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Cheng-Gang Ou, Ji-Hua Mao, Li-Jie Liu, Cheng-Jiang Li, Huai-Fu Ren, Zhi-Wei Zhao, Fei-Yun Zhuang
Carrot is generally regarded as a biennial plant with an obligatory vernalization requirement. Early spring cultivation makes carrot plants vulnerable to premature bolting, which results in a loss of commercial value. However, our knowledge of flowering time genes and flowering mechanisms in carrot remain limited. We therefore performed transcriptome analysis to identify the major genes that regulate flowering time in carrot. The bolting behavior of carrot is influenced by low temperature, illumination intensity and photoperiod...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biology
Michał Książkiewicz, Sandra Rychel, Matthew N Nelson, Katarzyna Wyrwa, Barbara Naganowska, Bogdan Wolko
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Juan L Reig-Valiente, Juan Viruel, Ester Sales, Luis Marqués, Javier Terol, Marta Gut, Sophia Derdak, Manuel Talón, Concha Domingo
BACKGROUND: After its domestication, rice cultivation expanded from tropical regions towards northern latitudes with temperate climate in a progressive process to overcome limiting photoperiod and temperature conditions. This process has originated a wide range of diversity that can be regarded as a valuable resource for crop improvement. In general, current rice breeding programs have to deal with a lack of both germplasm accessions specifically adapted to local agro-environmental conditions and adapted donors carrying desired agronomical traits...
December 2016: Rice
Stefania Casagrande, Rianne Pinxten, Erika Zaid, Marcel Eens
Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2016: PeerJ
Naga Pavan Kumar Chevala, Naga Thirumalesh Chevala, Kirubakaran Dhanakodi, Rama Rao Nadendla, Chandrashekara Krishnappa Nagarathna
BACKGROUND: Tea is an economic important crop with high medicinal value due to rich polyphenols content. In the present research we studied the accumulation of polyphenols of in vitro regenerated callus from anthers. OBJECTIVE: Callus induction of tea anthers and in vitro accumulation of phenolic compounds from the anther-derived callus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardization of callus induction for tea anthers. In vitro generated callus was screened for in vivo accumulation of catechins and its isomers were screened by FC reagent staining technique...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
N Taimori, D Kahrizi, V Abdossi, A H Papzan
The present study describes the effects of light conditions, different kinds and concentrations of auxins [Naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] with cytokinin (Kin) in MS medium on callus induction and embryogenesis in Crataegus pseudoheterophylla, C. aronia and C.meyeri. At first leave explants sections were cultured on different combinations of plant growth regulators in dark and light for callus initiation and light conditions to evaluation the percentage and duration of survival, callus diameter, callus fresh weight and dry...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
Circadian oscillators found across a variety of species are subject to periodic external light-dark forcing. Entrainment to light-dark cycles enables the circadian system to align biological functions with appropriate times of day or night. Phase response curves (PRCs) have been used for decades to gain valuable insights into entrainment; however, PRCs may not accurately describe entrainment to photoperiods with substantial amounts of both light and dark due to their reliance on a single limit cycle attractor...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Gang Li, David Talmy, Douglas A Campbell
Light drives phytoplankton productivity, so phytoplankton must exploit variable intensities and durations of light exposure, depending upon season, latitude and depth. We analyzed the growth, photophysiology and composition of small, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and large, Thalassiosira punctigera, centric diatoms from temperate, coastal marine habitats, responding to a matrix of photoperiods and growth light intensities. T. pseudonana showed fastest growth rates under long photoperiods and low to moderate light intensities, while the larger T...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Maartje Liefting, Jarno Cosijn, Jacintha Ellers
Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Keiji Matsumoto, Yoshitaka Suetsugu, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Toyomi Kotaki, Shin G Goto, Tetsuro Shinoda, Sakiko Shiga
Juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis is inhibited under short-day conditions in the brown-winged green bug Plautia stali. We investigated allatostatic molecules in the brain of P. stali. Methanol brain extracts strongly inhibited JH biosynthesis. The allatostatic activities of the brain extracts were heat stable but gently suppressed by trypsin treatment, indicating that the allatostatic molecules were peptides. Grybi-MIP1, found in Gryllus bimaculatus as an allatostatic molecule, inhibited JH biosynthesis in P...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Rachel A Johnston, Kristina L Paxton, Frank R Moore, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometers of non-stop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally-timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition...
October 16, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Alexandra Staikou, Evagelia Kesidou, Marina-Elena Garefalaki, Basile Michaelidis
Land snails species occur in a range of habitats from humid to semi-arid and arid ones and seasonal variations in their physiology and biochemical composition have been linked to annual cycles of photoperiod, temperature, humidity and water availability. In an effort to understand the thermal tolerance and the impact of temperature elevation on tissue metabolism of land snails we determined the mortality, heamolymph PO2 and the activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism in three land snail species (Helix lucorum, Helix pomatia and Cornu aspersum) differing in their geographical distribution and inhabiting areas with different climatic characteristics...
October 14, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Daniel Woods, Ryland Bednarek, Frédéric Bouché, Sean Gordon, John P Vogel, David F Garvin, Richard M Amasino
The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a non-domesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat and barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time...
October 14, 2016: Plant Physiology
Bryce A Richardson, Lindsay Chaney, Nancy L Shaw, Shannon M Still
Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity can accommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extent and variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to late November among gardens...
October 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Xin-Yu Liu, Deng-Bao Yang, Yan-Chao Xu, Marianne O L Gronning, Fang Zhang, De-Hua Wang, John R Speakman
Brandt's voles have an annual cycle of body weight and adiposity. These changes can be induced in the laboratory by manipulation of photoperiod. In the present study, male captive bred Brandt's voles aged 35 days were acclimated to a short day (SD) photoperiod (8L:16D) for 70 days. A subgroup of individuals (n=16) were implanted with transmitters to monitor physical activity and body temperature. They were then randomly allocated into long day (LD=16L:8D) (n=19: 8 with transmitters) and SD (n=18: 8 with transmitters) groups for an additional 70 days...
September 30, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mindy L Richlen, Oliver Zielinski, Lars Holinde, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Yihua Lyu, Donald M Anderson
The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense has been extensively studied due its toxin-producing capabilities and consequent impacts to human health and economies. This study investigated the prevalence of resting cysts of A. fundyense in western Greenland and Iceland to assess the historical presence and magnitude of bloom populations in the region, and to characterize environmental conditions during summer, when bloom development may occur. Analysis of sediments collected from these locations showed that Alexandrium cysts were present at low to moderate densities in most areas surveyed, with highest densities observed in western Iceland...
2016: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Voravasa Chaiworakul, Sunantha Kosonsiriluk, Laura J Mauro, Mohamed E El Halawani
The mechanism(s) underlying photorefractoriness in temperate zone seasonally breeding birds remains undetermined. Our recent findings reveal a link between the upregulation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) in the premammillary nucleus (PMM) and the state of photorefractoriness. Gonadal steroid levels fluctuate during the breeding season; increasing after gonadal recrudescence and declining sharply once gonadal regression begins. Here, we examined the effect of gonadal steroid withdrawal on the expression of GABAARs in the turkey PMM...
October 4, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Moritz Hess, Henning Wildhagen, Laura Verena Junker, Ingo Ensminger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: BMC Genomics
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