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Qi Zhang, Yanan Li, Yongjuan Bao, Chunping Yin, Xi Xin, Yangyang Guo, Fang Gao, Shuping Huo, Xiuli Wang, Qiujun Wang
BACKGROUND: Calcineurin (CaN) having a high expression in hippocampal neurons is closely related to apoptosis. Pretreatment with nimodipine can lower the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neuron to reduce the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the relationship between cerebral protective effect of pretreatment with nimodipine and CaN is controversial in the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between neuroprotective effect of nimodipine and CaN on POCD in aged rats...
April 16, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Eman Ramadan Salama, Asmaa Fawzy Amer
Background and Aims: Hypotensive anaesthesia is necessary in rhinoplasty for better visualisation of surgical field and reduction of surgery time. Gabapentin is a new generation anticonvulsant with anti-hyperalgesic and anti-nociceptive properties. We aimed to investigate the effect of pre-operative administration of oral gabapentin (1200 mg) on anaesthetic requirements and post-operative analgesic consumption and its role in hypotensive anaesthesia for rhinoplasty. Methods: Seventy adult patients undergoing rhinoplasty, were randomly allocated to two groups...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
L-Q Ren, X-X Sun, Y Guan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of sevoflurane or propofol combined with remifentanil anesthesia on the clinical efficacy and stress response of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIHS) in cesarean section. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 150 patients with PIHS and treated with cesarean section in our hospital from May 2015 to September 2016 were selected. All patients were randomly divided into sevoflurane-remifentanil group (n=75) and propofol-remifentanil (n=75). The elbow blood of patients in both groups were collected, the levels of Norepinephrine (NE) adrenaline (AD), cortisol and blood glucose in plasma were compared at before anesthesia induction (T0), operation 30 min (T1), end of operation (T2), 2 h after operation (T3), 24 h after operation (T4)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
C-X Shi, Y-B Ding, F Yu J Jin, T Li, J-H Ma, L-Y Qiao, W-Z Pan, K-Z Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sevoflurane post-conditioning on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (Sham), ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) group and sevoflurane post-conditioning group (Se). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the inflammatory response in the brain tissue...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Vinaya Udaybhaskar, Amol Singam, Himanshu Dodeja, Karuna Taksande
Background: Since the development of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) by Dr. Brain, it is extensively used for airway management; satisfactory insertion of LMA requires administration of an induction agent and suppression of airway reflexes. Among intravenous agents, propofol has been the drug of choice in view of better safety profile, relaxation and depression of upper airway reflexes. Sevoflurane on the other hand, with pleasant odor, nonirritating to the airways and with bronchodilator property are best among the volatile induction agents...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Gagandeep Kaur, Mamta Sharma, Poonam Kalra, Shobha Purohit, Kanchan Chauhan
Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is increased during laparoscopic surgery with Trendelenburg position and may contribute to deleterious effects on optic nerve in susceptible patients. Aims: The primary objective of this study is to compare the effects of propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with those of sevoflurane anesthesia on IOP in patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgery in Trendelenburg position. Secondary objectives are to compare hemodynamic changes, mean arterial pressure (MAP), end-tidal CO2 , and peak inspiratory pressure changes...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Hesham Mohamed Marouf
Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is common in pediatrics after sevoflurane anesthesia. Aims: We intended to study the effect of preoperative pregabalin on EA in pediatrics after sevoflurane anesthesia. Settings and Design: This study design was a prospective randomized controlled double-blinded study. Patients and Methods: Sixty children with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes I-II, aged 4-10 years, prepared for adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia were randomized to two equal groups (control Group C and pregabalin Group P)...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Linda Lehmke, Mark Coburn, Manfred Möller, Rosmarie Blaumeiser-Debarry, Pia Lenzig, Dominik Wiemuth, Stefan Gründer
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal Na+ channels that are activated by extracellular acidification. Inhibiting ASICs is neuroprotective in mouse models of ischemic stroke. As inhalational anesthetics interact with many ion channels and as some of them have neuroprotective effects, we hypothesized that inhalational anesthetics modulate ASICs. We expressed different homo- and heteromeric ASICs heterologously in Xenopus oocytes. We co-applied with acidic pH the halogenated inhalational anesthetics sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane and the noble gases xenon and argon at concentrations that are roughly equivalent to their minimal alveolar concentrations and analyzed their effect on current kinetics and amplitude...
April 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
D Juodzente, A Macas, B Karveliene, S Petkevicius, V Riskeviciene
The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular and respiratory effects and sevoflurane requirement in dogs premedicated with two doses of medetomidine and butorphanol undergoing surgical sterilization. The dogs were randomly assigned to two different groups: group 1 received a lower dose of medetomidine (0.014 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.14 mg/kg) and group 2 received a higher dose of medetomidine (0.024 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.24 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous propofol and maintained with sevoflurane 2% in pure oxygen...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Roberto Santangelo, Valerio Castoldi, Raffaele D'Isa, Silvia Marenna, Su-Chun Huang, Marco Cursi, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
PURPOSE: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are a powerful tool to evaluate nervous conduction along the visual pathways, both in humans and in animal models. Traditionally, epidural screw electrodes are used to record VEPs in preclinical research. Here we tested the feasibility in the preclinical setting of the same noninvasive technique used for clinical VEP acquisition, by using epidermal cup electrodes with no surgical procedures. METHODS: Monocular flash VEPs were recorded bilaterally under sevoflurane anesthesia once a week for 6 weeks in 14 dark Agouti rats, 7 with implanted epidural screws and 7 with epidermal 6 mm Ø Ag/AgCl cups...
