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Neurotoxic reactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678819/reversible-metronidazole-induced-neurotoxicity-after-10-weeks-of-therapy
#1
Wafa AlDhaleei, Ayesha AlMarzooqi, Nouran Gaber
Metronidazole is a commonly used antimicrobial worldwide. The most common side effects that have been reported are nausea, vomiting and hypersensitivity reactions. However, neurotoxicity has been reported with the use of metronidazole but rather rare. The most common neurological manifestation is peripheral neuropathy involvement in the form of sensory loss. It is worth mentioning that central neurotoxicity is a rare side effect of metronidazole use but reversible. The manifestations vary from a headache, altered mental status to focal neurological deficits...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623500/oxaliplatin-rechallenge-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-after-prior-oxaliplatin-treatment
#2
Jae-Joon Kim, Jihoon Kang, Yong Sang Hong, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Tae Won Kim, Jeong Eun Kim
Because the number of cytotoxic agents available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is limited, rechallenge with the same chemotherapy agents can provide a continuum of treatment. This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of oxaliplatin rechallenge in mCRC patients who had been previously exposed to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients were included if they had mCRC and evaluable disease, had remained disease-free or progression-free for at least 6 months after the last dose of prior oxaliplatin-based therapy, and were retreated with oxaliplatin therapy...
April 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592839/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-methodologies-for-identification-of-etravirine-bioactivation-to-reactive-metabolites-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approaches
#3
Ana L A Godinho, Inês L Martins, João Nunes, Catarina Charneira, Jorge Grilo, Diogo M Silva, Sofia A Pereira, Karina Soto, M Conceição Oliveira, M Matilde Marques, Cristina C Jacob, Alexandra M M Antunes
Drug bioactivation to reactive metabolites capable of covalent adduct formation with bionucleophiles is a major cause of drug-induced adverse reactions. Therefore, elucidation of reactive metabolites is essential to unravel the toxicity mechanisms induced by drugs and thereby identify patient subgroups at higher risk. Etravirine (ETR) was the first second-generation Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) to be approved, as a therapeutic option for HIV-infected patients who developed resistance to the first-generation NNRTIs...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587474/evaluation-of-the-possible-neurotoxic-effect-of-the-bone-cement-on-the-facial-nerve-an-experimental-study
#4
Numan Kökten, Oğuz Kadir Eğilmez, M Tayyar Kalcıoğlu, Mustafa Baran, A Işın Doğan Ekici
Objectives: To investigate neurotoxic effect of bone cement (BC) on facial nerve by using electrophysiological and histopathological methods. Methods: This study included 20 male albino Wistar rats, divided into four equal groups. Group A was designed as the control group, while group B was sham group. In the group C, BC solution was dropped onto the facial nerve trunks of rats and washed with physiological saline after 5 seconds. In the group D, BC solution was dropped onto the facial nerve trunks of rats and after allowing 5 minutes to dry, wounds were closed...
March 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578002/inhibition-of-microrna-34a-protects-against-propofol-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-cognitive-dysfunction-via-the-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway
#5
Guang Feng Li, Su Jing Zhuang, Guang Cai Li
AIM: To investigate the protective effect of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) on propofol-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: After SH-SY5Y cells were treated with propofol to induce neurotoxicity, microRNA-34a mimics and inhibitors were transfected into the cells. The expression of apoptosis-related genes and the proteins were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received intraperitoneal injections of propofol, and were treated with microRNA-34a mimics and lentivirus-mediated microRNA-34a inhibitors...
March 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574585/direct-and-indirect-nigrofugal-projections-to-the-nucleus-reticularis-pontis-caudalis-mediate-in-the-motor-execution-of-the-acoustic-startle-reflex
#6
Sebastian Hormigo, Dolores E López, Antonio Cardoso, Gladys Zapata, Jacqueline Sepúlveda, Orlando Castellano
The acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a short and intense defensive reaction in response to a loud and unexpected acoustic stimulus. In the rat, a primary startle pathway encompasses three serially connected central structures: the cochlear root neurons, the giant neurons of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC), and the spinal motoneurons. As a sensorimotor interface, the PnC has a central role in the ASR circuitry, especially the integration of different sensory stimuli and brain states into initiation of motor responses...
