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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819054/role-of-gnih-in-photoperiodic-regulation-of-seasonal-reproduction-in-the-eurasian-tree-sparrow
#1
Anand S Dixit, Namram S Singh, Sanborlang Byrsat
Seasonal reproductive cycles of most birds are regulated by photoperiod via neuroendocrine control. GnIH in hypothalamus has been reported to act as neuroendocrine integrator of photoperiodic cues. In this study, both captive and field investigations were carried out to understand the effects of photoperiod and seasonality on GnIH expression in subtropical tree sparrows. Monthly observations on GnIH mRNA and peptide expressions in wild birds over a year revealed significant increase in GnIH mRNA level and number of GnIH-ir neurons during the nonbreeding season when compared to their expressions in the breeding season...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815278/phenotypic-genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-7b-1-a-conditional-male-sterile-mutant-in-tomato
#2
Anna Pucci, Maurizio Enea Picarella, Andrea Mazzucato
We characterized the photoperiod-sensitive 7B - 1 male-sterile mutant in tomato, showing its allelism with stamenless - 2 . Mapping experiments indicated SlGLO2 , a B-class MADS-box family member, as a strong candidate to underlie the 7B - 1 mutation. The interest in male sterility (MS) dates back to a long time due to its perspective use in hybrid seed production. Here, we characterize 7B-1, a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile (ms) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), in which stamens are restored to fertility by permissive growth conditions in short days (SD)...
August 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814612/effects-of-a-social-cue-on-reproductive-development-and-pre-alternate-molt-in-seasonally-breeding-migrant-and-resident-female-songbirds-zonotrichia-leucophrys
#3
Helen E Chmura, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield, Thomas P Hahn
To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811515/localization-of-photoperiod-responsive-circadian-oscillators-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#4
Tomoko Yoshikawa, Natsuko F Inagaki, Seiji Takagi, Shigeru Kuroda, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) yields photoperiodic response to transfer seasonal information to physiology and behavior. To identify the precise location involved in photoperiodic response in the SCN, we analyzed circadian Period1 and PERIOD2 rhythms in horizontally sectioned SCN of mice exposed to a long or short day. Statistical analyses of bioluminescence images with respective luciferase reporters on pixel level enabled us to identify the distinct localization of three oscillating regions; a large open-ring-shape region, the region at the posterior end and a sharply demarcated oval region at the center of the SCN...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808440/corrigendum-coupling-developmental-physiology-photoperiod-and-temperature-to-model-phenology-and-dynamics-of-an-invasive-heteropteran-halyomorpha-halys
#5
Anne L Nielsen, Shi Chen, Shelby J Fleischer
[This corrects the article on p. 165 in vol. 7, PMID: 27242539.].
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807479/multifactorial-analyses-revealed-optimal-aquaculture-modalities-improving-husbandry-fitness-without-clear-effect-on-stress-and-immune-status-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca
#6
Sébastien Baekelandt, Baptiste Redivo, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Thibaut Bournonville, Alexis Houndji, Benoît Bernard, Najlae El Kertaoui, Mélodie Schmitz, Pascal Fontaine, Jean-Noël Gardeur, Yannick Ledoré, Patrick Kestemont
High mortality and impairment in growth rate during pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) ongrowing are among the major bottlenecks for its development in aquaculture. These failures may be related to high stress responsiveness since the rearing conditions are not yet optimized for this species. The objectives were to characterize the stress and immunological responses of pikeperch to major aquaculture modalities, and to identify the optimal aquaculture conditions for improving its welfare status. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (2(8-4))...
August 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804859/fertility-life-table-of-tetranychus-palmarum-flechtmann-noronha-acari-tetranychidae-in-oil-palm
#7
A C S Noronha, C T Ferreira, E J M Tavares, D B Lima
Some species of spider mites belonging to the Tetranychidae family are known to associate with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. - Arecaceae). The occurrence of Tetranychus palmarum Flechtmann & Noronha (Acari, Tetranychidae) was verified on oil palm seedlings under greenhouse conditions in the State of Pará in Northern Brazil. Plants with colonies of T. palmarum presented yellowish spots on leaflets and leaves with chlorosis. The objective of this study was to access the biology and fertility life table of T...
August 13, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792470/differential-mechanisms-of-photosynthetic-acclimation-to-light-and-low-temperature-in-arabidopsis-and-the-extremophile-eutrema-salsugineum
#8
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791459/three-year-lifecycle-large-body-and-very-high-threshold-temperature-in-the-cricket-gryllus-argenteus-for-special-adaptation-to-desiccation-cycle-in-malawi
#9
Takuya Kosumi, Makio Takeda
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism.Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets.Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland...
