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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#1
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431978/temporal-niche-switching-in-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx-seasonal-plasticity-of-24h-activity-patterns-in-a-large-desert-mammal
#2
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Mads F Bertelsen, Osama B Mohammed, Jason Hemingway, Nigel C Bennett, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, a moderately large mammal that inhabits a harsh desert environment, has been shown to exhibit seasonal variations in activity and inactivity patterns. Here we analyzed the continuous year-round activity patterns of twelve free-roaming Arabian oryx under natural conditions from two varying desert environments in Saudi Arabia using abdominally implanted activity meters. We simultaneously recorded weather parameters at both sites to determine whether environmental factors are responsible for temporal niche switching as well as the seasonal structuring and timing of this behavioural plasticity...
April 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#3
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430975/behavioral-response-of-the-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-hemiptera-pentatomidae-to-semiochemicals-deployed-inside-and-outside-anthropogenic-structures-during-the-overwintering-period
#4
William R Morrison, Angelita Acebes-Doria, Emily Ogburn, Thomas P Kuhar, James F Walgenbach, J Christopher Bergh, Louis Nottingham, Anthony Dimeglio, Patricia Hipkins, Tracy C Leskey
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. halys have been developed and used to monitor populations in field studies. To date, no study has investigated the applicability of these monitoring tools for use indoors by building residents during the overwintering period. Herein, we 1) assessed when in late winter (diapause) and spring (postdiapause) H...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430521/perinatal-light-imprinting-of-circadian-clocks-and-systems-pliccs-a-signature-of-photoperiod-around-birth-on-circadian-system-stability-and-association-with-cancer
#5
Philip Lewis, Thomas C Erren
Recent findings from animal models suggest that plasticity of human circadian clocks and systems may be differentially affected by different paradigms of perinatal photoperiod exposure to the detriment of health in later life, including cancer development. Focusing on the example of cancer, we carry out a series of systematic literature reviews concerning perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems (PLICCS) in animal models, and concerning the risk of cancer development with the primary determinants of the perinatal photoperiod, namely season of birth or latitude of birth...
April 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429530/retraction-each-of-the-chloroplast-potassium-efflux-antiporters-affects-photosynthesis-and-growth-of-fully-developed-arabidopsis-rosettes-under-short-day-photoperiod-by-somnath-dana-andrei-herdean-bj%C3%A3-rn-lundin-and-cornelia-spetea
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429252/analysis-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-during-the-flowering-initiation-process-of-lilium%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-formolongi
#7
Yu-Fan Li, Ming-Fang Zhang, Meng Zhang, Gui-Xia Jia
The onset of flowering is critical for the reproductive development of plants. Lilium × formolongi is a lily hybrid that flowers within a year after sowing. We successfully identified four important stages during vegetative growth and flowering initiation of L. × formolongi under long day conditions. The plant tissues from the four stages were used in a genome-wide transcriptional analysis to investigate stage-specific changes of gene expression in L. × formolongi. In total, the sequence reads of the four RNA-sequencing libraries were assembled into 52,824 unigenes, of which 37,031 (70...
April 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427902/effects-of-different-green-light-intensities-on-the-growth-performance-and-endocrine-properties-of-barfin-flounder-verasper-moseri
#8
Akiyoshi Takahashi, Satoshi Kasagi, Naoto Murakami, Sumihisa Furufuji, Shigeto Kikuchi, Kanta Mizusawa, Tadashi Andoh
We previously reported that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was effectively stimulated by the green light compared to the blue and red lights. Herein, we report the effects of different green light intensities on the growth and endocrine system of the fish. Fish were reared in a dark room with light from a light-emitting diode (LED) at a peak wavelength of 518 nm under controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5 h, light:dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light) with three levels of photon flux density (PFD)-2 (low), 7 (medium), or 21 (high) μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at the water surface...
