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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523231/association-of-anti-gangliosides-antibodies-and-anti-cmv-antibodies-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#1
Lijuan Wang, Chunqing Shao, Chunjiao Yang, Xixiong Kang, Guojun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Numerous types of infection were closely related to GBS, mainly including Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, which may lead to the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies (AGA). Currently, although there are increased studies on the AGA and a few studies of anti-CMV antibodies in GBS, the association between them remains poorly documented. Therefore, our research aims to analyze the correlation of anti-CMV antibodies and AGA in GBS. METHODS: A total of 29 patients with GBS were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518035/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-meningitis-and-myelitis-texas-usa
#2
Roukaya Al Hammoud, Stacy L Nayes, James R Murphy, Gloria P Heresi, Ian J Butler, Norma Pérez
Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513566/neurophysiological-changes-induced-by-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
REVIEW
Ellen Tedford, Glenn McConkey
Although the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens in the world, the host-parasite interactions during CNS infection and the consequences of neurological infection are just beginning to be unraveled. The chronic stages of infection have been considered dormant, although several studies have found correlations of infection with an array of host behavioral changes. These may facilitate parasite transmission and impact neurological diseases. During infection, in addition to the presence of the parasites within neurons, host-mediated neuroimmune and hormonal responses to infection are also present...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502935/two-cases-of-neurolymphomatosis-with-fatal-bilateral-vocal-cord-paralysis-that-were-diagnosed-with-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-ct
#4
Yuichiro Ono, Yasuhiro Kazuma, Yotaro Ochi, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yukihiro Imai, Takayuki Ishikawa
Neurolymphomatosis is a rare entity defined as nerve infiltration by neurotropic abnormal lymphocytes which can lead to the development of neuropathy, with typical presentations including pain, hypoesthesia, paresthesis and palsy. We herein report two cases where critical bilateral vocal cord paralysis due to neurolymphomatosis in recurrent nerves occurred in refractory Burkitt lymphoma and adult T-cell lymphoma patients. High-dose methotrexate and intrathecal chemotherapy injection for the nervous lesions were ineffective, and the patients died...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501667/update-and-new-insights-in-encephalitis
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl, Karen C Bloch
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a medical condition possibly caused by an unlimited number of infectious agents. AIMS: Our review aims at giving an overview of the recent discoveries and advances in encephalitis presentation, diagnosis and management, including in the field of emerging diseases. SOURCES: We search the literature using Pubmed and Embase to identify the most relevant new data published over the last years in the field of infectious encephalitis...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498065/effect-of-interval-and-continuous-aerobic-training-on-basal-serum-and-plasma-bdnf-values-in-seniors-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#6
Lievyn Enette, Thomas Vogel, Jean Luc Fanon, Pierre Olivier Lang
The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the available clinical trials analyzing, in seniors, the effect of aerobic interval training (IAT) and continuous aerobic training (CAT) on peripheral Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) concentration. We identified 14 randomized or not-randomized intervention studies published up to January 2017 through a computer-assisted search (PUBMED, Pedro, and Science direct data bases). The 5 trials considering IAT and the 9 CAT totalized 988 individuals (age range: 58...
May 12, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#7
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478966/a-rare-case-of-multiple-brain-abscess-and-probably-disseminated-phaeohyphomycosis-due-to-cladophialophora-bantiana-in-an-immunosuppressed-individual-from-india
#8
S Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, A Mahadevan, V H Bahubali, R Dawn Bharath, A R Prabhuraj, S Maji, N Siddaiah
Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous neurotropic mold causes rare and lethal brain abscess, commonly in immunocompetent hosts. We report a rare and probably a case of disseminated infection with this black mold in an immunosuppressed individual from India. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with severe headache, blurred-vision, behavioural abnormalities, eye-pain and ear-discharge. He was undergoing treatment for hypertension, prostatomegaly and obstructive pulmonary disease. He was on steroids for the past six years for uveitis...