August 8, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774755/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75%C3%A2-s
#10
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75°S, the sun does not rise for 110d in the winter and does not set for 100d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
August 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771490/effect-of-growing-media-and-fertilization-on-sugarcane-flowering-under-artificial-photoperiod
#11
Anna L Hale, Paul M White, Charles L Webber, James R Todd
The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Variety Development Program in Houma, LA aims to maximize the number of panicles available for crossing through artificial manipulation of the environment. In a three-year study, the effect of growing media, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction on sugarcane flowering (% of panicles emerged), and number of days to flowering (DTF) under an artificial photoperiod treatment were assessed. The commercially-available sugarcane cultivar, 'HoCP 96-540' was planted in 2.8-L pots and subjected to the standard local photoperiod treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770675/photoperiodism-of-male-offspring-production-in-the-water-flea-daphnia-pulex
#12
Kenji Toyota, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Taisen Iguchi
Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770098/boar-management-and-semen-handling-factors-affect-the-quality-of-boar-extended-semen
#13
REVIEW
Alfonso Lopez Rodriguez, Ann Van Soom, Ioannis Arsenakis, Dominiek Maes
Artificial insemination (AI) is the preferred method for reproduction in the majority of the intensive pig production systems Worldwide. To this end, fresh extended ready-to-use semen doses are either purchased from AI-centres or produced by boars kept on-farm. For profitable semen production, it is necessary to obtain a maximum amount of high quality semen from each boar. This paper reviews current knowledge on factors that may affect semen quality by influencing the boar or the semen during processing. Genetic markers could be used for early detection of boars with the highest fertility potential...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758689/the-antiphasic-regulatory-module-comprising-cdf5-and-its-antisense-rna-flore-links-the-circadian-clock-to-photoperiodic-flowering
#14
Rossana Henriques, Huan Wang, Jun Liu, Marc Boix, Li-Fang Huang, Nam-Hai Chua
Circadian rhythms of gene expression are generated by the combinatorial action of transcriptional and translational feedback loops as well as chromatin remodelling events. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are natural antisense transcripts (NATs) to transcripts encoding central oscillator components were proposed as modulators of core clock function in mammals (Per) and fungi (frq/qrf). Although oscillating lncRNAs exist in plants, their functional characterization is at an initial stage. By screening an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA custom-made array we identified CDF5 LONG NONCODING RNA (FLORE), a circadian-regulated lncRNA that is a NAT of CDF5...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757672/aggressive-behaviours-track-transitions-in-seasonal-phenotypes-of-female-siberian-hamsters
#15
Nikki M Rendon, Andrea C Amez, Melissa R Proffitt, Elizabeth R Bauserman, Gregory E Demas
Seasonally breeding animals exhibit profound physiological and behavioural responses to changes in ambient day length (photoperiod), including changes in reproductive function and territorial aggression.Species where aggression persists when gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal hormones are low, such as Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), challenge the well-established framework that gonadal hormones are important mediators of aggression.A solution to this apparent paradox is that a season-specific increase in sensitivity to hormones in brain areas associated with aggression offsets low levels of gonadal hormones during periods of reproductive quiescence...
May 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755938/effects-of-photoperiod-modulation-and-melatonin-feeding-around-drying-off-on-bovine-mammary-gland-involution
#16
B Ponchon, P Lacasse, S Ollier, X Zhao
The risk for a dairy cow to acquire new intramammary infections is high during the transition from lactation to the dry period, because of udder engorgement and altered immune functions. Once the gland is fully involuted, it becomes much more resistant to intramammary infections. Therefore, strategies to depress milk yield before drying-off and accelerate the involution process after drying-off could be beneficial for udder health. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod manipulation and melatonin feeding from 14 d before to 14 d after drying-off on the speed of the involution process...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752516/cycling-dof-factor-1-represses-transcription-through-the-topless-co-repressor-to-control-photoperiodic-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#17
Greg S Goralogia, Tongkun Liu, Lin Zhao, Paul M Panipinto, Evan D Groover, Yashkarn S Bains, Takato Imaizumi
CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) and its homologs play an important role in the floral transition by repressing the expression of floral activator genes such as CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis. The day-length specific removal of CDF1-dependent repression is a critical mechanism in photoperiodic flowering. However, the mechanism by which CDF1 represses CO and FT transcription remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis CDF proteins contain non-EAR motif-like conserved domains required for interaction with the TOPLESS (TPL) co-repressor protein...
July 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748628/reproductive-phenology-of-creole-horses-in-ecuador-in-the-absence-of-photoperiod-variation-the-effects-of-forage-availability-and-flooding-affecting-body-condition-of-mares
#18
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Concha Mateos, Belén Caño Vergara, Chian L Gómez, Verónica Macías
Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year...
July 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744175/genetic-variation-of-world-soybean-maturity-date-and-geographic-distribution-of-maturity-groups
#19
Xueqin Liu, Ji-An Wu, Haixiang Ren, Yuxin Qi, Chunyan Li, Jiqiu Cao, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhipeng Zhang, Zhaoyan Cai, Junyi Gai
The maturity date of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sensitive to photoperiod, which varies with latitude and growing seasons. The maturity group (MG) system, composed of 13 MGs, is a major approach in characterizing varieties' ecological properties and adaptable areas. A total of 512 world soybean varieties, including 48 MG checks, were tested at a major site (Nanjing, 32.04°N) with portions tested in supplementary sites (Heihe, 50.22°N; Mudanjiang, 44.60°N; Jining, 35.38°N and Nanning, 22.84°N) in China to explore the world-wide MG distribution...
June 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743760/high-growth-temperatures-and-high-soil-nitrogen-do-not-alter-differences-in-co2-assimilation-between-invasive-phalaris-arundinacea-reed-canarygrass-and-carex-stricta-tussock-sedge
#20
Elizabeth F Waring, A Scott Holaday
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Global change in temperature and soil nitrogen availability could affect plant community composition, potentially giving an advantage to invasive species compared to native species. We addressed how high temperatures affected CO2 assimilation parameters for invasive Phalaris arundinacea and a sedge, Carex stricta, it displaces, in natural and controlled environments. METHODS: Photosynthetic parameters were measured in a wetland in Indiana, USA during the abnormally warm year of 2012...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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