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Alok A Bhatt
There are multiple reasons for imaging the soft tissues of the neck in the emergency setting, in particular when symptoms are vague or if there is worry for complications from a certain clinical diagnosis. When fluid is seen in the retropharyngeal space, it is important to pay attention to history and look at key structures in the neck. This article will discuss anatomy of the retropharyngeal space, followed by four causes of fluid within the space that the radiologist is likely to encounter in the emergency setting: tonsillitis/pharyngitis, acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscles, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and post-radiation changes...
June 23, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Rikiya Yamashita, Mizuho Nishio, Richard Kinh Gian Do, Kaori Togashi
Convolutional neural network (CNN), a class of artificial neural networks that has become dominant in various computer vision tasks, is attracting interest across a variety of domains, including radiology. CNN is designed to automatically and adaptively learn spatial hierarchies of features through backpropagation by using multiple building blocks, such as convolution layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers. This review article offers a perspective on the basic concepts of CNN and its application to various radiological tasks, and discusses its challenges and future directions in the field of radiology...
June 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Daniele Gibelli, Michaela Cellina, Stefano Gibelli, Annalisa Cappella, Antonio Giancarlo Oliva, Giovanni Termine, Chiarella Sforza
Anatomical variants of the ethmoid bone have a special importance in several fields, especially in otolaryngology; a precise understanding of the complex anatomy and anatomic variations of the ethmoid bone is crucial for radiological diagnosis of paranasal pathology and for surgical work-up in order to avoid potential complications. The present study aims at helping general radiologists to become familiar with the most common forms of ethmoid anatomical variants and their clinical relevance.
June 22, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Arunabha Karmakar, Apeksha Kumtakar, Himanshu Sehgal, Savith Kumar, Arjun Kalyanpur
PURPOSE: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) is the gold standard for imaging response evaluation in cancer trials. We sought to evaluate consistency of applying RECIST 1.1 between 2 conventionally trained radiologists, designated as A and B; identify reasons for variation; and reconcile these differences for future studies. METHODS: The study was approved as an institutional quality check exercise. Since no identifiable patient data was collected or used, a waiver of informed consent was granted...
June 19, 2018: Academic Radiology
Julia E Goldberg, Linda Moy, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
PURPOSE: To evaluate transgender patient care, gender inclusivity, and transgender health-related policies at breast imaging facilities across the United States. METHODS: A survey on breast imaging facilities' policies and practices regarding transgender care was distributed to the membership of the Society of Breast Imaging, consisting of approximately 2,500 breast radiologists across the United States. The survey was conducted by e-mail in January 2018. RESULTS: There were 144 survey respondents...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Amy K Patel, Patricia Balthazar, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Robert A Mackey, C Matthew Hawkins, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: As federal legislation increasingly influences health care delivery, the impact of election funding has grown. We aimed to characterize US radiologist federal political contributions over recent years. METHODS: After obtaining 2003 to 2016 finance data from the Federal Election Commission (FEC), we extracted contribution data for all self-identified radiologists. Contributions were classified by recipient group and FEC-designated political party and then analyzed temporally and geographically, in aggregate, and by individual radiologist...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Andreas Sauter, Thomas Koehler, Bernhard Brendel, Juliane Aichele, Jan Neumann, Peter B Noël, Ernst J Rummeny, Daniela Muenzel
Background Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the standard imaging modality for detection or rule out of pulmonary embolism (PE); however, radiation exposure is a serious concern. With iterative reconstruction algorithms a distinct dose reduction could be achievable. Purpose To evaluate a next generation iterative reconstruction algorithm for detection or rule-out of PE in simulated low-dose CTPA. Material and Methods Low-dose CT datasets with 50%, 25%, and 12.5% of the original tube current were simulated based on CTPA examinations of 92 patients with suspected PE...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Khaled M Elsayes, Victoria Chernyak, Ali I Morshid, An Tang, Ania Z Kielar, Mustafa R Bashir, Claude B Sirlin
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this article are to review a variety of pitfalls in liver imaging that can lead to the inaccurate diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in cirrhosis, to describe the pathophysiologic processes of these pitfalls, and to provide specific clues for achieving the correct diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis complicates liver imaging. The distortion and replacement of normal liver parenchyma by fibrous and regenerative tissue can change the typical appearance of many benign lesions, causing them to be misinterpreted as malignancy...
July 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Rachel E Pollard, Lynelle R Johnson, Stanley L Marks
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of pharyngeal collapse in a large group of brachycephalic dogs undergoing videofluoroscopic assessment of swallowing or airway diameter. We hypothesized that brachycephalic dogs would have pharyngeal collapse more frequently than dolichocephalic or mesocephalic dogs with or without airway collapse. The medical records database was searched for brachycephalic dogs undergoing videofluoroscopy of swallowing or airway diameter between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Ji Soo Choi, Boo-Kyung Han, Eun Young Ko, Ga Ram Kim, Eun Sook Ko, Ko Woon Park
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of synthetic mammography (SM) and digital mammography (DM) with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) or alone for the evaluation of microcalcifications. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 198 mammography cases, all with DM, SM, and DBT images, from January to October 2013. Three radiologists interpreted images and recorded the presence of microcalcifications and their conspicuity scores and final BI-RADS categories (1, 2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5)...
