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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092933/estimation-of-the-size-of-the-iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-outbreak-associated-with-cadaveric-dura-mater-grafts-in-korea
#1
Byoug-Hak Jeon, Jinseob Kim, GangHyun Kim Kim, Soo Chul Park, SangYun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Purpose: This study estimated the overall magnitude of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) based on dura graft cases in Korea using a mathematical model. Methods: We estimated the number of annual cases of dura grafts performed between 1980 and 1995 by applying the proportion of dura grafts recorded by the Health Insurance Review Agency claim dataset in Korea to the number of nationwide neurosurgery cases. The distribution of the incubation period was assumed to fall under a Weibull distribution with density function or a log-logistic distribution with density function...
December 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092922/the-effectiveness-of-free-vascularized-fibular-flaps-in-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-and-neck-a-systematic-review
#2
Cassandra A Ligh, Jonas A Nelson, John P Fischer, Stephen J Kovach, L Scott Levin
Background Free vascularized fibular flaps (FVFFs) are accepted surgical options to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head and neck (ONFHN) to prevent conversion to total hip replacement (THR), yet many studies are single institution cohorts, with little generalizability. Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review examining the comparative effectiveness of FVFF to treat ONFHN, particularly preventing conversion to a THR and improving hip function/symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases using femoral head, free fibula, and femoral neck keywords...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092847/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-post-stroke-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
XinYi Shen, MingYi Liu, Yu Cheng, Cui Jia, XinYue Pan, QingYun Gou, XinLian Liu, Hui Cao, LuShun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Every year, more than fifteen million people worldwide experience a stroke, nearly 30% of stroke survivors are likely to experience post-stroke depression (PSD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the emerging techniques which assist in targeting rehabilitation after stroke. Although deterioration of PSD greatly affects the recovery and quality of life of stroke sufferers, the effect of rTMS therapy has not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of rTMS on PSD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092803/ox40-structure-and-function-what-questions-remain
#4
REVIEW
Jane Willoughby, Jordana Griffiths, Ivo Tews, Mark S Cragg
OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092694/proton-pump-inhibitors-risks-of-long-term-use
#5
REVIEW
Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Maria Laura Artesiani, Dania Gelli, Marco Montagnani, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Franco Bazzoli
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs and their use is increasing, in particular for long term treatment, often being over-prescribed and used for inappropriate conditions. In recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards a wide range of adverse effects, and even when a potential underlying biological mechanism is plausible, the clinical evidence of the adverse effect is often weak. Several long term side effects have been investigated ranging from interaction with other drugs, increased risk of infection, reduced intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals, and more recently kidney damage and dementia...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092486/use-of-polyclonal-monoclonal-antibody-therapies-in-transplantation
#6
Melissa Y Yeung, Steven Gabardi, Mohamed H Sayegh
For over thirty years, antibody (mAb)-based therapies have been a standard component of transplant immunosuppression, and yet much remains to be learned in order for us to truly harness their therapeutic capabilities. Current mAbs used in transplant directly target and destroy graft-destructive immune cells, interrupt cytokine and costimulation-dependent T and B cell activation, and prevent down-stream complement activation. Areas covered: This review summarizes our current approaches to using antibody-based therapies to prevent and treat allograft rejection...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092414/dce-mri-of-the-prostate-using-shutter-speed-vs-tofts-model-for-tumor-characterization-and-assessment-of-aggressiveness
#7
Stefanie J Hectors, Cecilia Besa, Mathilde Wagner, Guido H Jajamovich, George K Haines, Sara Lewis, Ashutosh Tewari, Ardeshir Rastinehad, Wei Huang, Bachir Taouli
PURPOSE: To quantify Tofts model (TM) and shutter-speed model (SSM) perfusion parameters in prostate cancer (PCa) and noncancerous peripheral zone (PZ) and to compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) classification for the assessment of PCa aggressiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PCa patients (mean age 60 years old) who underwent MRI at 3...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092397/update-on-orthokeratology-in-managing-progressive-myopia-in-children-efficacy-mechanisms-and-concerns
#8
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092353/non-myeloablative-conditioning-for-second-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-graft-failure-in-patients-with-non-malignant-disorders-a-prospective-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
K Mallhi, P J Orchard, W P Miller, Q Cao, J Tolar, T C Lund
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) effectively treats several non-malignant disorders such as selected lysosomal disorders, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and hemoglobinopathies. However, rates of graft failure (GF) in non-malignant populations exceed those of patients with malignant indications for HCT. Salvage conditioning regimens and outcomes for second HCT for GF vary immensely in the literature. We report 17 consecutive pediatric patients with non-malignant disorders who underwent a second allogenic HCT for GF using a non-myeloablative, low-dose busulfan-based regimen...
January 16, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092294/outcomes-of-a-combined-approach-of-percutaneous-coronary-revascularization-and-cardiac-valve-surgery
#10
Orlando Santana, Sandeep Singla, Christos G Mihos, Andrés M Pineda, Gregg W Stone, Paul A Kurlansky, Isaac George, Ajay J Kirtane, Craig R Smith, Nirat Beohar
A subset of patients requiring coronary revascularization and valve surgery may benefit from a combined approach of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and valve surgery, as opposed to the standard median sternotomy approach of combined coronary artery bypass and valve surgery. To evaluate its potential benefits and limitations, a literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and the Cochrane library, through March 2016 to identify all studies involving a combined approach of PCI and valve surgery in patients with coronary artery and valvular disease...
