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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414429/sublethal-lead-exposure-alters-movement-behavior-in-free-ranging-golden-eagles
#1
Frauke Ecke, Navinder J Singh, Jon M Arnemo, Anders Bignert, Björn Helander, Åsa M M Berglund, Hans Borg, Caroline Bröjer, Karin Holm, Michael Lanzone, Tricia Miller, Åke Nordström, Jannikke Räikkönen, Ilia Rodushkin, Erik Ågren, Birger Hörnfeldt
Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403159/improved-supervised-classification-of-accelerometry-data-to-distinguish-behaviors-of-soaring-birds
#2
Maitreyi Sur, Tony Suffredini, Stephen M Wessells, Peter H Bloom, Michael Lanzone, Sheldon Blackshire, Srisarguru Sridhar, Todd Katzner
Soaring birds can balance the energetic costs of movement by switching between flapping, soaring and gliding flight. Accelerometers can allow quantification of flight behavior and thus a context to interpret these energetic costs. However, models to interpret accelerometry data are still being developed, rarely trained with supervised datasets, and difficult to apply. We collected accelerometry data at 140Hz from a trained golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) whose flight we recorded with video that we used to characterize behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394912/poor-construction-not-time-takes-its-toll-on-subsidised-fences-designed-to-deter-large-carnivores
#3
Jens Frank, Ann Eklund
Large carnivore conservation may be considered as successful in Sweden, as wolf (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx), brown bear (Ursus arctos), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations have recovered from extinction or near extinction to viable populations during the last three decades. Particularly the wolf and lynx populations have returned at the cost of an increasing number of carnivore attacks on domestic livestock. To support coexistence between carnivores and livestock production, the Swedish authorities subsidise interventions to prevent or reduce the number of carnivore attacks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361495/on-the-tragedy-of-the-commons-when-predation-and-livestock-loss-may-improve-the-economic-lot-of-herders
#4
Anders Skonhoft, Anne Borge Johannesen, Jon Olaf Olaussen
This paper studies the practice of semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) herding in Finnmark county in northern Norway. In this area, the Saami reindeer herders compete for space and grazing areas and keep large herds, while at the same time, the reindeer population is heavily exposed to carnivore predation by the lynx (Lynx lynx), the wolverine (Gulo gulo), and the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). It is demonstrated that predation actually may improve the economic lot of livestock holders in this unmanaged local common setting...
March 30, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358612/management-and-case-outcome-of-gastric-impaction-in-four-raptors-a-case-series
#5
Jeffrey R Applegate, Arnaud Van Wettere, Emily F Christiansen, Laurel A Degernes
Four captive raptors, an American kestrel ( Falco sparverius ), peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus ), golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ), and barn owl ( Tyto alba ), were diagnosed with ventricular and/or proventricular foreign material impactions consisting of artificial turf substrate, paper and plastic substrate, grass, and newspaper. Partial or total anorexia was reported in all birds and decreased casting in 2 birds. Survey radiographs confirmed presence of gastric enlargement in all 4 birds. The kestrel and eagle were treated unsuccessfully with gastroscopy and gastric lavage, respectively, followed by surgical intervention to remove the ventricular impactions...
March 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187938/occurrence-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-in-golden-eagle-nestlings-unnoticed-scavenging-on-livestock-carcasses-and-other-potential-exposure-routes
#6
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Wildlife exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur through contaminated water, and through the excreta and carcasses of medicated livestock, with potential for bioaccumulation and transfer through food webs. We evaluated whether nestling exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur from food delivered to nests in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a top predator and facultative scavenger. Despite the fact that diet analysis suggests an apparently low dependence on livestock carcasses reduced to two piglets remains (1...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942006/ground-squirrel-shooting-and-potential-lead-exposure-in-breeding-avian-scavengers
#7
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Mason T Wagner
Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878076/nonmotorized-recreation-and-motorized-recreation-in-shrub-steppe-habitats-affects-behavior-and-reproduction-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos
#8
Robert J Spaul, Julie A Heath
Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783687/nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-analyses-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos-canadensis-from-three-areas-in-western-north-america-initial-results-and-conservation-implications
#9
Erica H Craig, Jennifer R Adams, Lisette P Waits, Mark R Fuller, Diana M Whittington
Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677518/golden-eagle-fatalities-and-the-continental-scale-consequences-of-local-wind-energy-generation
#10
Todd E Katzner, David M Nelson, Melissa A Braham, Jacqueline M Doyle, Nadia B Fernandez, Adam E Duerr, Peter H Bloom, Matthew C Fitzpatrick, Tricia A Miller, Renee C E Culver, Loan Braswell, J Andrew DeWoody
Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ(2) H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km)...
