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Neurotoxic reactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029323/lncrnal20992-regulates-apoptotic-proteins-to-promote-lead-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#1
Aruo Nan, Yangyang Jia, Xin Li, Meiling Liu, Nan Zhang, Lijian Chen, Ti Yang, Yiqin Xu, Xin Dai, Ying Cheng, Zhenzhong Liu, Yihui Ling, Yiguo Jiang
Lead is a heavy metal pollutant that is widely present in the environment and can seriously harm human health, especially the nervous system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes; however, there remains a lack of in-depth studies on the molecular mechanisms associated with lead neurotoxicity. Here, our results showed that lead exposure inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. We observed that lncRNAL20992 was significantly upregulated in a lead-induced neuronal-injury cell model according to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
September 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993949/poly-n-methylated-a%C3%AE-peptide-c-terminal-fragments-meptides-reverse-the-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-rats
#2
Siya G Sibiya, Musa V Mbandla, Thavi Govender, Adeola Shobo, William M U Daniels
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. These protein deposits impair synaptic plasticity thereby producing a progressive decline in cognitive function. Current therapies are merely palliative and only slow cognitive decline. Poly-N-methylated Aβ-Peptide C-Terminal Fragments (MEPTIDES) were recently shown to reduce Aβ toxicity in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster, however whether these novel compounds are effective in inhibiting Aβ-induced toxicity in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958600/methylmercury-promotes-prostacyclin-release-from-cultured-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-induction-of-cyclooxygenase-2-through-activation-of-the-egfr-p38-mapk-pathway-by-inhibiting-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-activity
#3
Eiko Yoshida, Masaru Kurita, Komyo Eto, Yoshito Kumagai, Toshiyuki Kaji
Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that exhibits neurotoxicity when ingested, primarily in the form of neuropathological lesions that localize along deep sulci and fissures, in addition to edematous and inflammatory changes in patient cerebrums. These conditions been known to give rise to a variety of ailments that have come to be collectively termed Minamata disease. Since prostaglandins I2 and E2 (PGI2 and PGE2) increase vascular permeability and contribute to the progression of inflammatory changes, we hypothesize that methylmercury induces the synthesis of these prostaglandins in brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes...
September 25, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929003/fatal-cobalt-toxicity-after-a-non-metal-on-metal-total-hip-arthroplasty
#4
Rinne M Peters, Pax Willemse, Paul C Rijk, Mels Hoogendoorn, Wierd P Zijlstra
This case illustrates the potential for systemic cobalt toxicity in non-metal-on-metal bearings and its potentially devastating consequences. We present a 71-year-old male with grinding sensations in his right hip following ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA). After diagnosing a fractured ceramic liner, the hip prosthesis was revised into a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. At one year postoperatively, X-rays and MARS-MRI showed a fixed reversed hybrid THA, with periarticular densities, flattening of the femoral head component, and a pattern of periarticular metal wear debris and pseudotumor formation...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#5
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914791/quercetin-attenuates-manganese-induced-neuroinflammation-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-through-regulation-of-apoptosis-inos-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ho-1-nrf2-pathways
#6
Entaz Bahar, Ji-Ye Kim, Hyonok Yoon
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for the development of human body and acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator for various reactions of metabolism. While essential in trace amounts, excessive Mn exposure can result in toxic accumulations in human brain tissue and resulting extrapyramidal symptoms called manganism similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Quercetin (QCT) has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889276/thallium-toxicity-general-issues-neurological-symptoms-and-neurotoxic-mechanisms
#7
Laura Osorio-Rico, Abel Santamaria, Sonia Galván-Arzate
Thallium (Tl(+)) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl(+) is similar to that of potassium (K(+)), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl(+) exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl(+) include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl(+) exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884627/apoptosis-mediated-neurotoxicity-and-altered-gene-expression-induced-by-silver-nanoparticles
#8
Maryam Ghooshchian, Parvin Khodarahmi, Farzaneh Tafvizi
Although not fully recognized, the neurotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are thought to occur through induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. To investigate the exact underlying molecular mechanism, we aimed to explore the apoptotic effects of intraperitoneal injection of Ag-NPs and investigated the possible attributed changes in the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes in the rat hippocampus. Two in vivo sets of experiments, one to demonstrate apoptosis and the other to assess gene expression, were conducted on male Wistar rats...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874102/ertapenem-associated-neurotoxicity-in-the-spinal-cord-injury-sci-population-a-case-series
#9
Ursula C Patel, Mallory A Fowler
Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869449/propofol-induced-neurotoxicity-in-hescs-involved-in-activation-of-mir-206-puma-signal-pathway
#10
Yu Li, Changxin Jia, Dianlong Zhang, Guangzhen Ni, Xia Miao, Ruirong Tu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies in developing animals have demonstrated that when anesthetic agents, such as propofol, are early administered in life, it can lead to neuronal cell death and learning disabilities. However, the mechanisms causing these effects remains unknown. A recent report found that propofol could significantly upregulat miR-206 expression in the human ASCs. miR-206 could also induce apoptosis in human malignant cancers. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that propofol induces neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858752/determination-of-chlorpyrifos-and-its-metabolites-in-cells-and-culture-media-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Xiangkun Yang, Xian Wu, Kyle A Brown, Thao Le, Steven L Stice, Michael G Bartlett
