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Neurotoxic reactions

Thora Lieke, Xuchao Zhang, Christian E W Steinberg, Bo Pan
In recent years, biochars have gained increasing interest in mitigating climate changes and revitalizing contaminated or drained soil. Studies determining their impact on the ecosystem, especially on soil invertebrates, however, are still scarce and the neurotoxic potential of biochars has never been evaluated before. Using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans we determined the neurotoxic effect of biochar produced from rice straw by pyrolysis at 500 °C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 mg C∙L-1...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Cong-Cong Guo, Chun-Hong Jiao, Zhen-Mei Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) brain-derived neurotrophic factor anti-sense (BDNF-AS) on the Aβ25-35 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. METHODS: PC12 cells were induced by Aβ25-35 to construct cell injury models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and then transfected with siRNA-BDNF-AS. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to detect the expressions of BDNF-AS and BDNF. Besides, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Hoechst33342 staining were utilized to analyze the cell viability and apoptosis, respectively, Western blotting to evaluate the protein expressions, immunofluorescence to assess the Cytochrome C (Cyt C) release, and Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) to measure the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
June 14, 2018: Neurological Research
David C Dorman, Melanie L Foster, Brooke Olesnevich, Brad Bolon, Aude Castel, Marina Sokolsky-Papkov, Christopher L Mariani
Superabsorbent sodium polyacrylate polymeric hydrogels that retain large amounts of liquids are used in disposable diapers, sanitary napkins, and other applications. These polymers are generally considered "nontoxic" with acute oral median lethal doses (LD50 ) >5 g/kg. Despite this favorable toxicity profile, we identified a novel toxic syndrome in dogs and rats following the ingestion of a commercial dog pad composed primarily of a polyacrylic acid hydrogel. Inappropriate mentation, cerebellar ataxia, vomiting, and intention tremors were observed within 24 h after the ingestion of up to 15...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Kuniaki Nerome, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Fuke, Uda Zahli Izzati, Kenichi Maegawa, Shigeo Sugita, Kazunori Kawasaki, Kazumichi Kuroda, Reiko Nerome
To counter the spread of multiple Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) variants harboured in alternative host species and highly neurotoxic variants with new antigenicity, such as genotype V (Muar), methods for developing more effective and low-cost vaccines against a variety of epidemic JEV strains are required. Here, we successfully synthesized large amounts of a Muar virus-like particle (MVLP) vaccine for JEV in silkworm pupae by using a Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus recombinant consisting of JEV codon-optimized envelope (E) DNA...
June 7, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Chaoxiu Ren, Xiangang Hu, Qixing Zhou
Both oxidative stress and neurotoxicity are huge challenges to human health, and effective methods and agents for resisting these adverse effects are limited, especially in vivo. It is shown here that, compared to large graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, GO quantum dots (GOQDs), as nanozymes, efficiently reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and H2 O2 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP+ )-induced PC12 cells. In addition, GOQDs exert neuroprotective effects in a neuronal cell model by decreasing apoptosis and α-synuclein...
May 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Azza Naïja, Patrick Kestemont, Benoit Chénais, Zohra Haouas, Ronny Blust, Ahmed Noureddine Helal, Justine Marchand
Marine environments are affected by large amounts of toxicants among those mercury (Hg). The aim of this study was to assess potential neurotoxic effects of Hg in the peacock blenny Salaria pavo. A sublethal contamination to 66 μg HgCl2 L-1 over periods of 1, 4, 10 and 15 days was performed. Total Hg concentrations measured in the brain highlighted the detection of Hg at days 1 and 4 following the exposure but no concentration of the metal was further detected. Partial-length cDNA of genes coding ABC transporters (abcb1, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2) and acetylcholinesterase (ache) were characterized...
February 2018: Chemosphere
Chae Kim, Xiangzhu Xiao, Shugui Chen, Tracy Haldiman, Vitautas Smirnovas, Diane Kofskey, Miriam Warren, Krystyna Surewicz, Nicholas R Maurer, Qingzhong Kong, Witold Surewicz, Jiri G Safar
The molecular mechanism that determines under physiological conditions transmissibility of the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is unknown. We report the synthesis of new human prion from the recombinant human prion protein expressed in bacteria in reaction seeded with sCJD MM1 prions and cofactor, ganglioside GM1. These synthetic human prions were infectious to transgenic mice expressing non-glycosylated human prion protein, causing neurologic dysfunction after 459 and 224 days in the first and second passage, respectively...
June 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Yehong Du, Min Fu, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Aβ accumulation leads to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, axonal injury, synapse loss, and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, reducing Aβ levels should exert a neuroprotective effect against AD. Ginsenoside Rf, an extract from Panax notoginseng, has potent anti-fatigue, anti-nociception, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation properties. However, it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rf is effective in the treatment of AD...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
A Trapani, D Mandracchia, G Tripodo, S Cometa, S Cellamare, E De Giglio, P Klepetsanis, S G Antimisiaris
The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of non-coated-, chitosan-(CS)- or chitosan-glutathione conjugate- (CS-GSH)-coated liposomes to protect the neurotransmitter Dopamine (DA) from the autoxidation reaction in neutral/alkaline conditions. This may be of interest in the development of nanotechnology-based approaches to improve Parkinson's disease treatment because decreased ROS production and reduced DA associated neurotoxicity are expected. For the mentioned purposes, DA-loaded vesicles were prepared by the Dried Reconstituted Vesicles (DRV) method, and were subsequently coated using solutions of polycations...
