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Christiane Kiske, Svenja Noerenberg, Miriam Ecker, Xingyue Ma, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Karl-Heinz Engel
The absolute configurations of chiral β-mercaptoalkanones had been previously assigned on the basis of the 1H NMR anisotropy method using (S)-2-methoxy-2-(1-naphthyl)propionic acid ((S)-MαNP) as chiral auxiliary. This study presents a reinvestigation of the configurations of 4-mercapto-2-pentanone, 1, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, 2, and 2-mercapto-4-heptanone, 3. Enantiomers of 1, 2 and 3 were obtained by lipase-catalyzed hydrolyses of the respective acetylthioalkanones. Upon derivatization with (S)-MαNP, the configurations of the reaction products were deduced on the basis of the order of the HPLC-elution of the diastereoisomeric thioesters assuming that the sector rule previously developed for secondary alcohols is also valid for thiols...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sudip Das, Tarak Karmakar, Sundaram Balasubramanian
Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) is an industrially significant catalyst for the production of biodiesel due to its operability over a wide range of pH and temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations of TLL in aqueous solutions of a biocompatible ionic liquid (IL), cholinium glycinate (ChGly) have been carried out to investigate the microscopic reasons for the experimentally observed enhancement in the activity of TLL, upon addition of room temperature IL, especially at an optimal concentration. Eight different TLL systems in both its open and closed forms at various concentrations of the room temperature IL in water have been studied...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Shalev Gihaz, Diána Weiser, Adi Dror, Péter Sátorhelyi, Moran Jerabek-Willemsen, László Poppe, Ayelet Fishman
Two ternary sol-gel matrices, an octyltriethoxysilane-based aliphatic matrix and a phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS)-based aromatic matrix, were used to immobilize a methanol-stable variant of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Superior thermal stability of the mutant versus the wildtype in methanol was confirmed by intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The influence of skim milk and soluble E. coli lysate proteins as bulking and stabilizing agents in conjunction with sol-gel entrapment were investigated...
October 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
Marc P Baggelaar, Mario Van der Stelt
Competitive activity-based protein profiling is a highly efficient chemical biology technique to determine target engagement and selectivity profiles of enzyme inhibitors in complex proteomes. Fluorophosphonate-based fluorescent inhibitors are widely used as broad-spectrum probes for serine hydrolases. However, diacylglycerol lipase-α is not labeled by fluorophosphonate-based probes. To overcome this problem, we have developed a tailor-made activity-based probe that reacts with diacylglycerol lipase-α. Here we describe a case study in which we apply competitive activity-based protein profiling using a broad-spectrum and a tailor-made activity-based probe to establish selectivity and activity profiles of inhibitors targeting diacylglycerol lipase-α in the mouse brain proteome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mthulisi Khuphe, Clare S Mahon, Paul D Thornton
The glucoseamine-initiated ring-opening polymerisation of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and O-carboxanhydrides to yield amphiphilic block copolymers that are capable of self-assembly in aqueous solution to form well-defined, glucose-presenting, particles is reported. The particles formed are susceptible to enzyme-mediated (lipase and protease) and pH-induced degradation, and can selectively bind the lectin concanavalin A. Consequently, such glycoparticles are of significance for the controlled release of payload molecules in response to an acidic environment, for instance cancerous tissue, and upon interaction with target enzymes...
October 25, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Christian Montes, Fabiola Altimira, Hayron Canchignia, Álvaro Castro, Evelyn Sánchez, María Miccono, Eduardo Tapia, Álvaro Sequeida, Jorge Valdés, Paz Tapia, Carolina González, Humberto Prieto
A new plant commensal Pseudomonas veronii isolate (strain R4) was identified from a Xiphinema index biocontrol screen. Isolated from grapevine roots from vineyards in central Chile, the strain R4 exhibited a slower yet equivalently effective nematicide activity as the well-characterized P. protegens CHA0. Whole genome sequencing of strain R4 and comparative analysis among the available Pseudomonas spp. genomes allowed for the identification of gene clusters that encode putative extracellular proteases and lipase synthesis and secretion systems, which are proposed to mediate-at least in part-the observed nematicidal activity...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Guojian Yin, Guoyong Hu, Rong Wan, Ge Yu, Xiaofeng Cang, Jie Xiong, Jianbo Ni, Yanling Hu, Miao Xing, Yuting Fan, Wenqin Xiao, Lei Qiu, Maochun Tang, Yan Zhao, Shaofeng Wang, Xingpeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown an obvious protective effect on acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of bone marrow MSC-derived microvesicles (bmMSC-MVs) on AP and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Bone marrow MSCs and bmMSC-MVs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Cerulein-induced mild AP (MAP) and sodium taurocholate-induced severe AP (SAP) were used as AP models in vivo and in vitro...
October 2016: Pancreas
Raffaele Pezzilli, Gianvico Melzi dʼEril, Alessandra Barassi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the presence of pancreatic hyperenzymemia in patients with pancreatic cystic lesions as compared to other chronic diseases of the pancreas. METHODS: Ninety-one patients were studied: 32 had mucinous cystic lesions, 35 had chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 24 had pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Surgery was carried out in 10 of the 32 patients with mucinous cystic lesion (7 of them had severe dysplasia), in 5 patients with CP, and in 9 patients with PDAC...