April 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426157/effects-of-ambient-temperature-in-association-with-photoperiod-on-phenology-and-on-the-expressions-of-major-plant-developmental-genes-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#9
Tibor Kiss, Laura E Dixon, Alexandra Soltész, Judit Bányai, Marianna Mayer, Krisztina Balla, Vincent Allard, Gábor Galiba, Gustavo A Slafer, Simon Griffiths, Ottó Veisz, Ildikó Karsai
In addition to its role in vernalization, temperature is an important environmental stimulus in determining plant growth and development. We used factorial combinations of two photoperiods (16H, 12H) and three temperature levels (11 °C, 18 °C, and 25 °C) to study the temperature responses of 19 wheat cultivars with established genetic relationships. Temperature produced more significant effects on plant development than photoperiod, with strong genotypic components. Wheat genotypes with PPD-D1 photoperiod sensitive allele were sensitive to temperature; their development was delayed by higher temperature, which intensified under non-inductive conditions...
April 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423315/mir-132-212-modulates-seasonal-adaptation-and-dendritic-morphology-of-the-central-circadian-clock
#10
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Cheng-Kang Chiang, Jonathan L K Ong, Sara Hegazi, Arthur H Cheng, Pascale Bouchard-Cannon, Michael Fana, Christopher Lowden, Peng Zhang, Béatrice Bothorel, Matthew G Michniewicz, Stephen T Magill, Melissa M Holmes, Richard H Goodman, Valérie Simonneaux, Daniel Figeys, Hai-Ying M Cheng
The central circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), encodes day length information by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we report that genetic ablation of miR-132/212 alters entrainment to different day lengths and non-24 hr day-night cycles, as well as photoperiodic regulation of Period2 expression in the SCN. SCN neurons from miR-132/212-deficient mice have significantly reduced dendritic spine density, along with altered methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2) rhythms. In Syrian hamsters, a model seasonal rodent, day length regulates spine density on SCN neurons in a melatonin-independent manner, as well as expression of miR-132, miR-212, and their direct target, MeCP2...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419907/flc-expression-is-down-regulated-by-cold-treatment-in-diplotaxis-tenuifolia-wild-rocket-but-flowering-time-is-unaffected
#11
Jemma L Taylor, Andrea Massiah, Sue Kennedy, Yiguo Hong, Stephen D Jackson
Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) has become a very popular salad leaf due to its peppery taste. It is part of the Brassicaceae family and thus has a high level of homology at the DNA level to other Brassica species including Arabidopsis thaliana. The vernalization and photoperiodic requirements of wild rocket have not been reported to date. Photoperiodic experiments described here demonstrate that rocket is a facultative long day plant. To investigate the vernalization requirement, both seed and young plants were given vernalization treatments at 4°C for different lengths of time...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414547/distribution-of-period-immunoreactive-neurons-and-temporal-change-of-the-immunoreactivity-under-long-day-and-short-day-conditions-in-the-larval-brain-of-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-similis
#12
Mizuho Yamamoto, Sakiko Shiga, Shin G Goto
The flesh fly Sarcophaga similis show a clear photoperiodic response; they develop into adults under long days, whereas they arrest their development at the pupal stage under short days. Although the involvement of a circadian clock in photoperiodic time measurement is suggested in this species, the anatomical location of the clock neurons responsible for the time measurement has been unknown. We detected two PERIOD-immunoreactive cell clusters in the larval brain; one cluster was located at the dorsoanterior region and the other at the medial region...