March 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561132/relationship-between-fluoroquinolone-structure-and-neurotoxicity-revealed-by-zebrafish-neurobehavior
#7
Chaoqiang Xiao, Ying Han, Ying Liu, Jingpu Zhang, Chang-Qin Hu
Central nervous system (CNS) side effects are one of the most frequently reported adverse reactions of fluoroquinolones (FQs). However, the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used as a model system. We quantified neurobehavior by recording indicators with automated video-tracking and used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect drug absorption in vivo. We studied embryotoxicity and effects on zebrafish locomotor activity of 17 typical FQs...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474830/erythema-nodosum-leprosum-update-and-challenges-on-the-treatment-of-a-neglected-condition
#8
REVIEW
Perpétua do Socorro Silva Costa, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Egon Luiz Rodrigues Daxbacher, Lavínia Schuler-Faccini, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna
Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) occurs due to the immunological complication of multibacillary leprosy and is characterized by painful nodules and systemic compromising. It is usually recurrent and/or chronic and has both physical and economic impact on the patient, being a very important cause of disability. In addition, ENL is a major health problem in countries where leprosy is endemic. Therefore, adequate control of this condition is important. The management of ENL aims to control acute inflammation and neuritis and prevent the onset of new episodes...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467848/differential-microrna-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-mouse-offspring-induced-by-glyphosate-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#9
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The role of glyphosate in neurotoxicity has been reported in human and animal models. However, the detailed mechanism of the role of glyphosate in neuronal development remains unknown. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. The current group previously identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with the etiology of NDDs, but their expression levels in the developing brain following glyphosate exposure have not been characterized...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463407/effect-of-genetic-polymorphism-of-human-cyp2b6-on-the-metabolic-activation-of-chlorpyrifos
#10
Hiromasa Imaishi, Tatsushi Goto
Chlorpyrifos (CPS) is a broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide that is neurotoxic in humans. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) is a toxic metabolite of CPS that is produced by CYP2B6. In this study, we examined the variability of CPS metabolism resulting from single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2B6. Wild-type CYP2B6 (CYP2B6.1) and two variants each with a single amino acid substitution: CYP2B6.5 (R487C) and CYP2B6.8 (K139E) were co-expressed together with human NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli (E...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462762/acetylcholinesterase-of-mangrove-oyster-crassostrea-rhizophorae-a-highly-thermostable-enzyme-with-promising-features-for-estuarine-biomonitoring
#11
Paula Rayane de Souza, Kelma Sirleide de Souza, Caio Rodrigo Dias de Assis, Marlyete Chagas de Araújo, Kaline Catiely Campos Silva, Juliett de Fátima Xavier da Silva, Andreia Cybelle Marques Ferreira, Valdir Luna da Silva, Mônica Lúcia Adam, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho, Ranilson de Souza Bezerra
Enzyme biomarkers from several aquatic organisms have been used for assessing the exposure to contaminants at sublethal levels. Amongst them, the cholinesterases are commonly extracted from several organisms to evaluate/measure organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxic effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is an enzyme of the group of serine esterases that acts on the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine allowing the intermittence of the nerve impulses responsible for the neuronal communication...
