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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944891/thioredoxin-is-implicated-in-the-anti%C3%A2-apoptotic-effects-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-during-hyperglycemia
#1
Xiang Ren, Heyuan Lu, Nina Wang, Chenghong Zhang, Yunpeng Ji, Shiqi Cui, Yichen Dong, Kaiyuan Yang, Mengyi Du, Fengsheng Diao, Li Kong
Diabetic retinopathy has long been recognized as a microvascular disease, however, recent research has indicated that diabetic retinopathy may also be considered a neurodegenerative disease. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diabetic retinopathy is imperative for the development of preventive and treatment strategies for patients with diabetes. In the present study, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was used to upregulate the expression of thioredoxin (Trx), in order to evaluate its potential as a novel agent for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including diabetic retinopathy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944861/panax-notoginseng-saponins-attenuates-sevoflurane%C3%A2-induced-nerve-cell-injury-by-modulating-akt-signaling-pathway
#2
Xu Yang, Sun Yang, Chen Hong, Wang Yu, Wang Guonian
General anesthesia in patients with or at risk for neuronal injury remains challenging due to the neurotoxic effects of volatile anesthetics. One inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane, induces neuronal damage, including neuroapoptosis, and learning and memory impairment. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is the active ingredient of Sanqui and has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. In the current study, the protective effect of PNS on sevoflurane‑induced nerve cell injury was explored. Cell proliferation was significantly reduced in a dose‑dependent manner following stimulation with sevoflurane...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944279/imaging-subcellular-dynamics-with-fast-and-light-efficient-volumetrically-parallelized-microscopy
#3
Kevin M Dean, Philippe Roudot, Erik S Welf, Theresa Pohlkamp, Gerard Garrelts, Joachim Herz, Reto Fiolka
In fluorescence microscopy, the serial acquisition of 2D images to form a 3D volume limits the maximum imaging speed. This is particularly evident when imaging adherent cells in a light-sheet fluorescence microscopy format, as their elongated morphologies require ~200 image planes per image volume. Here, by illuminating the specimen with three light-sheets, each independently detected, we present a light-efficient, crosstalk free, and volumetrically parallelized 3D microscopy technique that is optimized for high-speed (up to 14 Hz) subcellular (300 nm lateral, 600 nm axial resolution) imaging of adherent cells...
February 20, 2017: Optica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943854/insulin-signaling-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-regulates-female-sexual-receptivity-during-starvation-in-drosophila
#4
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943428/insulin-modulates-hippocampally-mediated-spatial-working-memory-via-glucose-transporter-4
#5
J Pearson-Leary, V Jahagirdar, J Sage, E C McNay
The insulin-regulated glucose transporter, GluT4, is a key molecule in peripheral insulin signaling. Although GluT4 is abundantly expressed in neurons of specific brain regions such as the hippocampus, the functional role of neuronal GluT4 is unclear. Here, we used pharmacological inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose uptake to determine whether GluT4 mediates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the hippocampus. Consistent with previous reports, we found that glucose utilization increased in the dorsal hippocampus of male rats during spontaneous alternation (SA), a hippocampally-mediated spatial working memory task...
September 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942923/transcriptional-architecture-of-synaptic-communication-delineates-gabaergic-neuron-identity
#6
Anirban Paul, Megan Crow, Ricardo Raudales, Miao He, Jesse Gillis, Z Josh Huang
Understanding the organizational logic of neural circuits requires deciphering the biological basis of neuronal diversity and identity, but there is no consensus on how neuron types should be defined. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of a set of anatomically and physiologically characterized cortical GABAergic neurons and conducted a computational genomic screen for transcriptional profiles that distinguish them from one another. We discovered that cardinal GABAergic neuron types are delineated by a transcriptional architecture that encodes their synaptic communication patterns...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942595/oxytocin-signaling-in-pain-cellular-circuit-system-and-behavioral-levels
#7
Pierrick Poisbeau, Valery Grinevich, Alexandre Charlet
Originally confined to the initiation of parturition and milk ejection after birth, the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is now recognized as a critical determinant of social behavior and emotional processing. It accounts for the modulation of sensory processing and pain perception as OT displays a potent analgesic effect mediated by OT receptors (OTRs) expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In our chapter, we will first systemically analyze known efferent and afferent OT neuron projections, which form the anatomical basis for OT modulation of somatosensory and pain processing...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942553/clinacanthus-nutans-mitigates-neuronal-apoptosis-and-ischemic-brain-damage-through-augmenting-the-c-ebp%C3%AE-driven-ppar-%C3%AE-transcription
#8
Jui-Sheng Wu, Mei-Han Kao, Hsin-Da Tsai, Wai-Mui Cheung, Jin-Jer Chen, Wei-Yi Ong, Grace Y Sun, Teng-Nan Lin
Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asian countries for treating a number of remedies including snake and insect bites, skin rashes, viral infections, and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for its action and whether C. nutans can offer protection on stroke damage in brain remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated protective effects of C. nutans extract to ameliorate neuronal apoptotic death in the oxygen-glucose deprivation model and to reduce infarction and mitigate functional deficits in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model, either administered before or after hypoxic/ischemic insult...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942322/adaptation-facilitates-spatial-discrimination-for-deviant-locations-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-rat
#9
Xin-Xiu Xu, Yu-Ying Zhai, Xiao-Kai Kou, Xiongjie Yu
The capacity to identify unanticipated abnormal cues in a natural scene is vital for animal survival. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) has been considered the neuronal correlate for deviance detection. There have been comprehensive assessments of SSA in the frequency domain along the ascending auditory pathway, but only little attention given to deviance detection in the spatial domain. We found that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons exhibited stronger responses to a tone when it was presented rarely as opposed to frequently at a certain spatial location...
