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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055157/simulating-the-onset-of-spring-vegetation-growth-across-the-northern-hemisphere
#1
Qiang Liu, Yongshuo H Fu, Yongwen Liu, Ivan A Janssens, Shilong Piao
Changes in the spring onset of vegetation growth in response to climate change can profoundly impact climate-biosphere interactions. Thus, robust simulation of spring onset is essential to accurately predict ecosystem responses and feedback to ongoing climate change. To date, the ability of vegetation phenology models to reproduce spatiotemporal patterns of spring onset at larger scales has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we took advantage of phenology observations via remote sensing to calibrate and evaluated six models, including both one-phase (considering only forcing temperatures) and two-phase (involving forcing, chilling, and photoperiod) models across the Northern Hemisphere between 1982 and 2012...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053859/unexpected-results-when-assessing-underlying-aggressiveness-in-japanese-quail-using-photocastrated-stimulus-birds
#2
J M Caliva, J M Kembro, S Pellegrini, D A Guzman, R H Marin
Aggressive behaviors can affect both animal welfare and productivity. Because the expression of aggressive behaviors is dependent on the quality of the opponent, they reflect relative rather than absolute levels of underlying aggressiveness. This study was aimed to characterize the aggressive responsiveness of photostimulated (14:10 h light:dark photoperiod) adult Japanese quail when interacting with a photocastrated (6:18 h light:dark photoperiod) counterpart in a novel test environment and to assesses interindividual variations...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052517/constitutive-expression-of-osdof4-encoding-a-c2-c2-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-confesses-its-distinct-flowering-effects-under-long-and-short-day-photoperiods-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#3
Qi Wu, Xue Liu, Dedong Yin, Hua Yuan, Qi Xie, Xianfeng Zhao, Xiaobing Li, Lihuang Zhu, Shigui Li, Dayong Li
BACKGROUND: Dof (DNA binding with one finger) proteins, a class of plant-specific transcription factors which contain a conserved C2-C2-type zinc finger domain, are involved in many fundamental processes. In the Arabidopsis photoperiod response pathway, CDF (CYCLING DOF FACTOR) proteins have a primary role as acting via transcriptional repression of the direct FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) activator CONSTANS (CO). Our previous study indicated that one of CDF homologs, OsDOf12, was involved in photoperiodic flowering...
October 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050554/natural-variation-and-genetics-of-photoperiodism-in-wyeomyia-smithii
#4
William E Bradshaw, Christina M Holzapfel
Seasonal change in the temperate and polar regions of Earth determines how the world looks around us and, in fact, how we live our day-to-day lives. For biological organisms, seasonal change typically involves complex physiological and metabolic reorganization, the majority of which is regulated by photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is the ability of animals and plants to use day length or night length, resulting in life-historical transformations, including seasonal development, migration, reproduction, and dormancy...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048562/fragaria-vesca-constans-controls-photoperiodic-flowering-and-vegetative-development
#5
Takeshi Kurokura, Samia Samad, Elli Koskela, Katriina Mouhu, Timo Hytönen, Zoe Wilson
According to the external coincidence model, photoperiodic flowering occurs when CONSTANS (CO) mRNA expression coincides with light in the afternoon of long days (LDs), leading to the activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO has evolved in Brassicaceae from other Group Ia CO-like (COL) proteins which do not control photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. COLs in other species have evolved different functions as floral activators or even as repressors. To understand photoperiodic development in the perennial rosaceous model species woodland strawberry, we functionally characterized FvCO, the only Group Ia COL in its genome...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044192/skin-transcriptome-reveals-the-intrinsic-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-hair-follicle-cycling-in-cashmere-goats-under-natural-and-shortened-photoperiod-conditions
#6
Min Yang, Shen Song, Kunzhe Dong, XiaoFei Chen, Xuexue Liu, Marhaba Rouzi, Qianjun Zhao, Xiaohong He, Yabin Pu, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma, Lin Jiang
The growth of cashmere exhibits a seasonal pattern arising from photoperiod change. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We profiled the skin transcriptome of six goats at seven time points during hair follicle cycling via RNA-seq. The six goats comprised three goats exposed to a natural photoperiod and three exposed to a shortened photoperiod. During hair cycle transition, 1713 genes showed differential expression, and 332 genes showed a pattern of periodic expression. Moreover, a short photoperiod induced the hair follicle to enter anagen early, and 246 genes overlapped with the periodic genes...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042404/antagonistic-transcription-factor-complexes-modulate-the-floral-transition-in-rice
#7
Vittoria Brambilla, Damiano Martignago, Daniela Goretti, Martina Cerise, Marc Somssich, Matteo de Rosa, Francesca Galbiati, Roshi Shrestha, Federico Lazzaro, Rüdiger Simon, Fabio Fornara
Plants measure day or night lengths to coordinate specific developmental changes with a favorable season. In rice (Oryza sativa), the reproductive phase is initiated by exposure to short days when expression of HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) is induced in leaves. The cognate proteins are components of the florigenic signal, and move systemically through the phloem to reach the shoot apical meristem (SAM). In the SAM, they form a transcriptional activation complex with the bZIP transcription factor OsFD1, to start panicle development...
