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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353183/automatic-bad-channel-detection-in-intracranial-electroencephalographic-recordings-using-ensemble-machine-learning
#1
Viateur Tuyisenge, Lena Trebaul, Manik Bhattacharjee, Blandine Chanteloup-Forêt, Carole Saubat-Guigui, Ioana Mîndruţă, Sylvain Rheims, Louis Maillard, Philippe Kahane, Delphine Taussig, Olivier David
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings contain "bad channels", which show non-neuronal signals. Here, we developed a new method that automatically detects iEEG bad channels using machine learning of seven signal features. METHODS: The features quantified signals' variance, spatial-temporal correlation and nonlinear properties. Because the number of bad channels is usually much lower than the number of good channels, we implemented an ensemble bagging classifier known to be optimal in terms of stability and predictive accuracy for datasets with imbalanced class distributions...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353055/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-cued-fear-learning-but-not-spatial-working-memory-in-female-rats
#2
Adam J Kirry, Matthew R Herbst, Sarah E Poirier, Michelle M Maskeri, Amy C Rothwell, Robert C Twining, Marieke R Gilmartin
A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353037/curcumin-protects-cortical-neurons-against-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-injury-through-flotillin-1-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-pathway
#3
Zhengyu Lu, Yanping Liu, Yang Shi, Xinjie Shi, Xin Wang, Chuan Xu, Hong Zhao, Qiang Dong
In this study, we provided evidence that curcumin could be a promising therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke by activating neuroprotective signaling pathways. Post oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), primary mouse cortical neurons treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in cell death, LDH release and enzyme caspase-3 activity under OGD/R circumstances, which were abolished by flotillin-1 downregulation or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. Moreover, flotillin-1 knockdown led to suppression of curcumin-mediated ERK phosphorylation under OGD/R condition...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352997/microglia-and-neonatal-brain-injury
#4
Carina Mallard, Marie-Eve Tremblay, Zinaida S Vexler
Microglial cells are now recognized as the "gate-keepers" of healthy brain microenvironment with their disrupted functions adversely affecting neurovascular integrity, neuronal homeostasis, and network connectivity. The perception that these cells are purely toxic under neurodegenerative conditions has been challenged by a continuously-increasing understanding of their complexity, the existence of a broad array of microglial phenotypes, and their ability to rapidly change in a context-dependent manner to attenuate or exacerbate injuries of different nature...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#5
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352268/cylindromatosis-mediates-neuronal-cell-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Goutham K Ganjam, Nicole Angela Terpolilli, Sebastian Diemert, Ina Eisenbach, Lena Hoffmann, Christina Reuther, Christiane Herden, Joachim Roth, Nikolaus Plesnila, Carsten Culmsee
The tumor-suppressor cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a deubiquitinating enzyme and key regulator of cell proliferation and inflammation. A genome-wide siRNA screen linked CYLD to receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase-mediated necroptosis; however, the exact mechanisms of CYLD-mediated cell death remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the precise role of CYLD in models of neuronal cell death in vitro and evaluated whether CYLD deletion affects brain injury in vivo. In vitro, downregulation of CYLD increased RIP1 ubiquitination, prevented RIP1/RIP3 complex formation, and protected neuronal cells from oxidative death...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352205/2-5-hexanedione-induces-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-through-integrin-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-nadph-oxidase-axis-mediated-microglial-activation
#7
Cong Zhang, Liyan Hou, Jie Yang, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Recent study demonstrated that chronic exposure to solvents increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). n-Hexane, a widely used organic solvent, displays central-peripheral neurotoxicity, which is mainly mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). However, whether HD exposure contributes to PD remains unclear. In this study, we found that rats exposed to HD displayed progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal system...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352046/local-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus
#8
Zhiying Jiang, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Nicholas J Justice
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (PVN) initiate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity through release of CRF into the portal system as part of a coordinated neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. Recent discovery of neurons expressing CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1), the primary receptor for CRF, adjacent to CRF neurons within the PVN, suggest that CRF also signals within the hypothalamus to coordinate aspects of the stress response...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352045/eliminating-glutamatergic-input-onto-horizontal-cells-changes-the-dynamic-range-and-receptive-field-organization-of-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells
#9
Sebastian Ströh, Christian Puller, Sebastian Swirski, Maj-Britt Hölzel, Lea I S van der Linde, Jasmin Segelken, Konrad Schultz, Christoph Block, Hannah Monyer, Klaus Willecke, Reto Weiler, Martin Greschner, Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold, Karin Dedek
In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351810/identify-down-syndrome-transcriptome-associations-using-integrative-analysis-of-microarray-database-and-correlation-interaction-network
#10
Min Chen, Jiayan Wang, Yingjun Luo, Kailing Huang, Xiaoshun Shi, Yanhui Liu, Jin Li, Zhengfei Lai, Shuya Xue, Haimei Gao, Allen Chen, Dunjin Chen
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have previously been emerged as key players in a series of biological processes. Dysregulation of lncRNA is correlated to human diseases including neurological disorders. Here, we developed a multi-step bioinformatics analysis to study the functions of a particular Down syndrome-associated gene DSCR9 including the lncRNAs. The method is named correlation-interaction-network (COIN), based on which a pipeline is implemented. Co-expression gene network analysis and biological network analysis results are presented...