September 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942046/chronic-ethanol-exposure-increases-inhibition-of-optically-targeted-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-and-medial-shell-ex-vivo
#10
James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Dopamine signaling encodes reward learning and motivated behavior through modulation of synaptic signaling in the nucleus accumbens, and aberrations in these processes are thought to underlie obsessive behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. The nucleus accumbens is divided into core and shell sub-regions with overlapping but also divergent contributions to behavior. Here we optogenetically targeted dopamine projections to the accumbens allowing us to isolate stimulation of dopamine terminals ex vivo. We applied 5 pulse (phasic) light stimulations to probe intrinsic differences in dopamine release parameters across regions...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941549/the-corticostriatal-adenosine-a2a-receptor-controls-maintenance-and-retrieval-of-spatial%C3%A2-working-memory
#11
Zhihui Li, Xingjun Chen, Tao Wang, Ying Gao, Fei Li, Long Chen, Jin Xue, Yan He, Yan Li, Wei Guo, Wu Zheng, Liping Zhang, Fenfen Ye, Xiangpeng Ren, Yue Feng, Piu Chan, Jiang-Fan Chen
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. METHODS: By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A2AR knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A2ARs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM...
August 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941464/glutamic-acid-as-enhancer-of-protein-synthesis-kinetics-in-hepatocytes-from-old-rats
#12
V Y Brodsky, L A Malchenko, N N Butorina, D S Lazarev Konchenko, N D Zvezdina, T K Dubovaya
Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941296/ghrelin-receptor-antagonism-of-hyperlocomotion-in-cocaine-sensitized-mice-requires-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#13
Krisztian Toth, Lauren M Slosky, Thomas F Pack, Nikhil M Urs, Peter Boone, Lan Mao, Dennis Abraham, Marc G Caron, Lawrence S Barak
The "brain-gut" peptide ghrelin, which mediates food-seeking behaviors, is recognized as a very strong endogenous modulator of dopamine (DA) signaling. Ghrelin binds the G protein-coupled receptor GHSR1a, and administration of ghrelin increases the rewarding properties of psychostimulants while ghrelin receptor antagonists decrease them. Additionally, the GHSR1a signals through βarrestin-2 to regulate actin/stress fiber rearrangement, suggesting βarrestin-2 participation in the regulation of actin-mediated synaptic plasticity for addictive substances like cocaine...
September 23, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941277/alcohol-and-stress-activation-of-microglia-and-neurons-brain-regional-effects
#14
T Jordan Walter, Ryan P Vetreno, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Cycles of alcohol and stress are hypothesized to contribute to alcohol use disorders. How this occurs is poorly understood, although both alcohol and stress activate the neuroimmune system - the immune molecules and cells that interact with the nervous system. The effects of alcohol and stress on the neuroimmune system are mediated in part by peripheral signaling molecules. Alcohol and stress both enhance immunomodulatory molecules such as corticosterone and endotoxin to impact neuroimmune cells such as microglia, and may subsequently impact neurons...
