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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146239/innately-activated-tlr4-signal-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-sustained-by-crf-amplification-loop-and-regulates-impulsivity
#1
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Laure Aurelian
Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood...
November 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137928/camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-nmdar-hypofunction-schizophrenia-putative-roles-for-igf-1r-and-tlr4
#2
O M Ogundele, C C Lee
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is linked to social behavioral deficits and other negative symptoms associated with hippocampal synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic mechanism of schizophrenia is characterized by loss of hippocampal N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) activity (NMDAR hypofunction) and dendritic spines. Previous studies show that genetic deletion of hippocampal synaptic regulatory calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) cause synaptic and behavioral defects associated with schizophrenia in mice...
November 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127595/neurological-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#3
Tania Saad, Alessandra Augusta PennaeCosta, Fernanda Veiga de Góes, Marcela de Freitas, Julia Valeriano de Almeida, Lúcio José de Santa Ignêz, Ana Paula Amancio, Renata Joviano Alvim, Ludmilla Athayde Antunes Kramberger
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, it was observed a rise in the number of microcephalic newborns associated with a history of non-specific febrile sickness and rash during pregnancy in Brazil. Since then, microcephaly has emerged as a public health concern. A few months after, the causal relation between congenital microcephaly and the Zika virus was discovered. Zika virus, an arbovirus, is a new TORCH member that leads to congenital infection through vertical transmission and harms the developing brain, disrupting synaptogenesis, and causing other central nervous system lesions...
November 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119387/a-new-etv6-ntrk3-cell-line-model-reveals-malat1-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target-a-short-report
#4
Suning Chen, Stefan Nagel, Bjoern Schneider, Haiping Dai, Robert Geffers, Maren Kaufmann, Corinna Meyer, Claudia Pommerenke, Kenneth S Thress, Jiao Li, Hilmar Quentmeier, Hans G Drexler, Roderick A F MacLeod
BACKGROUND: Previously, the chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(p13;q25) has been found to recurrently occur in both solid tumors and leukemias. This translocation leads to ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) gene fusions resulting in ectopic expression of the NTRK3 neurotropic tyrosine receptor kinase moiety as well as oligomerization through the donated ETV6-sterile alpha motif domain. As yet, no in vitro cell line model carrying this anomaly is available. Here we genetically characterized the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line AP-1060 and, by doing so, revealed the presence of a t(12;15)(p13;q25)...
November 8, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116592/varicella-zoster-virus-orf7-interacts-with-orf53-and-plays-a-role-in-its-trans-golgi-network-localization
#5
Wei Wang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Che Liu, Yuqiong Que, Ningshao Xia, Hua Zhu, Tong Cheng
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize VZV ORF53, and to investigate its relationship with ORF7...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115502/different-inhibitory-effects-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-human-and-laboratory-borna-disease-virus%C3%A2-infected-human-neuroblastoma-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Hua Huang, Hong Zhang, Dan Li, Shigang Chen, Chanjuan Zhou, Qi Li, Peng He, Liang Fang, Yong Zhang, Xiaomei Li, Jingjing Zhou, Lin Sun, Siwen Liu, Yujie Guo, Ying Huang, Peng Xie
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic and non‑cytolytic virus, which causes behavioral disorders in a wide range of warm‑blooded species. It is well established that BDV induces neurodegeneration by impairing neurogenesis and interfering with neuronal functioning in the limbic system. In the present study, the potential role of BDV infection in SH‑SY5Y cells was identified, and comparisons of two original BDV strains (the human Hu‑H1 and the laboratory Strain V) were performed to further elucidate the phenotypes of BDV pathogenesis with strain differences...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103421/a-neuroprimer-principles-of-central-nervous-system-immunity
#7
Gregory P Owens
Despite longstanding perceptions, robust innate and adaptive immune responses occur within the central nervous system (CNS) in response to infection and tissue damage. Although necessary to control infection, immune responses can lead to severe CNS pathology in the context of both viral infection and autoimmunity. Research into how the central nervous and immune systems communicate has accelerated over the past 20 years leading to a better understanding of pathways controlling immune activation and neuroinflammation that have guided the approval of new disease-modifying therapies to treat CNS immunopathology, particularly the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101612/the-congenital-zika-virus-infection-still-a-puzzle
#8
José Francisco M Salomão
BACKGROUND: As a new disease, some features of the congenital Zika virus infection are not yet fully understood. The current Brazilian outbreak brought up an unexpected increase in the number of microcephaly cases as this strain is essentially neurotropic and associated with devastating effects on the developing central nervous system. OBJECT: This focus session aims to discuss the several issues related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment of the congenital Zika virus infection...
November 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099073/helicase-domain-of-west-nile-virus-ns3-protein-plays-a-role-in-inhibition-of-type-i-interferon-signalling
#9
Yin Xiang Setoh, Parthiban Periasamy, Nias Yong Gao Peng, Alberto A Amarilla, Andrii Slonchak, Alexander A Khromykh
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that can cause encephalitis in mammalian and avian hosts. In America, the virulent WNV strain (NY99) is causing yearly outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses, while in Australia the less virulent Kunjin strain of WNV strain has not been associated with significant disease outbreaks until a recent 2011 large outbreak in horses (but not in humans) caused by NSW2011 strain. Using chimeric viruses between NY99 and NSW2011 strains we previously identified a role for the non-structural proteins of NY99 strain and especially the NS3 protein, in enhanced virus replication in type I interferon response-competent cells and increased virulence in mice...