April 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411210/photoperiod-throughout-the-maternal-life-cycle-not-photoperiod-during-seed-imbibition-influences-germination-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Toshiyuki Imaizumi, Gabriela Auge, Kathleen Donohue
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plants adjust their phenology in response to seasonal cues experienced both by their parents and by themselves, and coordinating responses to these cues is necessary for expressing adaptive phenology. We investigated how cues are integrated across time to influence an important progeny phenotype, i.e., seed germination. METHODS: We used Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate how the photoperiod experienced by maternal parents and by progeny influences seed germination...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408541/night-break-experiments-shed-light-on-the-photoperiod-1-mediated-flowering
#14
Stephen Pearce, Lindsay M Shaw, Huiqiong Lin, Jennifer D Cotter, Chengxia Li, Jorge Dubcovsky
Plants utilize variation in day length (photoperiod) to anticipate seasonal changes. They respond by modulating their growth and development to maximize seed production, which in cereal crops is directly related to yield. In wheat, the acceleration of flowering under long days (LD) is dependent on the light induction of PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) by phytochromes. Under LD, PPD1 activates FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), a mobile signaling protein that travels from the leaves to the shoot apical meristem to promote flowering...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399305/energy-usage-of-known-age-blacklegged-ticks-acari-ixodidae-what-is-the-best-method-for-determining-physiological-age
#15
Justin R Pool, Jenna R Petronglo, Richard C Falco, Thomas J Daniels
Ticks expend energy while host-seeking and must consume blood to advance to the next life stage. The energy required for activity is derived from the tick's lipid reserves, a valuable resource that sustains the tick until it finds the next host and can take another bloodmeal. The amount of lipid reserves in an unfed tick has been proposed as an index of tick biological age. Two different methods for aging nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, were analyzed in this study. To study lipid usage, colony-raised nymphs were held in lab-controlled chambers at 21...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399169/a-photoperiod-responsive-protein-compendium-and-conceptual-proteome-roadmap-outline-in-maize-grown-in-growth-chambers-with-controlled-conditions
#16
You-Zhi Li, Xian-Wei Fan, Qiang Chen, Hao Zhong
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the major staple food crops of the world. However, high photoperiod sensitivity, especially for tropical germplasms, impedes attempts to improve maize agronomical traits by integration of tropical and temperate maize germplasms. Physiological and phenotypic responses of maize to photoperiod have widely been investigated based on multi-site field observations; however, proteome-based responsive mechanisms under controlled photoperiod regimes, nutrient and moisture soils are not yet well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394216/the-effect-of-photoperiod-on-the-mood-of-reddit-users
#17
Kawin Ethayarajh, Frank Rudzicz
Research into the seasonality of mood has long been stymied by a lack of data, in part due to the prohibitive cost of traditional data collection and the tendency for data to be highly localized. Recent work using social media data has evinced the utility of psycholinguistic features in tracking mood and mental illness, but Twitter data, which are nonanonymous and short-form by design, have almost exclusively been the subject of analysis. In this article, we present a novel corpus within this field of study, comments from the social network Reddit, which does not suffer from these potential limitations...
April 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393358/effects-of-altered-photoperiod-and-temperature-on-expression-levels-of-gonadotrophin-subunit-mrnas-in-the-female-stinging-catfish-heteropneustes-fossilis
#18
A Acharjee, R Chaube, K P Joy
Differential effects of photoperiod and temperature on the temporal modulation of gonadotrophin subunit genes (glycoprotein α, gpα), follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) and luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) expression were investigated in the stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Female H. fossilis were exposed to varying photoperiod and temperature conditions for 14 and 28 days in the early preparatory phase of the annual reproductive cycle. Gonadotrophin subunit gene expression, gonado-somatic index (IG ), ovarian histology and plasma steroid hormone levels were evaluated...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391047/evolution-of-photoperiod-sensing-in-plants-and-algae
#19
REVIEW
Gloria Serrano-Bueno, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Eva Lucas-Reina, Jose M Romero, Federico Valverde
Measuring day length confers a strong fitness improvement to photosynthetic organisms as it allows them to anticipate light phases and take the best decisions preceding diurnal transitions. In close association with signals from the circadian clock and the photoreceptors, photoperiodic sensing constitutes also a precise way to determine the passing of the seasons and to take annual decisions such as the best time to flower or the beginning of dormancy. Photoperiodic sensing in photosynthetic organisms is ancient and two major stages in its evolution could be identified, the cyanobacterial time sensing and the evolutionary tool kit that arose in green algae and developed into the photoperiodic system of modern plants...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384391/trends-in-anecdotal-fox-sightings-in-tasmania-accounted-for-by-psychological-factors
#20
Clive A Marks, Malcolm Clark, David Obendorf, Graham P Hall, Inês Soares, Filipe Pereira
There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001 it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public and this implied the wide distribution of foxes...
April 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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