January 13, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092287/current-and-future-management-of-the-young-child-with-early-onset-wheezing
#11
Allison J Burbank, Stanley J Szefler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss current thinking in relation to available guidelines for the care of preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing, while highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and discussing changes that could occur over the next 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The Asthma Predictive Index as well as allergen-specific IgE, peripheral eosinophil count and exhaled nitric oxide are perhaps underutilized sources of information that can assist in predicting progression to asthma and response to therapies...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092286/childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-associations-with-risk-behavior-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-a-systematic-review
#12
Eleanor Kennedy, Miriam Cohen, Marcus Munafò
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence that childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with risk behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Risk behavior included one or more of the following: use of substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; involvement in criminal behavior; and behavioral issues with conduct. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using these terms: child, pediatric, traumatic brain injury, head injury, adolescent, psychosocial, antisocial, conduct, substance use...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092285/perioperative-%C3%AE-blockers-in-patients-undergoing-noncardiac-surgery-scientific-misconduct-and-clinical-guidelines
#13
Dhauna Karam, Rohit Arora
BACKGROUND: β-blocker use in perioperative period of noncardiac surgeries has been a topic of debate since many years. Earlier studies conducted in the 90s showed decreased cardiac adverse events and improved postoperative outcomes with β-blocker use. Based on this, the ACCF and ESC published guidelines strongly supporting β-blocker use. But contemporaneous studies conducted revealed conflicting evidence and have also proven some of the earlier studies to be fraudulent. Although ACCF guidelines have been updated to partially reflect the changes, ESC guidelines continue to support β-blocker use...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#14
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092140/a-systematic-review-of-sinonasal-oncocytomas-and-oncocytic-carcinomas-diagnosis-management-and-technical-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Zerina Hodzic, Nicholas R Rowan, Ryota Kashiwazaki, Thomas J Willson, Eric W Wang, Stella E Lee
BACKGROUND: Oncocytomas and oncocytic carcinomas are rare tumors of the sinonasal cavity with the propensity for local invasion. This report and systematic review details a case of a nasal oncocytoma involving the lacrimal sac and provides an update of the current literature. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed and Ovid databases. The data obtained from published articles with sinonasal oncocytoma/oncocytic carcinoma as the primary diagnosis included patient demographics, presentation, radiographic and histologic findings, management, and recurrence rates...
January 16, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092120/pediatric-peritonsillar-abscess-outcomes-and-cost-savings-from-using-transcervical-ultrasound
#16
Zhen Huang, William Vintzileos, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Anjum Bandarkar, Brian K Reilly
OBJECTIVES: 1) To analyze clinical outcomes of children stratified by ultrasound into three diagnoses: acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar phlegmon, and abscess; and 2) To compare clinical outcomes and financial impact between children who underwent ultrasound protocol to those who did not. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis between two cohorts: ultrasound protocol group and control group. METHODS: Children with peritonsillar abscess (PTA) diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) were enrolled during a 2-year period for transcervical ultrasound evaluation of bilateral tonsillar fossae...
January 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092097/complications-and-parent-satisfaction-in-pediatric-osseointegrated-bone-conduction-hearing-implants
#17
Kenny H Chan, Dexiang Gao, Emily L Jensen, Gregory C Allen, Stephen P Cass
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term complication rate and parental satisfaction of osseointegrated bone conduction hearing implants (OBCHIs). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of children undergoing OBCHIs. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children undergoing OBCHIs for the treatment of conductive, mixed, and single-sided sensorineural hearing loss in children. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects were identified with 0...
January 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092081/epigenetics-in-alzheimer-s-disease-perspective-of-dna-methylation
#18
REVIEW
Talal Jamil Qazi, Zhenzhen Quan, Asif Mir, Hong Qing
Research over the years has shown that causes of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood, but over the past years, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the developing memory formation either under pathological or physiological conditions has become clear. The term epigenetics represents the heredity of changes in phenotype that are independent of altered DNA sequences. Different studies validated that cytosine methylation of genomic DNA decreases with age in different tissues of mammals, and therefore, the role of epigenetic factors in developing neurological disorders in aging has been under focus...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092021/sunshine-vitamin-and-thyroid
#19
REVIEW
Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Luigi Albano, Paola Ungaro, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Emidio Macchia
Vitamin D exerts its canonical roles on the musculoskeletal system and in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. In the last years, increasing evidences suggested several extra-skeletal actions of this hormone, indicating that vitamin D may produce effects in almost all the body tissues. These are mediated by the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thanks to the presence of the 1-α-hydroxylase, the protein that converts the 25-hydroxyvitamin (calcidiol) to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (calcitriol)...
January 14, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092017/transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-for-a-large-leiomyosarcoma-at-the-lower-rectum-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Nobuaki Hoshino, Koya Hida, Kenji Kawada, Takaki Sakurai, Yoshiharu Sakai
BACKGROUND: Rectal leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare disease. Previously, LMS was not properly distinguishable from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) until c-kit, a characteristic marker of GIST, was discovered in 1998. No standard therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal LMS has been established except for surgical resection because of its rarity. Rectal LMS is often accompanied by symptoms, which can enable detection at a small size. However, when a large LMS is detected at the lower rectum, it is difficult to excise due to the narrow pelvic space...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
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