A sensitive method to simultaneously quantitate chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon and the detoxified product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was developed using either liquid-liquid extraction for culture media samples, or protein precipitation for cell samples. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode was applied for the detection of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon, and selected ion recording in negative mode was applied to detect TCP. The method provided linear ranges from 5 to 500, 0.2-20 and 20-2000ng/mL for media samples and from 0...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853070/activation-of-microglyocytes-in-the-anterior-horns-of-rat-spinal-cord-after-administration-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#12
E A Kolos, D E Korzhevskii
We studied the reaction of the microglia of the anterior horns of the rat spinal cord to intraperitoneal administration of bacterial LPS. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that acute systemic inflammation leads to activation of more than half of microglial cells as soon as in 24 h after LPS injection, while the total number of microglial cells does not change significantly. It was hypothesized that activated microglial cells are involved in the reorganization of synaptic connections, but do not have a neurotoxic effect...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828603/manganese-control-of-glutamate-transporters-gene-expression
#13
Eunsook Lee, Pratap Karki, James Johnson, Peter Hong, Michael Aschner
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, serving as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in various cellular and biochemical reactions in human body. However, chronic overexposure to Mn from occupational or environmental sources induces a neurological disorder, characterized by psychiatric, cognitive, and motor abnormalities, referred to as manganism. Mn-induced neurotoxicity is known to target astrocytes since these cells preferentially accumulate Mn. Astrocytes are the most abundant non-neuronal glial cells in the brain, and they play a critical role in maintaining the optimal glutamate levels to prevent excitotoxic death...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821959/identifying-cisplatin-induced-kidney-damage-in-paediatric-oncology-patients
#14
REVIEW
Chris D Barton, Barry Pizer, Caroline Jones, Louise Oni, Munir Pirmohamed, Daniel B Hawcutt
Cisplatin is one chemotherapeutic agent used to treat childhood cancer in numerous treatment protocols, including as a single agent. It is likely to remain in clinical use over the long term. However, cisplatin-related toxicities, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, are common, affecting treatment, day-to-day life and survival of such children. With one in 700 young adults having survived childhood cancer, patients who have completed chemotherapy that includes cisplatin can experience long-term morbidity due to treatment-related adverse reactions...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805982/a-serious-nightmare-psychiatric-and-neurologic-adverse-reactions-to-mefloquine-are-serious-adverse-reactions
#15
Remington L Nevin
Mefloquine (originally marketed as Lariam) is a neurotoxic quinoline derivative antimalarial drug that is known to cause serious and potentially lasting neuropsychiatric adverse reactions. Since 2013, drug regulators in several jurisdictions, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Canada, have required their mefloquine labels be updated to warn that when used for malaria prophylaxis the drug should be discontinued at the onset of neurologic or psychiatric symptoms. These recent changes to the international labeling serve to imply that psychiatric and neurologic reactions to mefloquine prophylaxis may be an early warning of an impending more serious reaction that may further jeopardize the patient with continued use of the drug...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782144/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-from-concomitant-use-of-itraconazole-and-vindesine
#16
H Zhou, L Li, Y Zhou, Y Han
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported that itraconazole-induced inhibition of vincristine (VCR) metabolism might result in neurological impairment and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). However, there are few reports concerning adverse drug reactions (ADRs) resulting from concomitant use of vindesine (VDS) and itraconazole. Here, we report the first case of adverse drug interactions (ADIs) between itraconazole and VDS in a Chinese child with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL)...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776897/relationship-between-cortisol-reactivity-to-psychosocial-stress-and-declarative-memory-decline-during-aging-impact-of-age-and-sex
#17
Aline Talita Dos Santos, Dayse Maria D Leyendecker, Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa, Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico
AIM: To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. METHODS: We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor ( the Trier social stress test [TSST])...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739772/efficacy-and-safety-of-nab-paclitaxel-as-second-line-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-and-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Wenjing Gong, Ping Sun, Zhengbin Mu, Jiannan Liu, Caiyan Yu, Aina Liu
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the treatment of 34 patients with advanced NSCLC whose first-line treatment had failed. These patients received nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) on day 1 and day 8 of a 21-day cycle from July 2014 to February 2016. One cycle of treatment lasted 3 weeks and all patients completed more than two cycles...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731097/dba-induced-caspase-3-dependent-apoptosis-occurs-through-mitochondrial-translocation-of-cyt-c-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#20
Wenbo Jiang, Yingying Chen, Bai Li, Shuying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a by-product of disinfection, develops in drinking water during chlorination or ozonation processes. Water intake is the main source of DBA exposure in humans, which is potentially neurotoxic. The present study investigated the neurotoxic effects of DBA by assessing the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of Sprague Dawley rats intragastrically treated with DBA at concentrations of 20, 50 and 125 mg kg(-1) body weight for 28 consecutive days. The results indicated that animal weight gain and food consumption were not significantly affected by DBA...
August 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
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