May 26, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lili Xu, Jianjun Shen, Lina Yu, Jianliang Sun, Min Yan
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane can induce neonatal wide neurodegenerative and serious deficit to space learning tasks in rodents, however, the specific mechanism is still unclear. At present, the study tried to explore the possible role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity through observing the changes in the levels of autophagy in the newborn SD rat hippocampus tissue after sevoflurane exposure. METHODS: We used seventy-two SD rats of seven days receiving sevoflurane exposure to explore hippocampus neuron autophagy and apoptosis...
May 24, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
M M Guixia Xu, Xinjie Liu, M M Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis is one of the most common infectious diseases with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 (vitB6) is an important vitamin which acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway and may thus limit the accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites and preserve the cellular energy status...
May 22, 2018: Brain Research
Youyou Zhang, Xiaowei Zhou, Jie Zhang, Chuhuai Guan, Liang Liu
Cantharides poisoning may cause serious adverse reactions or even death.We attempt to retrieval articles automatically and manually with the key words of "cantharides" and " poisoning " or " side effects ", then summarized and analyzed the cases of cantharides poisoning from 1996 to 2016 in China, to provide some reference for clinical drug use and forensic identification. Finally, 91 cases were conformance to require; general data, clinical data, prognosis, autopsy results were analyzed...
May 10, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
László Tóth, Attila Mándi, Dániel Váradi, Tibor Kovács, Anna Szabados, Attila Kiss-Szikszai, Qi Gong, Haiyan Zhang, Péter Mátyus, Sándor Antus, Tibor Kurtán
Synthesis of racemic hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoline derivatives (1-8) was performed by utilizing the Knoevenagel-[1,5]-hydride shift-cyclization domino reaction. Separation of the enantiomers of the chiral products (1-8) was carried out by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography, and online high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were recorded to elucidate the absolute configuration by comparing the experimental and time-dependent density functional theory-ECD spectra obtained at various theoretical levels...
May 12, 2018: Chirality
Avinash C Tripathi, Savita Upadhyay, Sarvesh Paliwal, Shailendra K Saraf
A novel series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines (5a-5t ) was prepared via Claisen Schmidt condensation, followed by heterocyclization with hydrazine hydrate, substitution of N1 hydrogen of 2-pyrazoline nucleus with 4-chlorobenzenesulfonylchloride, applying conventional and green chemistry approaches. Among the two, microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) emerged as a better synthetic tool in terms of faster reaction rate and high yield. Various physicochemical and spectral studies were conducted to characterize the synthesized derivatives including- IR, Mass, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and elemental analysis...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Sha Feng, Jue Liu, Biao Cheng, Aiping Deng, Hong Zhang
It has been acknowledged that environmental stress is a risk factor for developing mental disorders. Chronic stress may contribute to the hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a sustained rise in the levels of glucocorticoids (GCs). A high concentration of corticosterone (CORT) damages neuronal PC12 cells. It has been reported that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, exhibits neuroprotective activity. However, the protective effect of EGCG on neuronal cells injured by CORT remains to be elucidated...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Daniela S Arroyo, Emilia A Gaviglio, Javier M Peralta Ramos, Claudio Bussi, Maria P Avalos, Liliana M Cancela, Pablo Iribarren
Acute brain injury leads to the recruitment and activation of immune cells including resident microglia and infiltrating peripheral myeloid cells (MC), which contribute to the inflammatory response involved in neuronal damage. We previously reported that TLR2 stimulation by peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro and in vivo , induced microglial cell activation followed by autophagy induction. In this report, we evaluated if phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pharmacological inhibitors LY294200 and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) can modulate the innate immune response to PGN in the central nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ning Yu, Yun Tong, Danni Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu, Hua Ji
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The roles of glyphosate in embryo-toxicity and neurotoxicity have been reported in human and animal models. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. However, the role of glyphosate in neuronal development is still not fully understood. Our previous study found that perinatal glyphosate exposure resulted in differential microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of mouse offspring...
July 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Flávia V Soares, Alexandre A de Castro, Ander F Pereira, Daniel H S Leal, Daiana T Mancini, Ondrej Krejcar, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Kamil Kuca
Organophosphorus compounds (OP) are part of a group of compounds that may be hazardous to health. They are called neurotoxic agents because of their action on the nervous system, inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and resulting in a cholinergic crisis. Their high toxicity and rapid action lead to irreversible damage to the nervous system, drawing attention to developing new treatment methods. The diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) enzyme has been considered as a potent biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of toxic OP and has potential for bioremediation of this kind of intoxication...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Min Li, Jing Zhou, Weifeng Jin, Xiaohong Li, Yuyan Zhang
Background: Hemorrhagic transformation, neurotoxicity, short treatment time windows, and other defects are considered as the major limitations for the thrombolytic therapy. This study is devoted to figure out whether Danhong injection (DHI) combined with tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) could extend the treatment time windows and ameliorate brain injury, hemorrhagic complication and BBB disruption after focal embolic stroke. Methods: In vitro , the combined concentrations of DHI and t-PA were added to wells reacted with plasminogen and D-Val-Leu-Lys-AMC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wafa AlDhaleei, Ayesha AlMarzooqi, Nouran Gaber
Metronidazole is a commonly used antimicrobial worldwide. The most common side effects that have been reported are nausea, vomiting and hypersensitivity reactions. However, neurotoxicity has been reported with the use of metronidazole but rather rare. The most common neurological manifestation is peripheral neuropathy involvement in the form of sensory loss. It is worth mentioning that central neurotoxicity is a rare side effect of metronidazole use but reversible. The manifestations vary from a headache, altered mental status to focal neurological deficits...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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