April 5, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Kyle J Kramer, Jason W Brady
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons have a variety of anesthetic agents that can be used to provide anesthesia safely and efficiently in the office-based environment. However, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of the particulars for each agent. Commonly used anesthetic agents, administered either individually or in combination, include diazepam, midazolam, propofol, ketamine, opioid agonists such as fentanyl or remifentanil, dexmedetomidine, and inhalational agents, including nitrous oxide and sevoflurane...
May 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
Sudheesh Kannan, Nethra S Surhonne, Chethan Kumar R, Kavitha B, Devika Rani D, Raghavendra Rao R S
BACKGROUND: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) provides good postoperative analgesia, but its effect on anesthetic consumption is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of BSCPB on sevoflurane consumption during thyroid surgery. METHODS: Fifty patients were randomly allocated into groups A and B of 25 each in this prospective double-blind study. Group A received BSCPB with 20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine, whereas group B received 20 ml saline immediately before entropy-guided general anesthesia...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Hefan He, Weifeng Liu, Yingying Zhou, Yibin Liu, Peiqing Weng, Yasong Li, Huangde Fu
Background: Sevoflurane post-conditioning exerts nerve-protective effects through inhibiting caspase-dependent neuronal apoptosis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autophagy that is induced by the endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in the secondary neurological dysfunction after a TBI. However, the relationship between autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis as well as the underlying nerve protection mechanism that occurs with sevoflurane post-conditioning following a TBI remains unclear...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Zhongli Wang, Rongsheng Cui, Kai Wang
The protective effect of sevoflurane on apoptosis of rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H2 O2 and the effect on the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were investigated. H9c2 cells were routinely cultured and divided into the control, model and sevoflurane groups. Cells in the model group were treated with 400 µM H2 O2 , and cells in the sevoflurane group were pretreated with sevoflurane prior to treatment with 400 µM H2 O2 . MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Annexin V-propidium iodide (AV-PI) double staining flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Julie A Fischer, Zachariah P G Olufs, Rebeccah J Katzenberger, David A Wassarman, Misha Perouansky
BACKGROUND: Exposure to anesthetics is common in the majority of early survivors of life-threatening injuries. Whether and to what degree general anesthetics influence outcomes from major trauma is unknown. Potential confounding effects of general anesthetics on outcome measures are usually disregarded. We hypothesized that exposure to isoflurane or sevoflurane modulates the outcome from blunt trauma with traumatic brain injury (bTBI). METHODS: We tested the hypothesis in a novel model of bTBI implemented in Drosophila melanogaster...
March 27, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Wei-Tao Liao, Xiao-Yu Xiao, Yinaxian Zhu, Shao-Peng Zhou
Introduction: The aim was to devise an animal model showing some of the neuropathological changes seen in senile dementia, and to investigate the effect of celastrol on cognition neuropathology in this model. Material and methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were randomly divided into 5 groups ( n = 8 each): control (Con); inhaled sevoflurane (Sev); diabetes mellitus (DM); diabetes mellitus + inhaled sevoflurane (DM/Sev); diabetes + inhaled sevoflurane + celastrol (Cel)...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Elaine Yang, Lianteng Zhi, Qiansheng Liang, Manuel Covarrubias
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) of excitable tissues are emerging as targets likely involved in both the therapeutic and toxic effects of inhaled and intravenous general anesthetics. Whereas sevoflurane and propofol inhibit voltage-gated Na+ channels (Navs), sevoflurane potentiates certain voltage-gated K+ channels (Kvs). The combination of these effects would dampen neural excitability and, therefore, might contribute to the clinical endpoints of general anesthesia. As the body of work regarding the interaction of general anesthetics with VGICs continues to grow, a multidisciplinary approach involving functional, biochemical, structural, and computational techniques, many of which are detailed in other chapters, has increasingly become necessary to solve the molecular mechanism of general anesthetic action on VGICs...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Daniil P Aksenov, Andrey Dmitriev, Michael Miller, Alice M Wyrwicz, Robert Linsenmeier
Inhaled general anesthetics are used commonly in adults and children, and a growing body of literature from animals and humans suggests that exposure to anesthesia at an early age can impact brain development. While the origin of these effects is not well understood, it is known that anesthesia can disrupt oxygen regulation in the brain, which is critically important for maintaining healthy brain function. Here we investigated how anesthesia affected brain tissue oxygen regulation in neonatal rabbits by comparing brain tissue oxygen and single unit activity in the awake and anesthetized states...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mahdi Neshati, Manizheh Azadeh, Parinaz Neshati, Tyrone Burnett, Ryan Saenz, Bahman Karbasi, Ghader Shahmohammadi, Eskandar Nourizadeh, Mohsen Rostamzadeh
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can develop after contact with volatile anesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane) as well as succinylcholine and cause hypermetabolism during anesthesia, which is associated with high mortality when untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. During cardiac surgery, hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass make the diagnosis of MH extremely challenging compared with other settings such as general surgery. We herein report 2 cases of MH, graded as "very likely" or "almost certain" based on the MH clinical grading scale...
October 2017: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
J Raper, J C De Biasio, K L Murphy, M C Alvarado, M G Baxter
BACKGROUND: Socio-emotional development is the expression and management of emotions, which in non-human primates can be examined using responses toward increasing levels of threat. Damage to the limbic system alters socio-emotional development in primates. Thus, neuronal and glial cell loss caused by exposure to general anaesthesia early in infancy might also impact socio-emotional development. We recently reported that repeated sevoflurane exposure in the first month of life alters emotional behaviours at 6 months of age and impairs visual recognition memory after the first year of life in rhesus monkeys...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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