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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546647/environmental-factors-regulating-gaping-activity-of-the-bivalve-arctica-islandica-in-northern-norway
#1
Irene Ballesta-Artero, Rob Witbaard, Michael L Carroll, Jaap van der Meer
Arctica islandica is the longest-living non-colonial animal known at present. It inhabits coastal waters in the North Atlantic and its annual shell increments are widely used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. There is no consensus, however, about the intra-annual timing of its feeding activity and growth. This research aims to identify the main environmental drivers of A. islandica valve gape to clarify the ambiguity surrounding its seasonal activity. A lander was deployed from February 2014 to September 2015 on the sea bottom at Ingøya, Norway (71°03'N, 24°05'E) containing living A...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546125/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-coft1-a-homolog-of-flowering-locus-t-ft-from-camellia-oleifera
#2
Hengjiu Lei, Shuchai Su, Luyi Ma, Yue Wen, Xiangnan Wang
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important integrator of flowering genetic pathways and plays crucial roles in flowering transition. The tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a valuable woody oil crop, but the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering are still unclear. In this study, a FT-like gene, CoFT1, was isolated and characterized from C. oleifera. The CoFT1 protein was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Arabidopsis protoplasts, and exhibited no transactivation activity in yeast cells. CoFT1 was highly expressed in mature leaves and reproductive organs, such as flower buds, flowers, flower organs, and young fruits...
May 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541567/dna-methylation-and-small-interference-rnas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-mads-box-genes-involved-in-dormancy-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#3
Karin Rothkegel, Evelyn Sánchez, Christian Montes, Macarena Greve, Sebastián Tapia, Soraya Bravo, Humberto Prieto, Andréa Miyasaka Almeida
Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540583/circadian-rhythm-in-melatonin-release-as-a-mechanism-to-reinforce-the-temporal-organization-of-the-circadian-system-in-crayfish
#4
Leonor Mendoza-Vargas, Armida Báez-Saldaña, Ramón Alvarado, Beatriz Fuentes-Pardo, Edgar Flores-Soto, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán
Melatonin (MEL) is a conserved molecule with respect to its synthesis pathway and functions. In crayfish, MEL content in eyestalks (Ey) increases at night under the photoperiod, and this indoleamine synchronizes the circadian rhythm of electroretinogram amplitude, which is expressed by retinas and controlled by the cerebroid ganglion (CG). The aim of this study was to determine whether MEL content in eyestalks and CG or circulating MEL in hemolymph (He) follows a circadian rhythm under a free-running condition; in addition, it was tested whether MEL might directly influence the spontaneous electrical activity of the CG...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535836/season-of-birth-is-associated-with-first-lactation-milk-yield-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#5
M Van Eetvelde, M M Kamal, L Vandaele, G Opsomer
The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532826/seasonal-infertility-in-gilts-and-sows-aetiology-clinical-implications-and-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Fabio De Rensis, Adam J Ziecik, Roy N Kirkwood
In gilts and sows, the summer-autumn period often is characterized by reduced fertility. Heat stress and long photoperiods during the warm season can cause a reduction in feed intake and an imbalance of the hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian axis. The increased variability in the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation results in an increased number of poorly timed inseminations. The altered endocrine activity compromises follicular and corpora luteal development, reduces oocyte quality and increases embryo mortality...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#7
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517045/set-domain-group701-encodes-a-h3k4-methytransferase-and-regulates-multiple-key-processes-of-rice-plant-development
#8
Kunpeng Liu, Yu Yu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514514/alternation-between-short-and-long-photoperiod-reveals-hypothalamic-gene-regulation-linked-to-seasonal-body-weight-changes-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#9
Jonathan H H Bank, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to reduce their body weight by more than 30% in anticipation of the winter season. This particular adaptation to extreme environmental conditions is primarily driven by a natural reduction in day length and conserved under laboratory conditions. We used this animal model to investigate hypothalamic gene expression linked to body weight regulation behind this physiological phenomenon. After an initial collective short photoperiod (SP) adaptation for 14 weeks from a preceding long photoperiod (LP), hamsters were re-exposed to LP for either six or 14 weeks, followed by a second re-exposure to SP for eight weeks...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#10
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#11
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511111/adaptive-conditions-and-safety-of-the-application-of-penicillium-frequentans-as-a-biocontrol-agent-on-stone-fruit
#12
Belén Guijarro, Inmaculada Larena, Paloma Melgarejo, Antonieta De Cal
Penicillium frequentans (Pf909) reduces brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. in stone fruit. The registration of a microbial biocontrol agent in Europe requires information on the risks and safety of a biological product. This study focused on the impact of the physical environment on Pf909 survival and growth, Pf909 mycotoxin production on fruit surface, and the Pf909 resistance to commercial antifungal compounds used in animal and human medicine. The effect of temperature (4 to 37°C), water activity (0.999 to 0...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509421/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-gmft2a-delays-flowering-time-in-soybean
#13
Yupeng Cai, Li Chen, Xiujie Liu, Chen Guo, Shi Sun, Cunxiang Wu, Bingjun Jiang, Tianfu Han, Wensheng Hou
Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soybean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soybean. The soybean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis...