September 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940758/time-dependent-neuronal-changes-associated-with-craving-in-opioid-dependence-an-fmri-study
#15
Anna Murphy, Dan I Lubman, Shane McKie, Prun S Bijral, Lesley A Peters, Qasim Faiz, Sophie E Holmes, Ian M Anderson, Bill Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
Relapse after initially successful treatment is a significant problem facing the treatment of opioid dependence. Evidence suggests craving elicited by re-exposure to drug cues may precipitate relapse. Attempts to identify neural biomarkers of cue-elicited craving have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to apply a novel continuous functional magnetic resonance imaging technique to follow the minute-to-minute evolution of brain responses, which correlate with the waxing and waning of craving. Newly detoxified male opioid-dependent patients and healthy control participants attended two separate, counterbalanced, functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning sessions during which they viewed a 10-minute video (drug cue or neutral cue) followed by 5 minutes of fixation...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940692/dpff-1-transcription-factor-deficiency-causes-the-aberrant-activation-of-mpk-1-and-meiotic-defects-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#16
Emmanuel Villanueva-Chimal, Laura S Salinas, Laura P Fernández-Cardenas, Gabriela Huelgas-Morales, Alejandro Cabrera-Wrooman, Rosa E Navarro
The d4 family of transcription factors consists of three members in mammals. DPF1/neuro-d4 is expressed mainly in neurons and the peripheral nervous system, and is important for brain development. DPF2/requiem/ubi-d4 is expressed ubiquitously and presumably functions as an apoptotic factor, especially during the deprivation of trophic factors. DPF3/cer-d4 is expressed in neurons and in the heart, and is important for heart development and function in zebrafish. In Drosophila, there is only one member, dd4, whose function is still unknown, but it is expressed in many tissues and is particularly abundant in the brain of developing embryos and in adults...
September 23, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940416/neurotransmitter-signaling-via-nmda-receptors-leads-to-decreased-th1-like-and-enhanced-th2-like-immune-balance-in-humans
#17
Kanami Orihara, Solomon O Odemuyiwa, Bill Stefura, Ramses Ilarraza, Kent T HayGlass, Redwan Moqbel
Given the pivotal roles that CD4 T cell imbalance plays in human immune disorders, much interest centres on better understanding influences that regulate human helper T cell subset dominance in vivo. Here, using primary CD4 T cells and short-term Th1 and Th2-like lines, we investigated roles and mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors may influence human Type 1 vs Type 2 immunity. We hypothesized N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R), which play key roles in memory and learning, can also regulate human CD4+ T cell function through induction of excitotoxicity...
September 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939911/cib1-protects-against-mptp-induced-neurotoxicity-through-inhibiting-ask1
#18
Kyoung Wan Yoon, Hyun-Suk Yang, Young Mok Kim, Yeonsil Kim, Seongman Kang, Woong Sun, Ulhas P Naik, Leslie V Parise, Eui-Ju Choi
Calcium and integrin binding protein 1 (CIB1) is a calcium-binding protein that was initially identified as a binding partner of platelet integrin αIIb. Although CIB1 has been shown to interact with multiple proteins, its biological function in the brain remains unclear. Here, we show that CIB1 negatively regulates degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Genetic deficiency of the CIB1 gene enhances MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons in CIB1(-/-) mice...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939258/novel-calcium-related-targets-of-insulin-in-hippocampal-neurons
#19
Shaniya Maimaiti, Hilaree N Frazier, Katie L Anderson, Adam O Ghoweri, Lawrence D Brewer, Nada M Porter, Olivier Thibault
Both insulin signaling disruption and Ca(2+) dysregulation are closely related to memory loss during aging and increase the vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In hippocampal neurons, aging-related changes in calcium regulatory pathways have been shown to lead to higher intracellular calcium levels and an increase in the Ca(2+)-dependent afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which is associated with cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest that insulin reduces the Ca(2+)-dependent AHP. Given the sensitivity of neurons to insulin and evidence that brain insulin signaling is reduced with age, insulin-mediated alterations in calcium homeostasis may underlie the beneficial actions of insulin in the brain...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939254/inhibition-of-mek-erk1-2-map-kinase-signalling-pathway-reduces-rabies-virus-induced-pathologies-in-mouse-model
#20
Venkataravanappa Manjunatha, Karam Pal Singh, Mani Saminathan, Rajendra Singh, Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Kuldeep Dhama, Gundallahalli Bayyappa Manjunathareddy
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway has been shown to regulate pathogenesis of many viral infections, but its role during rabies virus (RV) infection in vivo is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of rabies in mouse model and its regulatory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators of immunity, and kinetics of immune cells. Mice were infected with 25 LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RV by intracerebral (i...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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