February 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446720/electrochemistry-of-alzheimer-disease-amyloid-beta-peptides
#12
Ana-Maria Chiorcea-Paquim, Teodor Adrian Enache, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a widespread form of dementia that is estimated to affect 44.4 million people worldwide. AD pathology is closely related to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in fibrils and plagues, the small oligomeric intermediate species formed during the Aβ peptides aggregation presenting the highest neurotoxicity. This review discusses the recent advances on the Aβ peptides electrochemical characterisation. The Aβ peptides oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode occurs in one or two steps, depending on the amino acid sequence, length and content...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434798/morphological-and-functional-changes-of-microglia-cultured-under-different-oxygen-concentrations-and-the-analysis-of-related-mechanisms
#13
Xing Wu, Tengbo Yu, Hongyan Xu, Xiuming Sun, Dewei Kou, Liping Li
This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of oxygen exposure on the morphology and function of N9 microglia and analyzed its mechanisms. N9 microglia were cultured under the condition of high (95% O2 and 5% CO2), normal (95% air and 5% CO2) and low oxygen (95% CO2 and 5% O2) concentrations. The cell morphologies were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope after 24 h. Flow cytometry was applied to detect cell survival and apoptotic rate. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434381/ismp-adverse-drug-reactions-influenza-vaccine-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-vilazodone-induced-nightmares-dabigatran-induced-pustular-eruptions-neurotoxic-and-cardiotoxic-symptoms-after-cannabis-concentrate-exposure-rosuvastatin-induced-skin-eruption
#14
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
February 2018: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417441/glycotoxins-dietary-and-metabolic-origins-possible-amelioration-of-neurotoxicity-by-carnosine-with-special-reference-to-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Alan R Hipkiss
There is a strong association between neurodegeneration and protein glycation; possible origins of neurotoxic glycated protein, also called glycotoxins, include (i) diet (i.e., proteins cooked at high temperatures), (ii) protein glycation in the gut, and (iii) intracellular reaction of proteins with deleterious aldehydes, especially methylglyoxal (MG). It is likely that excessive glycolysis provokes increased generation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate which decomposes into MG due to activity-induced deamidation of certain asparagine residues in the glycolytic enzyme triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI)...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413859/brain-damage-and-neurological-symptoms-induced-by-t-2-toxin-in-rat-brain
#16
Pu Guo, Aimei Liu, Deyu Huang, Qinghua Wu, Zainab Fatima, Yanfei Tao, Guyue Cheng, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements. However, to date, effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rat were given a single dose of T-2 toxin at 2 mg/kg b...
January 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409005/environmental-and-dietary-exposure-to-copper-and-its-cellular-mechanisms-linking-to-alzheimer-disease
#17
Heng-Wei Hsu, Stephen C Bondy, Masashi Kitazawa
Metals are commonly found in the environment, household, and workplaces in various forms, and a significant segment of the population is routinely exposed to the trace amount of metals from variety of sources. Exposure to metals, such as aluminum, lead, iron, and copper, from environment has long been debated as a potential environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) for decades, yet results from in vitro, in vivo, and human population remain controversial. In the case of copper, the neurotoxic mechanism of action was classically viewed as its strong affinity to amyloid-beta (Aβ) to help its aggregation and increase oxidative stress via Fenton reaction...
February 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376868/geographical-distribution-and-diversity-of-gut-microbial-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-sequence-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Elena L Paley, Tatiana Merkulova-Rainon, Aleksandr Faynboym, Valery I Shestopalov, Igor Aksenoff
Earlier we reported induction of neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration by tryptophan metabolites that link the metabolic alterations to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tryptophan is a product of Shikimate pathway (SP). Human cells lack SP, which is found in human gut bacteria exclusively using SP to produce aromatic amino acids (AAA). This study is a first attempt toward gene-targeted analysis of human gut microbiota in AD fecal samples. The oligonucleotide primers newly-designed for this work target SP-AAA in environmental bacteria associated with human activity...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363648/increased-efficacy-of-antivenom-combined-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-deinagkistrodon-acutus-envenomation-in-adult-rats
#19
Mo Li, Zhi-Hui Xie, An-Yong Yu, Dong-Po He
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a neglected threat to global human health with a high morbidity rate. The present study explored the efficacy of antivenom with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) intervention on snakebites, which could provide the experimental basis for clinical adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomized into four groups: the poison model was established by injecting Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) venom (0.8 LD50) via the caudal vein; the antivenom group was injected immediately with specific antivenom via the caudal vein after successful establishment of the envenomation model; and the antivenom + HBO group was exposed to HBO environment for 1 h once at predetermined periods of 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, and 23 h after antivenin administration...
February 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289282/oxidation-reactivity-of-1-2-bis-2-4-6-tribromophenoxy-ethane-btbpe-by-compound-i-model-of-cytochrome-p450s
#20
Zhongyu Wang, Zhiqiang Fu, Qi Yu, Jingwen Chen
Alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have become prevalent as a consequence of restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For risk assessment of these alternatives, knowledge of their metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes is needed. We have previously proved that density functional theory (DFT) is able to predict the metabolism of PBDEs by revealing the molecular mechanisms. In the current study, the reactivity of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane and structurally similar chemicals with the Compound I model representing the active site of P450 enzymes was investigated...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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