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Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Vicente Seco-Rovira, Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Victor Quesada-Cubo, Concepción Ferrer, Luis Miguel Pastor
Sertoli cells, the testicular somatic cells of the seminiferous epithelium, are vital for the survival of the epithelium. They undergo proliferation and apoptosis during fetal, neonatal, and prepubertal development. Apoptosis is increased in certain situations such as exposure to many substances, for example, toxics, or short photoperiod in the non-breeding season of some mammals. Therefore, it has always been considered that Sertoli cells that reach adulthood are quiescent cells, that is to say, nonproliferative, do not die, are terminally differentiated, and whose numbers remain constant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susana M Wadgymar, Jane E Ogilvie, David W Inouye, Arthur E Weis, Jill T Anderson
Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. We integrate data from a 43 yr record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3 yr snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering in relation to environmental drivers known to influence phenology: the timing of snowmelt, the accumulation of growing degree days, and photoperiod...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
Annalisa Falace, Sara Kaleb, Gina De La Fuente, Valentina Asnaghi, Mariachiara Chiantore
Due to multiple impacts, Cystoseira forests are experiencing a significant decline, which is affecting the ecosystem services they provide. Despite conservation efforts, there is an urgent need to develop best practices and large-scale restoration strategies. To implement restoration actions, we developed an ex situ protocol for the cultivation of Cystoseira. amentacea var. stricta, aimed at reducing the time needed for laboratory culture, thus avoiding prolonged maintenance and minimizing costs. Specifically, we tested the effects of temperature, light and substratum on settlement and growth of early life stages using a factorial experiment...
2018: PloS One
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Juan Cheng, Xu Huang, Yue Liang, Tian Xue, Liecheng Wang, Jin Bao
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) exhibit circadian variation in their neuronal activities. Here, we show that their input synapses undergo daily regulation. We discovered daily variation in the frequencies, but not the peak amplitudes, of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) for both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. In addition, the changes in the frequencies of mPSCs from glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses were antiphasic: An increase in the glutamatergic mPSC frequency and a decrease in the GABAergic mPSC frequency co-occurred during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle...
February 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
E Jean Finnegan, Brett Ford, Xiaomei Wallace, Filomena Pettolino, Patrick T Griffin, Robert J Schmitz, Peng Zhang, Jose M Barrero, Matthew J Hayden, Scott A Boden, Colin A Cavanagh, Steve M Swain, Ben Trevaskis
The number of rachis nodes (spikelets) on a wheat spike is a component of grain yield that correlates with flowering time. The genetic basis regulating flowering in cereals is well understood, but there are reports that flowering time can be modified at high frequency by selective breeding, suggesting that it may be regulated by both epigenetic and genetic mechanisms. We investigated the role of DNA methylation in regulating spikelet number and flowering time by treating a semi-spring wheat with the demethylating agent, Zebularine...
February 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ankush Bansal, Mehul Salaria, Tashil Sharma, Tsering Stobdan, Anil Kant
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious medicinal plant found at high altitude. The plant has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals. In this article, whole transcriptome de novo assemblies of male and female flower bud samples were carried out using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform to determine the role of the genes involved in sex determination. Moreover, genes with differential expression in male and female transcriptomes were identified to understand the underlying sex determination mechanism...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Denise da Fontoura Prates, Elisângela Martha Radmann, Jessica Hartwig Duarte, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
This study evaluated light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source in Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultures in terms of growth parameters and biomass composition. Different photoperiods (partial and integral) and colors (blue, green, red and white) were assessed. Blue, green, red and white LEDs increased biomass productivity and maximum specific growth rate of such cultivations. The maximum biomass concentration (1.77 ± 0.02 g L -1 ) was obtained when red LEDs in integral light photoperiod were applied to cultivations...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
E Beltrán-Frutos, V Seco-Rovira, J Martínez-Hernández, C Ferrer, L M Pastor
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes that occur in hamster Leydig cells during regression. Animals were divided into control, mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR) and total regression (TR) groups. Leydig cells were characterised by light and electron microscopy. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies were used to detect apoptosis and proliferation respectively. Three types of Leydig cells (A, B and C) could be differentiated...