May 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507323/increasing-phenological-asynchrony-between-spring-green-up-and-arrival-of-migratory-birds
#14
Stephen J Mayor, Robert P Guralnick, Morgan W Tingley, Javier Otegui, John C Withey, Sarah C Elmendorf, Margaret E Andrew, Stefan Leyk, Ian S Pearse, David C Schneider
Consistent with a warming climate, birds are shifting the timing of their migrations, but it remains unclear to what extent these shifts have kept pace with the changing environment. Because bird migration is primarily cued by annually consistent physiological responses to photoperiod, but conditions at their breeding grounds depend on annually variable climate, bird arrival and climate-driven spring events would diverge. We combined satellite and citizen science data to estimate rates of change in phenological interval between spring green-up and migratory arrival for 48 breeding passerine species across North America...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502774/latitudinal-and-age-specific-patterns-of-larval-mortality-in-the-damselfly-lestes-sponsa-senescence-before-maturity
#15
Maciej J Dańko, Aleksandra Dańko, Maria J Golab, Robby Stoks, Szymon Sniegula
Latitudinal differences in life history traits driven by differences in seasonal time constraints have been widely documented. Yet, latitudinal patterns in (age-specific) mortality rates have been poorly studied. Here, we studied latitudinal differences in pre-adult age-specific mortality patterns in the strictly univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa. We compared individuals from three latitudes reared from the egg stage in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at the latitude of origin (main experiment) and under common-garden conditions at a fixed temperature and photoperiod (supplementary experiment)...
May 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498992/reproductive-strategy-of-the-polyploid-species-varronia-curassavica-jacq-in-restinga-environment
#16
Marcia Patricia Hoeltgebaum, Diana Marcela Morales Londoño, Ana Paula Lando, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
This study aimed to elucidate the breeding strategies of Varronia curassavica, an important medicinal species associated with Brazilian restinga. This was accomplished by combining phenological and genetic data. Every 2 weeks over a period of 2 years, we measured flowering and fruiting phenology to evaluate the activity and intensity of phenophases (n = 60). We evaluated the mating system, pollen ovule ratio and genotypes from progeny and mother plants using 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. We observed flowering and fruiting of V...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497178/optimization-of-production-of-c-phycocyanin-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances-by-arthrospira-sp
#17
Monchai Dejsungkranont, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
The key factors influencing the production of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by photoautotrophic culture of Arthrospira sp. were optimized using Taguchi method. Six factors were varied at either three or two levels as follows: light intensity at three levels; three initial culture pHs; two species of Arthrospira; three concentrations of Zarrouk's medium; three rates of aeration of the culture with air mixed with 2% v/v carbon dioxide; and two incubation temperatures. All cultures ran for 14 days...
May 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493325/developmental-ecology-of-annual-killifish-millerichthys-robustus-cyprinodontiformes-cynolebiidae
#18
REVIEW
Omar Domínguez-Castanedo, Stefano Valdesalici, Ana María Rosales-Torres
Populations of annual killifishes persist in temporary water bodies over the dry season through the expression of diapause in their drought resistant embryos. Environmental cues may influence expression of the diapause phenotype during embryonic incubation. Millerichthys robustus is the only annual killifish distributed in North America. The aim of this review is to analyze the ecology of M. robustus development and to contrast this with that of annual killifishes in austral locations. The temporary water bodies inhabited M...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492275/the-transcriptional-repressor-complex-frs7-frs12-regulates-flowering-time-and-growth-in-arabidopsis
#19
Andrés Ritter, Sabrina Iñigo, Patricia Fernández-Calvo, Ken S Heyndrickx, Stijn Dhondt, Hua Shi, Liesbeth De Milde, Robin Vanden Bossche, Rebecca De Clercq, Dominique Eeckhout, Mily Ron, David E Somers, Dirk Inzé, Kris Gevaert, Geert De Jaeger, Klaas Vandepoele, Laurens Pauwels, Alain Goossens
Most living organisms developed systems to efficiently time environmental changes. The plant-clock acts in coordination with external signals to generate output responses determining seasonal growth and flowering time. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, FAR1 RELATED SEQUENCE 7 (FRS7) and FRS12, act as negative regulators of these processes. These proteins accumulate particularly in short-day conditions and interact to form a complex. Loss-of-function of FRS7 and FRS12 results in early flowering plants with overly elongated hypocotyls mainly in short days...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491078/the-importance-of-being-on-time-regulatory-networks-controlling-photoperiodic-flowering-in-cereals
#20
REVIEW
Vittoria Brambilla, Jorge Gomez-Ariza, Martina Cerise, Fabio Fornara
Flowering is the result of the coordination between genetic information and environmental cues. Gene regulatory networks have evolved in plants in order to measure diurnal and seasonal variation of day length (or photoperiod), thus aligning the reproductive phase with the most favorable season of the year. The capacity of plants to discriminate distinct photoperiods classifies them into long and short day species, depending on the conditions that induce flowering. Plants of tropical origin and adapted to short day lengths include rice, maize, and sorghum, whereas wheat and barley were originally domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and are considered long day species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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