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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722798/angptl8-betatrophin-role-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Jehad Abubaker, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes is a major disease worldwide that is reaching epidemic stage. Its increased prevalence as well as its association with a high number of complications such as cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy and retinopathy makes it an important disease for investigation. ANGPTL8 is a recently identified hormone that has been associated with two functionally important processes in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance as well as lipid metabolism. Initial work has showed that ANGPTL8 was expressed in liver, white adipose and brown adipose tissues...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722269/role-of-q177a-and-k173a-q177a-substitutions-in-thermostability-and-activity-of-the-elbn12-lipase
#2
Parisa Farrokh, Bagher Yakhchali, Ali Asghar Karkhane
Thermostable lipases have many applications in detergent industries and in organic synthesis. There are many ways to improve thermal stability of enzymes e.g., higher hydrophobicity, greater structural packing, higher content of the charged residues and lower thermolabile ones. In this study, thermolabile Gln (sensitive to higher temperatures) was substituted with Ala in native ELBn12 and mutated K173A lipases 2, to examine its effect on thermal stability and activity of the lipases. Single (Q177A) and double mutants (K173A/Q177A) were expressed in Escherichia coli pLysS...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720341/lipase-or-amylase-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-pancreatitis
#3
REVIEW
Ola Z Ismail, Vipin Bhayana
Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719397/obesity-and-pancreatitis
#4
Biswajit Khatua, Bara El-Kurdi, Vijay P Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obesity pandemic poses a unique set of problems for acute pancreatitis - both by increasing acute pancreatitis incidence, and worsening acute pancreatitis severity. This review explores these associations, underlying mechanisms, and potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: We review how the obesity associated increase in gallstones, surgical, and endoscopic interventions for obesity management, diabetes, and related medications such as incretin-based therapies and hypertriglyceridemia may increase the incidence of acute pancreatitis...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718838/phyllanthus-niruri-standardized-extract-alleviates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-decreases-atherosclerotic-risk-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Mohammed Ali Ahmed Saeed, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Nasiba Salisu Usman, Dhamraa W Al-Dulaimi, Mun Fei Yam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718792/recombinant-lipase-from-gibberella-zeae-exhibits-broad-substrate-specificity-a-comparative-study-on-emulsified-and-monomolecular-substrate
#6
Fanghua Wang, Hui Zhang, Zexin Zhao, Ruixia Wei, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, the substrate specificity of recombinant Gibberella zeae lipase (rGZEL) that originates from Gibberella zeae was characterized in detail. Under the emulsified reaction system, both phospholipase and glycolipid hydrolytic activities were observed, except for the predominant lipase activity. The optimum conditions for different activity exhibition were also determined. Compared with its lipase activity, a little higher ratio of glycolipid hydrolytic activity (0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718686/kinetic-study-on-the-inhibition-of-xanthine-oxidase-by-acylated-derivatives-of-flavonoids-synthesised-enzymatically
#7
Maria Elisa Melo Branco de Araújo, Yollanda Edwirges Moreira Franco, Thiago Grando Alberto, Marcia Cristina Fernandes Messias, Camila Wielewski Leme, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Patricia de Oliveira Carvalho
Studies have reported that flavonoids inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO) activity; however, poor solubility and stability in lipophilic media limit their bioavailability and applications. This study evaluated the kinetic parameters of XO inhibition and partition coefficients of flavonoid esters biosynthesised from hesperidin, naringin, and rutin via enzymatic acylation with hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, and oleic acids catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). Quantitative determination by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) showed higher conversion yields (%) for naringin and rutin esters using acyl donors with 8C and 10C...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#8
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715671/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-protein-abundance-and-translocation-to-the-lipid-droplet-increase-during-leptin-induced-lipolysis-in-bovine-adipocytes
#9
D A Koltes, M E Spurlock, D M Spurlock
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is critical for preventing the development of metabolic diseases. It is clear that leptin plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by regulating energy intake. However, leptin can also regulate energy homeostasis by inducing lipolysis in adipocytes, but it is unclear how the major lipases are involved in leptin-stimulated lipolysis. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if (1) leptin acts directly to induce lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, (2) the potential lipases involved in leptin-induced lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, and (3) increases translocation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) during leptin-stimulated lipolysis in bovine stromal vascular cell-derived adipocytes...