May 3, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478837/the-spread-of-ebv-to-ectopic-lymphoid-aggregates-may-be-the-final-common-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-me-cfs
#9
Willy Eriksen
According to the hypothesis presented here, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) develops over 3 steps: Step 1 is characterized by the aggregation of lymphoid cells in dorsal root ganglia or other nervous structures. The cause of this formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates may be an acute infection, asymptomatic reactivations of a common neurotropic virus, exposure to a neurotoxin, or physical injury to peripheral nerves. In step 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphocytes or monocytes bring EBV from the circulation to one or several of these lymphoid aggregates, whereupon cell-to-cell transmission of EBV and proliferation of latently EBV-infected lymphocytes lead to the presence of many EBV-infected cells in the lymphoid aggregates...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477284/holocranohistochemistry-enables-the-visualization-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-in-the-murine-olfactory-system-and-discovery-of-its-systemic-anti-microbial-effects
#10
Julianna J Tomlinson, Bojan Shutinoski, Li Dong, Fanyi Meng, Dina Elleithy, Nathalie A Lengacher, Angela P Nguyen, Greg O Cron, Qiubo Jiang, Erik D Roberson, Robert L Nussbaum, Nour K Majbour, Omar M El-Agnaf, Steffany A Bennett, Diane C Lagace, John M Woulfe, Subash Sad, Earl G Brown, Michael G Schlossmacher
Braak and Del Tredici have proposed that typical Parkinson disease (PD) has its origins in the olfactory bulb and gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of the olfactory system has insufficiently been explored in the pathogeneses of PD and Alzheimer disease (AD) in laboratory models. Here, we demonstrate applications of a new method to process mouse heads for microscopy by sectioning, mounting, and staining whole skulls ('holocranohistochemistry'). This technique permits the visualization of the olfactory system from the nasal cavity to mitral cells and dopamine-producing interneurons of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477233/deletion-of-the-us7-and-us8-genes-of-pseudorabies-virus-exerts-a-differential-effect-on-the-expression-of-early-and-late-viral-genes
#11
Nándor Póka, Zsolt Csabai, Emese Pásti, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Boldogkői
The pseudorabies virus (PRV; also known as Suid herpesvirus-1) is a neurotropic herpesvirus of swine. The us7 and us8 genes of this virus encode the glycoprotein I and E membrane proteins that form a heterodimer that is known to control cell-to-cell spread in tissue culture and in animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of the deletion of the PRV us7 and us8 genes on the genome-wide transcription and DNA replication using a multi-time-point quantitative reverse transcriptase-based real-time PCR technique...
May 5, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468883/cxcl10-cxcr3-dependent-mobilization-of-hsv-specific-cd8-tem-and-cd8-trm-cells-within-infected-tissues-allows-efficient-protection-against-recurrent-herpes-infection-and-disease
#12
Ruchi Srivastava, Arif A Khan, Sravya Chilukuri, Sabrina A Syed, Tien T Tran, Julie Furness, Elmostafa Bahraoui, Lbachir BenMohamed
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency within the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). HSV-specific memory CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in preventing HSV-1 reactivation from TG and subsequent virus shedding in tears that trigger recurrent corneal herpetic disease. The CXCL10/CXCR3 chemokine pathway promotes T cell immunity to many viral pathogens, but its importance in CD8(+) T cell immunity to recurrent herpes has been poorly elucidated. In this study, we determined how the CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway affects TG- and cornea-resident CD8(+) T cell responses to recurrent ocular herpes infection and disease using a well-established murine model in which HSV-1 reactivation was induced from latently infected TG by UV-B light...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468311/tubacin-an-hdac6-selective-inhibitor-reduces-the-replication-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-virus-via-the-decrease-of-viral-rna-synthesis
#13
Chien-Yi Lu, Yi-Chih Chang, Chun-Hung Hua, Chieh Chuang, Su-Hua Huang, Szu-Hao Kung, Mann-Jen Hour, Cheng-Wen Lin
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, annually causes over 30,000 Japanese Encephalitis (JE) cases in East and Southeast Asia. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate lysine acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins, regulating many processes including inflammation and antiviral immune response. This study investigated antiviral activity of pan- and selective-HDAC inhibitors as host-targeting agents against JEV. Among HDAC inhibitors, selective HDAC6 inhibitors (tubastatin-A (TBSA) and tubacin) concentration-dependently inhibited JEV-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis, as well as reduced virus yield in human cerebellar medulloblastoma cells...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461570/type-1-immune-mechanisms-driven-by-the-response-to-infection-with-attenuated-rabies-virus-result-in-changes-in-the-immune-bias-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-necrosis-of-mouse-gl261-brain-tumors
#14
Emily K Bongiorno, Samantha A Garcia, Sami Sauma, D Craig Hooper
Immunotherapeutic strategies for malignant glioma have to overcome the immunomodulatory activities of M2 monocytes that appear in the circulation and as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). M2 cell products contribute to the growth-promoting attributes of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and bias immunity toward type 2, away from the type 1 mechanisms with antitumor properties. To drive type 1 immunity in CNS tissues, we infected GL261 tumor-bearing mice with attenuated rabies virus (RABV). These neurotropic viruses spread to CNS tissues trans-axonally, where they induce a strong type 1 immune response that involves Th1, CD8, and B cell entry across the blood-brain barrier and virus clearance in the absence of overt sequelae...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459414/postmortem-findings-for-7-neonates-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#15
Anastácio Q Sousa, Diane I M Cavalcante, Luciano M Franco, Fernanda M C Araújo, Emília T Sousa, José Telmo Valença-Junior, Dionne B Rolim, Maria E L Melo, Pedro D T Sindeaux, Marialva T F Araújo, Richard D Pearson, Mary E Wilson, Margarida M L Pompeu
Postmortem examination of 7 neonates with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil revealed microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, dystrophic calcifications, and severe cortical neuronal depletion in all and arthrogryposis in 6. Other findings were leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal inflammation and pulmonary hypoplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in liver and lungs. Findings confirmed virus neurotropism and multiple organ infection.