October 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040879/influence-of-sexual-behavior-of-dorper-rams-treated-with-glutamate-and-or-testosterone-on-reproductive-performance-of-anovulatory-ewes
#8
Guadalupe Calderón-Leyva, Cesar A Meza-Herrera, Rafael Martinez-Rodriguez, Oscar Angel-García, Raymundo Rivas-Muñoz, Juan V Delgado-Bermejo, Francisco G Véliz-Deras
The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate and (or) testosterone to male rams during the season of reproductive arrest is able to re-activate male sexual behavior and, later on, to promote through the male effect, both sexual and reproductive competence of anovulatory nulliparous ewes. Therefore, an experiment was performed under long-day photoperiods (spring; photo-reproductive arrest, 26°N). Dorper rams were randomly divided into four homogeneous experimental groups (n = 5 males each) regarding live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and odor intensity (OI)...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#9
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
October 12, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040019/seasonal-expression-patterns-of-clock-associated-genes-in-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis
#10
Emma C Chapman, Alasdair R O'Delll, Noha M Meligi, Daniel R Parsons, Jeanette M Rotchell
Environmental cues allow organisms to synchronise their internal biological rhythms with external environmental cycles. These rhythms are regulated on a molecular level by oscillating interactions between clock genes and their proteins. Light is a particularly relevant environmental cue, provisioning daily information via light/dark cycles as well as seasonal information via day-length (photoperiod). Despite the ecological and commercial importance of bivalves, little is known about the interactions comprising their molecular clock mechanism...
October 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037264/cold-acclimation-increases-cold-tolerance-independently-of-diapause-programing-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#11
J Rozsypal, M Moos, S G Goto
The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036620/fe-controls-the-transcription-of-downstream-flowering-regulators-through-two-distinct-mechanisms-in-leaf-phloem-companion-cells
#12
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033966/impaired-magnesium-protoporphyrin-ix-methyltransferase-chlm-impedes-chlorophyll-synthesis-and-plant-growth-in-rice
#13
Zhaohai Wang, Xiao Hong, Keke Hu, Ya Wang, Xiaoxin Wang, Shiyun Du, Yang Li, Dandan Hu, Kexin Cheng, Baoguang An, Yangsheng Li
Magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (ChlM) catalyzes the formation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPME) from magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) in the chlorophyll synthesis pathway. However, no ChlM gene has yet been identified and studied in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, a spontaneous mutant, yellow-green leaf 18 (ygl18), was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa). This mutant showed yellow-green leaves, decreased chlorophyll level, and climate-dependent growth differences. Map-based cloning of this mutant identified the YGL18 gene LOC_Os06g04150...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030729/long-photoperiod-affects-the-maize-transition-from-vegetative-to-reproductive-stages-a-proteomic-comparison-between-photoperiod-sensitive-inbred-line-and-its-recurrent-parent
#14
Lei Tian, Shunxi Wang, Xiaoheng Song, Jun Zhang, Ping Liu, Zan Chen, Yanhui Chen, Liuji Wu
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a typical short-day plant that is produced as an important food product and industrial material. The photoperiod is one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms enabling the adaptation of plant developmental phases to changes in climate conditions. There are differences in the photoperiod sensitivity of maize inbred lines from tropical to temperate regions. In this study, to identify the maize proteins responsive to a long photoperiod (LP), the photoperiod-insensitive inbred line HZ4 and its near-isogenic line H496, which is sensitive to LP conditions, were analyzed under long-day conditions using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation...