October 2016: Pancreas
Poonam Syal, Rani Gupta
Five lipase genes, ylip4, ylip5, ylip7, ylip13 and ylip15, from Yarrowia lipolytica MSR80 were cloned and expressed in pEZZ18-HB101 system. The lipases shared maximum sequence identity with Candida galli lipase, while they shared structural similarity with YLIP2 of Y. lipolytica CLIB122. The enzymes, purified using IgG Sepharose, had specific activities in the range of 7-25 U/mg. Biochemical characteristics of all the lipases varied with respect to thermostability, substrate specificity and enantioselectivity...
October 24, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Xiaojie Liu, Yao Chen, Casey R Vickstrom, Yan Li, Andreu Viader, Benjamin F Cravatt, Qing-Song Liu
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic depression including depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). 2-AG is degraded primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Using knockout mice in which MAGL is deleted globally or selectively in neurons or astrocytes, we investigated the relative contribution of neuronal and astrocytic MAGL to the termination of DSE and DSI in Purkinje cells (PCs) in cerebellar slices...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Monica Dalva, Khadija El Jellas, Solrun J Steine, Bente B Johansson, Monika Ringdal, Janniche Torsvik, Heike Immervoll, Dag Hoem, Felix Laemmerhirt, Peter Simon, Markus M Lerch, Stefan Johansson, Pål R Njølstad, Frank U Weiss, Karianne Fjeld, Anders Molven
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We have recently described copy number variants (CNVs) of the human carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene, including a recombined deletion allele (CEL-HYB) that is a genetic risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Associations with pancreatic disease have also been reported for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in CEL exon 11. Here, we examined if CEL CNVs and VNTR length polymorphisms affect the risk for developing pancreatic cancer. METHODS: CEL CNVs and VNTR were genotyped in a German family with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, in 265 German and 197 Norwegian patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and in 882 controls...
October 11, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Sukhvir Kaur Bhangu, Shweta Gupta, Muthupandian Ashokkumar
The production of biodiesel was carried out from canola oil and methanol catalysed by lipase from Candida rugosa under different ultrasonic experimental conditions using horn (20kHz) and plate (22, 44, 98 and 300kHz) transducers. The effects of experimental conditions such as horn tip diameter, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic frequency and enzyme concentrations on biodiesel yield were investigated. The results showed that the application of ultrasound decreased the reaction time from 22-24h to 1.5h with the use of 3...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Xiangbing Wu, Chandler L Walker, Qingbo Lu, Wei Wu, Daniel B Eddelman, Jonathan M Parish, Xiao-Ming Xu
Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Werner J Geldenhuys, Li Lin, Altaf S Darvesh, Prabodh Sadana
Although statins and other pharmacological approaches have improved the management of lipid abnormalities, there exists a need for newer treatment modalities especially for the management of hypertriglyceridemia. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), by promoting hydrolytic cleavage of the triglyceride core of lipoproteins, is a crucial node in the management of plasma lipid levels. Although LPL expression and activity modulation is observed as a pleiotropic action of some the commonly used lipid lowering drugs, the deliberate development of drugs targeting LPL has not occurred yet...
October 19, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Mahejibin Khan, Amit Kumar
The understanding of the 3-dimensional enzyme structure is important for the point of protein engineering and applications. Computer-based molecular modelling is a vital tool for theoretical predication of enzyme activities and finding their substrates and inhibitors. SMlipA lipase was cloned from forest soil metagenome and characterized as broad spectrum enzyme with high stability in various organic solvents. In the present study, to understand the mechanism of SMlipA lipase and to identify the key residues involved in enzyme-substrate interaction, three dimensional-computational model of SMlipA has been generated and validated for stereo-chemical and amino-acid environment quality using appropriate programs, and further validation of the active-site architecture was achieved by performing docking studies with different ligand...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Marco Muth, Stefanie Rothkötter, Steven Paprosch, Reiner P Schmid, Klaus Schnitzlein
Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides yields glycerol and free fatty-acids, provided that the enzyme is non-regioselective. For an Sn-1,3 regioselective enzyme, such as lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the final product is no longer glycerol but Sn-2 monoglyceride instead. However, surface active molecules generated by lipolysis may have a detrimental effect on the interfacial biocatalysis since it is known that low molecular weight surfactants can displace proteins from interfaces. By using drop profile analysis tensiometry, we evaluated the interfacial properties of the lipase-generated molecules and their competitive effect on the adsorption behavior of the lipase and on the proceeding lipolysis...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Amanda S Harper-Leatherman, Jean Marie Wallace, Debra R Rolison
Sol-gel-derived aerogels are three-dimensional, nanoscale materials that combine large surface area with high porosity. These traits make them useful for any rate-critical chemical process, particularly sensing or electrochemical applications, once physical or chemical moieties are incorporated into the gels to add their functionality to the ultraporous scaffold. Incorporating biomolecules into aerogels, other than such rugged species as lipases or cellulose, has been challenging due to the inability of most biomolecules to remain structurally intact within the gels during the necessary supercritical fluid (SCF) processing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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