April 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616780/anatomy-and-histochemistry-of-spread-wing-posture-inbirds-4-eagles-soar-with-fast-not-slow-muscle-%C3%AF-bres
#11
Ron A Meyers, Joshua C McFarland
Slow fibers are typically characterized as functioning in avian postural behaviors such as soaring flight, and are described for a number of elite soarers such as vultures, pelicans and albatrosses. Golden Eagles and Bald Eagles also display soaring behavior and we examined their flight muscles for the presence of slow fibers. Surprisingly, eagles lack a deep layer to the pectoralis found in other soaring species. Additionally, the pectoralis as well as other shoulder muscles had few to no slow muscle fibers...
July 2016: Acta Zoologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556735/modeling-late-summer-distribution-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos-in-the-western-united-states
#12
Ryan M Nielson, Robert K Murphy, Brian A Millsap, William H Howe, Grant Gardner
Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006-2010, 2012, and 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342659/guardian-or-threat-does-golden-eagle-predation-risk-have-cascading-effects-on-forest-grouse
#13
Mari S Lyly, Alexandre Villers, Elina Koivisto, Pekka Helle, Tuomo Ollila, Erkki Korpimäki
Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators...
October 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243150/antibody-prevalence-and-isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-from-raptors-in-the-southeastern-usa
#14
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209296/network-topology-of-stable-isotope-interactions-in-a-sub-arctic-raptor-guild
#15
F Dalerum, P Hellström, M Miranda, J Nyström, J Ekenstedt, A Angerbjörn
Predation is an ecologically important process, and intra-guild interactions may substantially influence the ecological effects of predator species. Despite a rapid expansion in the use of mathematical graph theory to describe trophic relations, network approaches have rarely been used to study interactions within predator assemblages. Assemblages of diurnal raptors are subject to substantial intra- and interspecific competition. Here we used the novel approach of applying analyzes based on network topology to species-specific data on the stable isotopes (13)C and (15)N in feathers to evaluate patterns of relative resource utilization within a guild of diurnal raptors in northern Sweden...
October 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154543/electrocution-of-raptors-on-power-lines-a-review-of-necropsy-methods-and-findings
#16
R A Kagan
Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088747/heterotopic-ossification-secondary-to-gunshot-and-fragment-wounds-in-a-golden-eagle-aquila-chrysaetos
#17
Moosa Javdani, Mohammad Hashemnia, Zahra Nikousefat
Heterotopic ossification is the process of pathologic bone formation in soft tissue structures that usually do not form bone. An immature golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was examined 2 months after a gunshot wound in the right wing. A solid oval mass with a gun pellet at its core was found attached to the ulna by a bony pedicle and was surgically excised. Heterotopic ossification secondary to gunshot and fragment wounds in the right ulna was diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings...
March 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963254/prioritizing-avian-species-for-their-risk-of-population-level-consequences-from-wind-energy-development
#18
Julie A Beston, Jay E Diffendorfer, Scott R Loss, Douglas H Johnson
Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687342/wild-birds-frequent-carriers-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-of-ctx-m-and-shv-12-types
#19
Leticia Alcalá, Carla Andrea Alonso, Carmen Simón, Chabier González-Esteban, Jesús Orós, Antonio Rezusta, Carmelo Ortega, Carmen Torres
To get a better insight into the role of birds as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) Escherichia coli producers, 100 fecal samples belonging to 15 different wild avian species from Northern Spain were analyzed. Cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli isolates were identified in 16 of the 100 tested birds, which corresponded to 9 animal species (Gyps fulvus-griffon vulture, Larus michahellis-yellow-legged gull, Milvus migrans-black kite, Milvus milvus-red kite, Ciconia ciconia-white stork, Sturnus unicolor-spotless starling, Aquila chrysaetos-golden eagle, Cuculus canorus-common cuckoo, Tyto alba-barn owl)...
December 21, 2015: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606755/seroepidemiologic-survey-of-potential-pathogens-in-obligate-and-facultative-scavenging-avian-species-in-california
#20
Mary H Straub, Terra R Kelly, Bruce A Rideout, Curtis Eng, Janna Wynne, Josephine Braun, Christine K Johnson
Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)...
2015: PloS One
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