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Golden eagle

Todd E Katzner, David M Nelson, Melissa A Braham, Jacqueline M Doyle, Nadia B Fernandez, Adam E Duerr, Peter H Bloom, Matthew C Fitzpatrick, Tricia A Miller, Renee C E Culver, Loan Braswell, J Andrew DeWoody
Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ(2) H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km)...
September 27, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Ron A Meyers, Joshua C McFarland
Slow fibers are typically characterized as functioning in avian postural behaviors such as soaring flight, and are described for a number of elite soarers such as vultures, pelicans and albatrosses. Golden Eagles and Bald Eagles also display soaring behavior and we examined their flight muscles for the presence of slow fibers. Surprisingly, eagles lack a deep layer to the pectoralis found in other soaring species. Additionally, the pectoralis as well as other shoulder muscles had few to no slow muscle fibers...
July 2016: Acta Zoologica
Ryan M Nielson, Robert K Murphy, Brian A Millsap, William H Howe, Grant Gardner
Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006-2010, 2012, and 2013...
2016: PloS One
Mari S Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila, Erkki Korpimäki
Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators...
October 2016: Oecologia
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
F Dalerum, P Hellström, M Miranda, J Nyström, J Ekenstedt, A Angerbjörn
Predation is an ecologically important process, and intra-guild interactions may substantially influence the ecological effects of predator species. Despite a rapid expansion in the use of mathematical graph theory to describe trophic relations, network approaches have rarely been used to study interactions within predator assemblages. Assemblages of diurnal raptors are subject to substantial intra- and interspecific competition. Here we used the novel approach of applying analyzes based on network topology to species-specific data on the stable isotopes (13)C and (15)N in feathers to evaluate patterns of relative resource utilization within a guild of diurnal raptors in northern Sweden...
October 2016: Oecologia
R A Kagan
Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Moosa Javdani, Mohammad Hashemnia, Zahra Nikousefat
Heterotopic ossification is the process of pathologic bone formation in soft tissue structures that usually do not form bone. An immature golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was examined 2 months after a gunshot wound in the right wing. A solid oval mass with a gun pellet at its core was found attached to the ulna by a bony pedicle and was surgically excised. Heterotopic ossification secondary to gunshot and fragment wounds in the right ulna was diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings...
March 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Julie A Beston, Jay E Diffendorfer, Scott R Loss, Douglas H Johnson
Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines...
2016: PloS One
Leticia Alcalá, Carla Andrea Alonso, Carmen Simón, Chabier González-Esteban, Jesús Orós, Antonio Rezusta, Carmelo Ortega, Carmen Torres
To get a better insight into the role of birds as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) Escherichia coli producers, 100 fecal samples belonging to 15 different wild avian species from Northern Spain were analyzed. Cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli isolates were identified in 16 of the 100 tested birds, which corresponded to 9 animal species (Gyps fulvus-griffon vulture, Larus michahellis-yellow-legged gull, Milvus migrans-black kite, Milvus milvus-red kite, Ciconia ciconia-white stork, Sturnus unicolor-spotless starling, Aquila chrysaetos-golden eagle, Cuculus canorus-common cuckoo, Tyto alba-barn owl)...
December 21, 2015: Microbial Ecology
Mary H Straub, Terra R Kelly, Bruce A Rideout, Curtis Eng, Janna Wynne, Josephine Braun, Christine K Johnson
Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)...
2015: PloS One
Jean Fitts Cochrane, Eric Lonsdorf, Taber D Allison, Carol A Sanders-Reed
Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty...
September 2015: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Todd E Katzner, Philip J Turk, Adam E Duerr, Tricia A Miller, Michael J Lanzone, Jeff L Cooper, David Brandes, Junior A Tremblay, Jérôme Lemaître
Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite-global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America...
November 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Miranda J Sadar, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Asli Mete, Janet Foley, Nicole Stephenson, Krysta H Rogers, Claire Grosset, K Shawn Smallwood, Jessica Shipman, Amy Wells, Stephen D White, Douglas A Bell, Michelle G Hawkins
A second-year, female golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was live trapped in northern California because of severe feather loss and crusting of the skin on the head and legs. On physical examination, the bird was lethargic, dehydrated, and thin, with severe feather loss and diffuse hyperemia and crusting on the head, ventral wings, ventrum, dorsum, and pelvic limbs. Mites morphologically similar to Micnemidocoptes derooi were identified with scanning electron microscopy. The eagle was treated with ivermectin (0...
September 2015: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Kentaro Misaki, Go Suzuki, Nguyen Minh Tue, Shin Takahashi, Masayuki Someya, Hidetaka Takigami, Yuko Tajima, Tadasu K Yamada, Masao Amano, Tomohiko Isobe, Shinsuke Tanabe
Sulfuric acid-treated liver extracts of representative high-trophic level Japanese animals were analyzed by toxic identification and evaluation (TIE) with chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) and chemical analysis to elucidate androgen receptor (AR) antagonistic activities and potential contributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The activities were detected in striped dolphins (n = 5), Stejneger's beaked whales (n = 6), golden eagle (n = 1), and Steller's sea eagle (n = 1) with CALUX-flutamide equivalents (FluEQs) as follow: 38 (20-52), 47 (21-96), 5...
October 6, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Jason D Tack, Bradley C Fedy
Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development...
2015: PloS One
Anna C Peterson, Gerald J Niemi, Douglas H Johnson
Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America...
April 2015: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Leslie New, Emily Bjerre, Brian Millsap, Mark C Otto, Michael C Runge
Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments...
2015: PloS One
Silvia Villaverde-Morcillo, Rubén García-Sánchez, Cristina Castaño, Eduar Rodríguez, Fernando Gonzalez, Milagros Esteso, Julián Santiago-Moreno
This paper describes the sperm characteristics and response to cooling and freezing of naturally ejaculated semen from a captive, adult golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus) trained to allow sperm recovery via cooperative copulation. A basic spermiogram was prepared, and sperm motility and morphometric variables recorded using a computer-aided system. For sperm storage, the effects of a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based extender were evaluated at 5°C. The same extender was also used in freezing procedures in which glycerol (11%) and dimethylacetamide (6%) were compared as cryoprotectants...
June 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mari S Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila, Erkki Korpimäki
Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L...
January 2015: Ecology and Evolution
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