June 21, 2018: European Radiology
BiCheng Yong, YiQiang Li, JingChun Li, Antonio Andreacchio, Vito Pavone, Bruno Pereria, HongWen Xu, Federico Canavese
PURPOSE: Closed reduction and spica cast immobilization are routinely used for young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip with reducible hips. Our primary objective was to assess the interpretation quality of immediate post-operative pelvis radiographs after treatment. METHODS: A series of 28 randomly selected patients (30 hips) with pre- and post-operative pelvis radiographs and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging were included. Each was presented twice with an interval of two weeks, in alternating orders...
June 21, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Masafumi Otsuka, Tomohiko Kamasako, Toshihiro Uemura, Nobushige Takeshita, Tetsuo Shinozaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Atsushi Komaru, Satoshi Fukasawa
Background: The effectiveness of cancer control is unclear after radical prostatectomy for patients with clinical T3 prostate cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1409 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between April 2007 and December 2014, including 210 patients with cT3 prostate cancer. Nine patients who received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and three patients who were lost to follow-up were excluded from the analysis. Clinical staging was performed by an experienced radiologist using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings...
June 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu, Swamy Ravindra Shantakumar, Surekha Devadas Shetty, Gayathri Prabhu
The testicular artery is frequently subjected to radiographic imaging techniques such as angiography for diagnosis and treatment of conditions like epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumor, hematoma, and hydrocele and in cases of undescended testis. Radiologists and surgeons should therefore be aware of testicular artery variants. Although there are numerous studies and case reports that mention testicular artery variants, this is probably the first case, reporting a bilateral low origin of the testicular artery and discussing its probable embryological etiology...
July 2017: Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Rajani Singh
The subscapular, anterior circumflex, and posterior circumflex arteries arise from the third part of the axillary artery. During dissection of the right upper limb of the cadaver of a 70-year-old male, a common trunk was observed arising from the third part of the axillary artery which, after traveling for 0.5 cm, bifurcated into subscapular and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. The common trunk was crossed anteriorly by the radial nerve. The medial nerve was formed by medial and lateral roots on the medial side of the third part of the axillary artery, remaining medial to the brachial artery up to the cubital fossa and then following its usual course thereafter...
July 2017: Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Yohan Jun, Taejoon Eo, Taeseong Kim, Hyungseob Shin, Dosik Hwang, So Hi Bae, Yae Won Park, Ho-Joon Lee, Byoung Wook Choi, Sung Soo Ahn
Black-blood (BB) imaging is used to complement contrast-enhanced 3D gradient-echo (CE 3D-GRE) imaging for detecting brain metastases, requiring additional scan time. In this study, we proposed deep-learned 3D BB imaging with an auto-labelling technique and 3D convolutional neural networks for brain metastases detection without additional BB scan. Patients were randomly selected for training (29 sets) and testing (36 sets). Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated deep-learned and original BB images, assessing the degree of blood vessel suppression and lesion conspicuity...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Altaib Al Yassin, Mohammad Salehi Sadaghiani, Suyash Mohan, R Nick Bryan, Ilya Nasrallah
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Efficiency is central to current radiology practice. Knowledge of report generation timing is essential for workload optimization and departmental staffing decisions. Yet little research evaluates the distribution of activities performed by neuroradiologists in daily work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study tracked radiologists interpreting 358 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an academic practice over 9 months. We measured the total duration from study opening to report signing and times for five activities performed during this period: image viewing, report transcription, obtaining clinical data, education, and other...
June 18, 2018: Academic Radiology
Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Sean Novak
PURPOSE: We have established an integrated thoracic radiology reading room within a multidisciplinary lung center clinic (LC). While our subjective experience has been positive, we sought to quantify how this model affects radiology workflow and whether the referring practitioners perceive value in having real-time access to a radiologist consultant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two diagnostic radiology workstations staffed by rotating thoracic radiologists and trainees were integrated within the LC...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Anu E Obaro, David N Burling, Andrew A Plumb
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality can be significantly reduced by population screening. Several different screening methods are currently in use, and this review focuses specifically on the imaging technique computed tomography colonography (CTC). The challenges and logistics of CTC screening, as well as the importance of test accuracy, uptake, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness will be discussed. With comparable advanced adenoma detection rates to colonoscopy (the most commonly used whole-colon investigation), CTC is a less invasive alternative, requiring less laxative, and with the potential benefit that it permits assessment of extra colonic structures...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hachem Djeffal, Marie Blouet, Anne-Cécile Pizzoferrato, Delphine Vardon, Frederique Belloy, Jean-Pierre Pelage
Tubal sterilization with Essure inserts has become a prevalent alternative to laparoscopic sterilization because of its minimal invasiveness. It is a well-tolerated ambulatory procedure that provides reliable permanent contraception without the risks associated with laparoscopic surgery and general anesthesia. Correct positioning of the Essure device is necessary to achieve the fibrotic reaction induced by the polyethylene terephthalate fibers, subsequently resulting in tubal occlusion usually within 3 months...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Catalin Vasile Ivan, Joseph H Mullineux, Vikas Shah, Ratan Verma, Arumugam Rajesh, James A Stephenson
Radiology misses have been the subject of much debate on both sides of the Atlantic in recent years. There is now greater focus in trying to reduce radiology errors by continuous education and changing the working environment to try and protect the radiologist, and ultimately the patient from potential harm. Duty of candour is a relevant and sensitive area. Developing robust validated reporting pathways within the healthcare structure is very important so as to encourage a "learning from discrepancies" culture and to put the patient and their families at the center of reporting and acknowledging errors in radiology...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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