July 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458823/herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-encephalitis-in-an-adolescent-presenting-with-acute-hydrocephalus
#16
Marios S Themistocleous, Elias Antoniades, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Aristoteles V Kalyvas, Andreas Mitsios, George Sfakianos
Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is a human neurotropic virus causing encephalitis, corneal blindness or several peripheral nervous system disorders. Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most devastating clinical syndrome with severe morbidity and mortality. Hydrocephalus associated with viral meningoencephalitis is an extremely rare entity with only few documented cases, predominantly due to HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 infection of central nervous system present in the majority of the cases as encephalitis...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453853/single-molecule-sequencing-revealing-the-presence-of-distinct-jc-polyomavirus-populations-in-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#17
Hanna Seppälä, Elina Virtanen, Mika Saarela, Pia Laine, Lars Paulín, Laura Mannonen, Petri Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
Background.: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal disease caused by reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunosuppressed individuals and lytic infection by neurotropic JCPyV in glial cells. The exact content of neurotropic mutations within individual JCPyV strains has not been studied to our knowledge. Methods.: We exploited the capacity of single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to determine the sequence of complete JCPyV genomes in single reads...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446752/near-atomic-structure-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-reveals-critical-determinants-of-virulence-and-stability
#18
Xiangxi Wang, Shi-Hua Li, Ling Zhu, Qing-Gong Nian, Shuai Yuan, Qiang Gao, Zhongyu Hu, Qing Ye, Xiao-Feng Li, Dong-Yang Xie, Neil Shaw, Junzhi Wang, Thomas S Walter, Juha T Huiskonen, Elizabeth E Fry, Cheng-Feng Qin, David I Stuart, Zihe Rao
Although several different flaviviruses may cause encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis virus is the most significant, being responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia. The structural and molecular basis of this encephalitis is not fully understood. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of mature Japanese encephalitis virus at near-atomic resolution, which reveals an unusual "hole" on the surface, surrounded by five encephalitic-specific motifs implicated in receptor binding. Glu138 of E, which is highly conserved in encephalitic flaviviruses, maps onto one of these motifs and is essential for binding to neuroblastoma cells, with the E138K mutation abrogating the neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of Japanese encephalitis virus in mice...
April 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439815/the-effects-of-voluntary-physical-exercise-activated-neurotrophic-signaling-in-rat-hippocampus-on-mrna-levels-of-downstream-signaling-molecules
#19
Christina A E Solvsten, Tina F Daugaard, Yonglun Luo, Frank de Paoli, Jane H Christensen, Anders L Nielsen
Physical exercise results in the increased expression of neurotrophic factors and the subsequent induction of signal transduction cascades with a positive impact on neuronal functions. In this study, we used a voluntary physical exercise rat model to determine correlations in hippocampus mRNA expression of the neurotropic factors Bdnf, VegfA, and Igf1; their receptors TrkB, Igf1R, VegfR1, and VegfrR2; and downstream signal transducers Creb, Syn1, and Vgf. In hippocampi of physically exercised rats, the mRNA expression levels of Bdnf transcript 4 (Bdnf-t4), VegfA, and Igf1, as well as VegfR1, TrkB, Creb, Vgf, and Syn1, were increased...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436114/all-trans-retinoic-acid-stimulates-overexpression-of-tumor-protein-d52-tpd52-isoform-3-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-imr-32-cells
#20
Sudha Sravanti Kotapalli, Chandrashekhar Dasari, Divya Duscharla, Karthik Reddy Kami Reddy, Manjula Kasula, Ramesh Ummanni
Tumor protein D52 (TPD52), a proto-oncogene is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial carcinomas and plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration, and cell death. In the present study we found that the treatment of IMR-32 neuroblastoma (NB) cells with retinoic acid (RA) stimulates an increase in expression of TPD52. TPD52 expression is detectable after 72 h, can be maintained till differentiation of NB cells suggesting that TPD52 is involved in differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that TPD52 is essential for RA to promote differentiation of NB cells...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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