February 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Timothy D Brewerton, Karen T Putnam, Richard R J Lewine, S Craig Risch
Seasonal variations in neurotransmitter parameters have been previously reported in humans. However, these studies have involved small sample sizes and have not examined possible relationships with meteorological variables. We compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA, and MHPG) in 188 healthy controls (80 men, 108 women) in relationship to age, sex, BMI, and available meteorological variables. All subjects had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed at 9 a...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Xiaowei Yang, Huipeng Pan, Ling Yuan, Xuguo Zhou
Harmonia axyridis is a voracious predator, a biological control agent, and one of the world most invasive insect species. The advent of next-generation sequencing platforms has propelled entomological research into the genomics and post-genomics era. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), a primary tool for gene expression analysis, is a core technique governs the genomic research. The selection of internal reference genes, however, can significantly impact the interpretation of RT-qPCR results. The overall goal of this study is to identify the reference genes in the highly invasive H...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Khendek, A Chakraborty, J Roche, Y Ledoré, A Personne, T Policar, D Żarski, R Mandiki, P Kestemont, S Milla, P Fontaine
Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a highly valuable fish in Europe. However, development of aquaculture of pikeperch is highly limited due to seasonality of production. This can be overcome by the controlled reproduction of domesticated fish. The first steps of domestication process may induce changes at anatomical, physiological and molecular levels, thereby affecting a variety of biological functions. While there is abundant literature on their effects on stress and growth for example, these effects on reproduction received limited attention notably in pikeperch, a promising candidate for the development of aquaculture...
February 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dóra Nagy, Gabriele Andreatta, Stefano Bastianello, Ane Martín Anduaga, Gabriella Mazzotta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Rodolfo Costa
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster survives thermally stressful conditions in a state of reproductive dormancy (diapause), manifested by reduced metabolic activity and arrested ovarian development in females. Unlike insects that rely primarily on photoperiodic stimuli to initiate the diapause program, in this species dormancy is regulated by low temperature and enhanced by shorter photoperiods. Overwintering phenotypes are usually studied under simple laboratory conditions, where animals are exposed to rectangular light-dark (LD) cycles at a constant temperature...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Luis Leal, Venkat Talla, Thomas Källman, Magne Friberg, Christer Wiklund, Vlad Dincă, Roger Vila, Niclas Backström
In temperate latitudes, many insects enter diapause (dormancy) during the cold season, a period during which developmental processes come to a standstill. The wood white (Leptidea sinapis) is a butterfly species distributed across western Eurasia that shows photoperiod-induced diapause with variation in critical day-length across populations at different latitudes. We assembled transcriptomes and estimated gene expression levels at different developmental stages in experimentally induced directly developing and diapausing cohorts of a single Swedish population of L...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Kare P Mahmud, Bruno P Holzapfel, Yann Guisard, Jason P Smith, Sharon Nielsen, Suzy Y Rogiers
Some plant species demonstrate a pronounced 24 h rhythm in fine root growth but the endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate these diel cycles are unclear. Photoperiod and temperature are known to interact with diel patterns in shoot growth but it is uncertain how these environmental factors are interrelated with below-ground growth. In this particular study, the fine root system of two grapevine species was monitored over a period of ten days with a high resolution scanner, under constant soil moisture and three different photoperiod regimes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V Riters
Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yusuke Takai, Misato Kawai, Tadashi Ogo, Takashi Ichinose, Shigeki Furuya, Nozomu Takaki, Yukihiro Tone, Hiroshi Udo, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shinobu Yasuo
Environmental factors during early life stages affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adulthood. We examined the effect of photoperiods during development on neurogenesis and affective behaviors during adolescence/adulthood using C57BL/6J mice. Mice were born and raised until weaning under long-day conditions (LDs) or short-day conditions (SDs), followed by a 12L12D cycle until adulthood. Adult mice born under SD showed a shorter latency to first immobility in the forced swim test when compared with the mice born under LD...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Francesco Giunta, Pasquale De Vita, Anna M Mastrangelo, Gavino Sanna, Rosella Motzo
Phenology has a profound effect on adaptation and productivity of crops. The impact of phenology on tillering and fertility traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf.) was evaluated with the aim of specifying which group of flowering genes (Vrn, Ppd, or eps) was involved in their control. A recombinant inbred line population was grown under four contrasting conditions of vernalization and daylength. Phenotyping was carried out according to robust phenological models dissecting both phenological and yield related traits...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yongbin Qi, Linyou Wang, Junmei Gui, Lixia Zhang, Qinglong Liu, Jianjun Wang
The fertility conversion of photoperiod thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS) lines in rice is mostly regulated by the P/TGMS genes in different environmental conditions. A point mutation with G-C on the pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene regulates the pollen fertility of Nongken58S and a large amount of Nongken58S-derived lines. In this study, we developed and designed a functional co-dominant marker according to the SNP loci for the pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene. We can differentiate the SNP loci in pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene from another TGMS lines and inbred cultivars using the dpms3-54 marker...
December 2017: Breeding Science
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