November 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089674/serial-brain-mri-findings-in-a-rare-survivor-of-rabies-encephalitis
#10
Akhilesh Rao, Yayati Pimpalwar, Arindam Mukherjee, Neha Yadu
Rabies is a neurotropic viral illness, almost always fatal, that is equally dreaded by healthcare practitioners and patients due to the dismal prognosis and limited treatment options once symptoms set in. There are hardly any reports on MRI changes in the brain in survivors of rabies encephalitis. We present the clinical course and the imaging findings on serial MRI examinations in a rare patient who survived rabies infection. Initial brain MRI done 8 days after onset of symptoms revealed bilaterally symmetrical non-enhancing areas of T1 and T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia, thalami, mid brain, and pons along with T2 hyperintensity and restricted diffusion in fronto-parietal cortical grey matter and left hippocampus...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080083/evaluation-of-metformin-effects-in-the-chronic-phase-of-spontaneous-seizures-in-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Soraya Mehrabi, Nima Sanadgol, Mahmood Barati, Ali Shahbazi, Gelareh Vahabzadeh, Mitra Barzroudi, Morteza Seifi, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Fereshteh Golab
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common form of drug-resistant epilepsy that sometimes responds to dietary manipulation such as the 'ketogenic diet'. Here we have investigated the effects of metformin in the rat pilocaroin model of TLE. Male rats were treated with intra peritoneal injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride, in dose of 360 mg/kg to induce status epilepticus (SE). At 45 day after induction of SE, metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 250 mg/kg/day for 5 days. We show that metformin potently reduces the progression of seizures and blocks seizure-induced over-expression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)...
October 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062886/activating-peripheral-innate-immunity-enables-safe-and-effective-oncolytic-virotherapy-in-the-brain
#12
Lukxmi Balathasan, Vera A Tang, Beta Yadollahi, Jan Brun, Melanie Labelle, Charles Lefebvre, Stephanie L Swift, David F Stojdl
The oncolytic mutant vesicular stomatitis virus VSVΔ51 achieves robust efficacy in multiple extracranial tumor models. Yet for malignancies of the brain, direct intratumoral infusion of VSVΔ51 causes lethal virus-induced neuropathology. Here, we have developed a novel therapeutic regime that uses peripheral immunization with a single sub-lethal dose of VSVΔ51 to establish an acute anti-viral state that enables the safe intracranial (IC) infusion of an otherwise lethal dose of VSVΔ51 within just 6 hr. Although type I interferons alone appeared insufficient to explain this protective phenotype, serum isolated at early time points from primed animals conferred protection against an IC dose of virus...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053132/-neurotropic-effect-of-b-vitamins-in-the-complex-treatment-of-pain-syndrome
#13
O A Shavlovskaya
Combined vitamin preparations in therapeutic doses are used, along with simple analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), muscle and epidural blockade, for the relief of acute pain. It is recommended to use the B vitamin preparation neuromultivit. The tablet form of this preparation contains vitamin thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (200 mg), cyanocobalamin (0.2 mg), and injectable form includes thiamine hydrochloride (100mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (100 mg), cyanocobalamin (1 mg)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049097/low-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-acute-central-nervous-system-viral-infections
#14
Xiang Li, Qiaowen Tong, Dewei Xie, Zhibo Chen, Sipei Pan, Xu Zhang, Wanli Dong
Most acute central nervous system (CNS) viral infections lead to either encephalitis or meningitis. Many neurotropic viruses may cause CNS dysfunctions through various mechanisms including oxidative stress. Serum uric acid (SUA) levels, which are associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant status, are reduced in patients with various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis. We investigated the possible correlation between SUA levels and clinical disease status in patients with acute CNS viral infections...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047317/varicella-and-herpes-zoster-vaccine-development-lessons-learned
#15
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer
Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Vaccine development was galvanised by the economic and societal burden of VZV, including debilitating zoster complications that largely affect older individuals. Areas covered: We describe the story of development, licensing and implementation of live attenuated vaccines against varicella and zoster...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#16
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031771/a-nonrandomized-controlled-clinical-pilot-trial-on-8%C3%A2-wk-of%C3%A2-intermittent-fasting-24%C3%A2-h-wk
#17
Christian S Kessler, Rainer Stange, Maike Schlenkermann, Michael Jeitler, Andreas Michalsen, Antonia Selle, Franca Raucci, Nico Steckhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective preventive measure, and whether it is feasible for healthy volunteers under every day conditions. METHODS: A nonrandomized controlled clinical trial on IF was performed with healthy volunteers over a period of 8 wk, and a subsequent 4-mo follow-up. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 8 wk, and after 6 mo. Volunteers who were not interested in fasting served as a control group...
August 12, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#18
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024766/protective-effect-of-an-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-against-enterovirus-71-infection-in-neuronal-cells
#19
FengXia Song, LinQin Zhao, RuNan Zhu, QinWei Song, Jie Deng, Run Tian, Fang Wang, Yuan Qian
Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies...
October 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987172/acute-and-chronic-viral-infections
#20
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Werner Stenzel
A large number of viruses belonging to various families are able to cause central nervous system (CNS) infections and contribute significantly to burden of disease in humans globally. Most viral CNS infections are benign and self-limiting, and most remain undiagnosed. However, some viruses can cause severe inflammation, leading to morbidity and mortality, and result in severe long-term residual damage and neurologic dysfunction in patients. The potential of viruses to cause CNS inflammation greatly varies depending on host factors, such as age, sex, and genetic background, as well as viral factors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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