January 19, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#11
Petr Jezek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jaburek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the above aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#12
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351614/a-membrane-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-sex-differences-in-zebra-finch-auditory-coding
#13
Amanda A Krentzel, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Maaya Z Ikeda, Luke Remage-Healey
Estradiol acts as a neuromodulator in brain regions important for cognition and sensory processing. Estradiol also shapes brain sex differences, but rarely have these concepts been considered simultaneously. In male and female songbirds, estradiol rapidly increases within the auditory forebrain during song exposure and enhances local auditory processing. We tested whether GPER1, a membrane bound estrogen receptor, is necessary and sufficient for neuroestrogen regulation of forebrain auditory processing in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
January 17, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351585/core-differences-in-synaptic-signaling-between-primary-visual-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Sheng-Tao Yang, Min Wang, Constantinos D Paspalas, Johanna L Crimins, Marcus T Altman, James A Mazer, Amy F T Arnsten
Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are more resilient than those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in aging, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The current study compared glutamate and neuromodulatory actions in macaque V1 to those in dlPFC, and found striking regional differences. V1 neuronal firing to visual stimuli depended on AMPA receptors, with subtle NMDA receptor contributions, while dlPFC depends primarily on NMDA receptors. Neuromodulatory actions also differed between regions. In V1, cAMP signaling increased neuronal firing, and the phosphodiesterase PDE4A was positioned to regulate cAMP effects on glutamate release from axons...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351511/chemogenetic-tools-for-causal-cellular-and-neuronal-biology
#15
Deniz Atasoy, Scott M Sternson
Chemogenetic technologies enable selective pharmacological control of specific cell populations. An increasing number of approaches have been developed that modulate different signaling pathways. Selective pharmacological control over G protein-coupled receptor signaling, ion channel conductances, protein association, protein stability, and small molecule targeting allows modulation of cellular processes in distinct cell types. Here, we review these chemogenetic technologies and instances of their applications in complex tissues in vivo and ex vivo...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#16
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351452/the-role-of-intracellular-angiotensin-ii
#17
Richard N Re
It has become clear that the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II, like other so-called intracrines, can act in the intracellular space. Evidence has accumulated indicating that such angiotensin II activity can be upregulated in disease states and cause pathology. Indeed, other intracrines appear to be involved in disease pathogenesis as well. At the same time nitric oxide, potentially a cell protective factor, has been shown to be upregulated by intracellular angiotensin II. Recently data has been developed indicating that other potentially protective factors are directly upregulated at neuronal nuclei by angiotensin II...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351427/role-of-ptp1b-in-pomc-neurons-during-chronic-high-fat-diet-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-liver-lipids-and-glucose-tolerance
#18
Nicola Aberdein, Robert J Dambrino, Jussara M do Carmo, Zhen Wang, Laura E Mitchell, Heather A Drummond, John E Hall
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of leptin receptor signalling and may contribute to leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity. Although PTP1B inhibition has been suggested as a potential weight loss therapy, the role of specific neuronal PTP1B signalling in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation and the importance of sex differences in this regulation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal PTP1B deficiency in cardiometabolic regulation in male and female mice fed a high fat diet (HFD)...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351423/role-of-trpv1-in-acupuncture-modulation-of-reflex-excitatory-cardiovascular-responses
#19
Zhi-Ling Guo, Liang-Wu Fu, Hou-Fen Su, Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi, John C Longhurst
Acupuncture, including manual and electroacupuncture (MA and EA), at the P5-6 acupoints stimulates afferents in the median nerve (MN) to modulate sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflexes. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) is present in afferents distributed in the region of acupoints. However, contribution of TRPV1 to activation of sensory nerves by acupuncture, leading to modulation of pressor responses has not been studied. We hypothesized that TRPV1 participates in acupuncture's activation of sensory fibers and neurons to modulate pressor reflexes...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#20
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
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