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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777828/mutual-connectivity-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-local-models
#1
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Functional connectivity analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) can represent brain networks and reveal insights into interactions amongst different brain regions. However, most connectivity analysis approaches adopted in practice are linear and non-directional. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantage of a data-driven, directed connectivity analysis approach called Mutual Connectivity Analysis using Local Models (MCA-LM) that approximates connectivity by modeling nonlinear dependencies of signal interaction, over more conventionally used approaches, such as Pearson's and partial correlation, Patel's conditional dependence measures, etcetera...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777776/distinct-roles-for-the-cell-adhesion-molecule-contactin2-in-the-development-and-function-of-neural-circuits-in-zebrafish
#2
Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777762/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-astrogliosis-and-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-2-via-interplaying-with-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-astrocytes-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model-with-hsod1-g93a-mutation
#3
Xiang Yin, Shuyu Wang, Yan Qi, Xudong Wang, Hongquan Jiang, Tianhang Wang, Yueqing Yang, Ying Wang, Chunting Zhang, Honglin Feng
AEG-1 has received extensive attention on cancer research. However, little is known about its roles in astrogliosis of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we detected AEG-1 expression in hSOD1G93A -positive (mut-SOD1) astrocytes and wild type (wt-SOD1) astrocytes, and intend to elucidate its potential functions in ALS related astrogliosis and the always accompanied dysregulated glutamate clearance. Results showed elevated protein and mRNA levels of AEG-1 in mut-SOD1 astrocytes; Also, NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins and inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in mut-SOD1 astrocytes; AEG-1 knockdown attenuated astrocytes proliferation and pro-inflammatory release; also we found that AEG-1 silence inhibited translocation of p65 from cytoplasma to nuclear, which was associated with inhibited NF-κB signaling...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777761/functional-organization-of-postsynaptic-glutamate-receptors
#4
REVIEW
Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777754/hmgb1-neutralization-attenuates-hippocampal-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Yue Hei, Rong Chen, Xicai Yi, Qianfa Long, Dakuan Gao, Weiping Liu
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space and inhibition of HMGB1 signaling has been reported be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we tested the protective role of HMGB1 inhibition using anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (Ab) against CCH in rats after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). 169 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2VO or sham operation...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777731/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-is-required-for-ischemic-preconditioning-mediated-neuroprotection-in-the-hippocampus-following-a-subsequent-longer-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#6
Jae-Chul Lee, Chan Woo Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Koo Hwang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against a subsequent severer or longer transient ischemia by ischemic tolerance. Here, we focused on the role of TNF-α in IPC-mediated neuroprotection against neuronal death following a subsequent longer transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). Gerbils used in this study were randomly assigned to eight groups; sham group, TCI operated group, IPC plus (+) sham group, IPC + TCI operated group, sham + etanercept (an inhibitor of TNF-a) group, TCI + etanercept group, IPC + sham + etanercept group, and IPC + TCI + etanercept group...
May 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777374/the-tenascin-c-derived-peptide-vswrapta-promotes-neuronal-branching-via-transcellular-activation-of-the-focal-adhesion-kinase-fak-and-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#8
Marvin Jarocki, Omar Sallouh, Ralf Weberskirch, Andreas Faissner
The central nervous system (CNS) of mammals has a limited regeneration capacity after traumatic events, which causes chronic functional disability. The development of biomaterials aims at providing support for the regeneration process. One strategy integrates peptides that mimic functional domains of extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell adhesion molecules with synthetic polymers designed to present growth-supporting cues to the neuronal microenvironment. Thus, small peptide sequences originating from molecules of the ECM may serve as promising bio-additives, acting as artificial matricryptins to gear cellular processes...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777026/endosomal-tlr3-tlr7-and-tlr8-control-neuronal-morphology-through-different-transcriptional-programs
#9
Yun-Fen Hung, Chiung-Ya Chen, Yi-Chun Shih, Hsin-Yu Liu, Chiao-Ming Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775875/the-reduced-level-of-growth-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-is-accompanied-by-regulated-necrosis-in-the-frontal-cortex-but-not-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Mateusz Kucharczyk, Anna Kurek, Bartosz Pomierny, Jan Detka, Mariusz Papp, Katarzyna Tota, Bogusława Budziszewska
In the present study, we asked if the different types of stress alter neuronal plasticity markers distinctively in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (Hp). To do so, we implemented various stress regimens to analyze changes evoked in these rat brain structures. We utilized several molecular techniques, including western blot, ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR, and various biochemical assays, to examine a range of proteins and subjected rats to behavioral tests to evaluate potential maladaptive alterations...
May 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775590/social-isolation-co-opts-fear-and-aggression-circuits
#11
Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
Social isolation is a stressful condition that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. In this issue of Cell, Zelikowsky et al. find that chronic social isolation stress triggers an increase in neuronal tachykinin signaling across distinct brain regions that mediate fear and aggression, elucidating the neural basis of these maladaptive responses.
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775570/rapid-non-classical-effects-of-steroids-on-the-membrane-receptor-dynamics-and-downstream-signaling-in-neurons
#12
REVIEW
Klaudia Barabás, Soma Godó, Ferenc Lengyel, Dávid Ernszt, József Pál, István M Ábrahám
Although rapid effects of steroid hormones on membrane receptors and intracellular signaling molecules have been extensively studied in neurons, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms behind these non-classical steroid actions. Single molecule tracking (SMT) studies on live cells demonstrated that surface trafficking of membrane receptors determines their ligand binding properties and downstream signaling events. Recent findings suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms of non-classical steroid actions is the alteration of receptor movements on the membrane surface...
May 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775503/artificial-rod-and-cone-photoreceptors-with-human-like-spectral-sensitivities
#13
Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong-Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo-Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk-Jae Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Hyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim
Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#14
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774773/mir-711-induced-down-regulation-of-angiopoietin-1-mediates-neuronal-cell-death
#15
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774557/diabetes-induced-microvascular-complications-at-the-level-of-the-spinal-cord-a-contributing-factor-in-diabetic-neuropathic-pain
#16
N Ved, M E Da Vitoria Lobo, S M Bestall, C L Vidueira, N Beazley-Long, K Ballmer-Hofer, M Hirashima, D O Bates, L F Donaldson, R P Hulse
Abnormalities of neurovascular interactions within the central nervous system of diabetic patients is associated with the onset of many neurological disease states. However, to date, the link between the neurovascular network within the spinal cord and regulation of nociception has not been investigated despite neuropathic pain being common in diabetes. We hypothesised that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial degeneration in the spinal cord, due to suppression of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling, induces diabetic neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773909/an-unsuspected-role-for-organic-cation-transporter-3-in-the-actions-of-amphetamine
#18
Felix P Mayer, Diethart Schmid, W Anthony Owens, Georgianna G Gould, Mia Apuschkin, Oliver Kudlacek, Isabella Salzer, Stefan Boehm, Peter Chiba, Piper H Williams, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Ulrik Gether, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws, Harald H Sitte
Amphetamine abuse is a major public health concern for which there is currently no effective treatment. To develop effective treatments, the mechanisms by which amphetamine produces its abuse-related effects need to be fully understood. It is well known that amphetamine exerts its actions by targeting high-affinity transporters for monoamines, in particular the cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) has recently been found to play an important role in regulating monoamine signaling...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#19
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#20
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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