June 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715469/cofactor-engineering-improved-calb-production-in-pichia-pastoris-through-heterologous-expression-of-nadh-oxidase-and-adenylate-kinase
#10
Charumathi Jayachandran, Balakumaran Palanisamy Athiyaman, Meenakshisundaram Sankaranarayanan
The cofactor engineering strategy can relieve the metabolic stress induced by expression of recombinant protein in cellular metabolism related to cofactor and energy reactions. To study the effect of cofactor regeneration on recombinant protein expression, NADH oxidase (noxE) was engineered in P. pastoris expressing lipase B (GSCALB). Expression of noxE in P. pastoris (GSCALBNOX) increased NAD+ levels by 85% with a concomitant reduction in NADH/NAD+ ratio of 67% compared to GSCALB. The change in the redox level positively influenced the methanol uptake rate and made 34% augment in CALB activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714845/bacillus-mangrovi-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-sediment-sample-from-a-mangrove-forest
#11
Vasundhera Gupta, Pradip Kumar Singh, Suresh Korpole, Naga Radha Srinivas Tanuku, Anil Kumar Pinnaka
A facultatively anaerobic, endospore forming, alkali-tolerant, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK61T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, India. Colonies were circular, 1.5 mm in diameter, shiny, smooth, yellowish and convex with entire margins after 48 h growth at 30 °C. Growth occurred at 15-42 °C, with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6-9. AK61T was positive for amylase activity and negative for oxidase, catalase, aesculinase, caseinase, cellulase, DNase, gelatinase, lipase and urease activities...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#12
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714266/potential-biotechnological-capabilities-of-cultivable-mycobiota-from-carwash-effluents
#13
Timothy Sibanda, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Memory Tekere, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Stephen Meddows-Taylor
Urban life has created man-made extreme environments like carwashes. These environments have, however, not been sufficiently explored for mycobiota that can be sources of biotechnologically useful products, as has been the case with natural extreme environments. Using a combination of culture and molecular techniques, fungi from carwash effluents was characterized for production of lipase and cellulase enzymes, nonpolar and polar biotechnologically relevant secondary metabolites and hydrocarbon utilization...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713597/ketamine-use-for-successful-resolution-of-post-ercp-acute-pancreatitis-abdominal-pain
#14
Suneel M Agerwala, Divya Sundarapandiyan, Garret Weber
We report a case in which a patient with intractable pain secondary to post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis is successfully treated with a subanesthetic ketamine infusion. Shortly after ERCP, the patient reported severe stabbing epigastric pain. She exhibited voluntary guarding and tenderness without distension. Amylase and lipase levels were elevated. Pain persisted for hours despite hydromorphone PCA, hydromorphone boluses, fentanyl boluses, and postprocedure anxiolytics...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713570/reduced-first-phase-insulin-secretion-increases-postprandial-lipidemia-in-subjects-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#15
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Marco Escamilla-Márquez, Angelina López-Estrada, Luz Elizabeth Guillén-Pineda, Guadalupe López-Carrasco, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: It is not clear which phase of insulin secretion is more important to regulate lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. After a meal, insulin is released and acts as a major regulator of LPL activity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia is a common comorbidity in subjects with insulin resistance (IR). Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the role of the first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS) on postprandial lipidemia in subjects with IR and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational and comparative study...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713048/phytochemical-analysis-and-effects-on-ingestive-behaviour-of-a-caralluma-fimbriata-extract
#16
Annabella Vitalone, Antonella Di Sotto, Caterina Loredana Mammola, Rosemarie Heyn, Selenia Miglietta, Paola Mariani, Fabio Sciubba, Passarelli Francesca, Nativio Paola, Gabriela Mazzanti
Caralluma fimbriata Wall. is currently used as a "natural slimming" food supplement, likely due to its content in pregnane glycosides. In the present study, a commercially available Caralluma fimbriata extract (Slimaluma(®); CFE, 100 mg/kg) has been evaluated for its ability to affect the ingestive behaviour in female rats, also with reference to the modulation of brain neuropeptides NPY and ORX.The interference of CFE with α-amylase and lipase has been investigated in vitro, as possible peripheral mechanism of action...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712022/effects-of-dietary-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-growth-performance-digestive-enzymes-and-gut-morphology-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#17
Xiaoting Zheng, Yafei Duan, Hongbiao Dong, Jiasong Zhang
A 15-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and gut morphology of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (initial body weight = 7.96 ± 0.59 g). Four microbound diets were formulated to contain fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB), and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum. Results indicated that final weight was significantly higher in FS, DB, and CE group in comparison to the control group (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711611/biochemical-characterization-and-stability-assessment-of-rhizopus-oryzae-lipase-covalently-immobilized-on-amino-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles
#18
Kh Pashangeh, M Akhond, H R Karbalaei-Heidari, G Absalan
Amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) have been investigated as a support for covalent immobilization of lipase. The nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method and subsequently were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) via silanization reaction. With glutaraldehyde, as the coupling agent, the lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was successfully immobilized onto the amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized support was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711520/exploring-substrate-specificities-of-a-recombinant-rhizopus-oryzae-lipase-in-biodiesel-synthesis
#19
Albert Canet, M Dolors Benaiges, Francisco Valero, Patrick Adlercreutz
The alcoholysis of triolein was used to explore the specific features of a recombinant Rhizopus oryzae lipase (rROL) for biodiesel synthesis. For this purpose, different acylglycerols were compared as substrates in lipase-catalysed transesterification. rROL was shown to exhibit a higher specificity towards 1-monoolein than triolein compared to other R. oryzae lipases, being more than 4-fold more specific; in contrast, rROL did not accept 2-monoolein as substrate, concluding that it is highly 1,3-positional specific...
July 12, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711265/feeding-a-concentrate-rich-in-rapeseed-oil-improves-fatty-acid-composition-and-flavor-in-norwegian-goat-milk
#20
R A Inglingstad, S Skeie, G E Vegarud, T G Devold, Y Chilliard, M Eknæs
Impaired quality due to a high content of free fatty acids (FFA) and off-flavors has caused challenges in the development of Norwegian goat milk products. The present study aimed to examine the effect of lipid-supplemented concentrates on milk fat content, fatty acid composition, FFA, lipoprotein lipase activity, sensory properties, and size of milk fat globules of goat milk. Thirty goats assigned to 3 experimental groups were fed different concentrates from 60 d in milk (DIM) until late lactation (230 DIM)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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