October 13, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025916/a-predictive-model-for-time-to-flowering-in-the-common-bean-based-on-qtl-and-environmental-variables
#15
Mehul S Bhakta, Salvador A Gezan, Jose A Clavijo Michelangeli, Melissa Carvalho, Li Zhang, James W Jones, Kenneth J Boote, Melanie J Correll, James Beaver, Juan M Osorno, Raphael Colbert, Idupulapati Rao, Stephen Beebe, Abiezer Goanzalez, Jaumer Ricaurte, C Eduardo Vallejos
The common bean is a tropical facultative short day legume that is now grown in tropical and temperate zones. This observation underscores how domestication and modern breeding can change the adaptive phenology of a species. A key adaptive trait is the optimal timing of the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. This trait is responsive to genetically controlled signal transduction pathways and local climatic cues. A comprehensive characterization of this trait can be started by assessing the quantitative contribution of the genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions...
October 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023480/phenoseasonal-subcanopy-light-dynamics-and-the-effects-of-light-on-the-physiological-ecology-of-a-common-understory-shrub-lindera-benzoin
#16
Janice E Hudson, Delphis F Levia, Sean A Hudson, Harsh P Bais, David R Legates
The purpose of this work was to quantify the variation of subcanopy spatiotemporal light dynamics over the course of a year and to link it to the physiological ecology of the understory shrub, Lindera benzoin L. Blume (northern spicebush). Covering all seven phenoseasons of a deciduous forest, this work utilized a line quantum sensor to measure the variation in subcanopy light levels under all sky conditions at different times of the day. A total of 4,592 individual subcanopy measurements of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, μmol m-2 s-1) were taken as 15-second spatially-integrated one-meter linear averages to better understand the dynamism of light exposure to L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023037/influence-of-light-intensity-and-photoperiod-on-the-seed-germination-of-four-rhododendron-species-in-taiwan
#17
Lei-Chen Lin, Chang-Sheng Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are 15 native Rhododendron species in Taiwan, among which 11 species are endemic and compose 73% of these native species. Although researchers predominantly use cuttings to propagate Rhododendron shrubs, there are no studies on the seed germination of Rhododendron species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed germination of four Rhododendron species in Taiwan under different light intensities and photoperiods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments on the seed germination percentage of R...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020916/integrated-analysis-of-coding-genes-and-non-coding-rnas-during-hair-follicle-cycle-of-cashmere-goat-capra-hircus
#18
Shanhe Wang, Wei Ge, Zhixin Luo, Yang Guo, Beilei Jiao, Lei Qu, Zhiying Zhang, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Cashmere growth is a seasonal and cyclic phenomenon under the control of photoperiod and multiple stimulatory and inhibitory signals. Beyond relevant coding genes, microRNA (miRNA) and long non coding RNA (lncRNA) play an indispensable role in hair follicle (HF) development and skin homeostasis. Furthermore, the influence of lncRNA upon miRNA function is also rapidly emerging. However, little is known about miRNAs, lncRNAs and their functions as well as their interactions on cashmere development and cycling...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020114/how-annual-course-of-photoperiod-shapes-seasonal-behavior-of-diploid-and-triploid-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#19
Laura Payton, Mohamedou Sow, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Pierre Ciret, Damien Tran
In this work, we study if ploidy (i.e. number of copies of chromosomes) in the oyster Crassostrea gigas may introduce differences in behavior and in its synchronization by the annual photoperiod. To answer to the question about the effect of the seasonal course of the photoperiod on the behavior of C. gigas according to its ploidy, we quantified valve activity by HFNI valvometry in situ for 1 year in both diploid and triploid oysters. Chronobiological analyses of daily, tidal and lunar rhythms were performed according the annual change of the photoperiod...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016665/qtl-mapping-for-flowering-time-and-photoperiod-insensitivity-of-cotton-gossypium-darwinii-watt
#20
Fakhriddin N Kushanov, Zabardast T Buriev, Shukhrat E Shermatov, Ozod S Turaev, Tokhir M Norov, Alan E Pepper, Sukumar Saha, Mauricio Ulloa, John Z Yu, Johnie N Jenkins, Abdusattor Abdukarimov, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
Most wild and semi-wild species of the genus Gossypium are exhibit photoperiod-sensitive flowering. The wild germplasm cotton is a valuable source of genes for genetic improvement of modern cotton cultivars. A bi-parental cotton population segregating for photoperiodic flowering was developed by crossing a photoperiod insensitive irradiation mutant line with its pre-mutagenesis photoperiodic wild-type G. darwinii Watt genotype. Individuals from the F2 and F3 generations were grown with their parental lines and F1 hybrid progeny in the long day and short night summer condition (natural day-length) of Uzbekistan to evaluate photoperiod sensitivity, i...
2017: PloS One
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