease of pain and sedation medications, also known as a weaning or tapering schedule. The weaning schedule is highly variable based on clinician preference and is usually dependent on the clinician. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature on the process of opioid and benzodiazepine weaning in pediatric patients and to assess the various standardized protocols used to decrease withdrawal occurrences...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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