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HCV, HBV, HIV, immunology

Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and HHV-8 seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
Sithakom Phusanti, Kwanhatai Manosudprasit, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) with HIV is common and associated with increased mortality and increased risk of progression to chronic liver disease. We aimed to study long-term liver diseases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with and without HBV or HCV coinfection. A retrospective cohort of 92 patients (32 patients with HBV and/or HCV coinfection) was analyzed. Overall mean age was 38.3 years, and 54.3% were males. Immunological and virological responses were similar between the 2 groups ( P > ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Rupali Mandal, Krishnendu Mondal
BACKGROUND: In modern health services, blood transfusion is an essentially life-saving manoeuvre. With this situation healthy donor compilation is the cornerstone of transfusion medicine. Henceforth, a provision for strict criterion in recruitment and deferral of blood donors, particularly emphasizing transfusion transmissible infections (TTI), may improve safe transfusion practice. OBJECTIVES: The present study was executed to assess the prevalence of TTIs within blood donors at a sub-Himalayan rural tertiary care institution in Darjeeling, India; which can ultimately aid in determination of the population subset to be targeted for enhancing donor pool...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Eva Billerbeck, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Amir Shlomai, Jing W Xiao, Linda Andrus, Ankit Bhatta, Koen Vercauteren, Eleftherios Michailidis, Marcus Dorner, Anuradha Krishnan, Michael R Charlton, Luis Chiriboga, Charles M Rice, Ype P de Jong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human liver chimeric mice are useful models of human hepatitis virus infection, including hepatitis B and C virus infections. Independently, immunodeficient mice reconstituted with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from fetal liver reliably develop human T and B lymphocytes. Combining these systems has long been hampered by inefficient liver reconstitution of human fetal hepatoblasts. Our study aimed to enhance hepatoblast engraftment in order to create a mouse model with syngeneic human liver and immune cells...
August 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Marcelo Chen, Wing-Wai Wong, Matthew G Law, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Evy Yunihastuti, Tuti Parwati Merati, Poh Lian Lim, Romanee Chaiwarith, Praphan Phanuphak, Man Po Lee, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Vonthanak Saphonn, Rossana Ditangco, Benedict L H Sim, Kinh Van Nguyen, Sanjay Pujari, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Fujie Zhang, Thuy Thanh Pham, Jun Yong Choi, Shinichi Oka, Pacharee Kantipong, Mahiran Mustafa, Winai Ratanasuwan, Nicolas Durier, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models...
2016: PloS One
Monia Puglia, Cristina Stasi, Monica Da Frè, Fabio Voller
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide about 30% of HIV-infected patients are coinfected with HCV or HBV. The HIV/HCV coinfection is more common in individuals who have a history of drug addiction. The aims of this study were to assess the HCV and HBV prevalence in HIV-infected patients and analyze their characteristics. METHODS: We considered the new HIV diagnoses notified by the regional surveillance system of Tuscany from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic characteristics, routes of transmission, and reason to perform the test...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maria Concetta Postorino, Filippo Luciani, Carmelo Mangano, Maria Stella Carpentieri, Paolo Scerbo, Armando Priamo, Giuseppina Berardelli, Roberto Marino, Alfredo Vallone, Nicola Serrao, Vincenzo Pisani, Chiara Costa, Albano Terremoto, Giuseppe Foti, Lucio Cosco, Massimo Calderazzo, Domenico Corigliano, Preziosa Scordo, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). METHODS: The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database...
2015: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Saleh Abdullah, Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi
Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines...
January 2016: Parasitology Research
Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy
l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid that possesses diverse metabolic, neurological, and immunological roles spanning from the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitter serotonin, and neurohormone melatonin, to its degradation into immunosuppressive catabolites by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the kynurenine pathway (KP). Trp catabolites, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), play an important role in antimicrobial defense and immune regulation. IDO/AhR acts as a double-edged sword by both depleting l-Trp to starve the invaders and by contributing to the state of immunosuppression with microorganisms that were not cleared during acute infection...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Paulo R L Machado, Lídia M Machado, Mayume Shibuya, Jamile Rego, Warren D Johnson, Marshall J Glesby
BACKGROUND: The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
O Cirioni, L E Weimer, V Fragola, A Giacometti, F Ancarani, M Maracci, E Gabrielli, E Marchionni, M F Pirillo, S Vella
In this case report, we examine the impact of a simplified two-drug highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen of raltegravir and lamivudine in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C, D and B viruses (HCV/HDV/HBV) under immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation. Pharmacokinetic interactions between integrase inhibitors and immunosuppressant drugs are described. Raltegravir, the first integrase inhibitor, associated with lamivudine, was introduced because its metabolism does not interfere with immunosuppressant therapy...
December 2014: West Indian Medical Journal
B Ye, X Liu, X Li, H Kong, L Tian, Y Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of inflammatory liver disease, of which the clinical recovery and effective anti-viral therapy is associated with the sustained viral control of effector T cells. In humans, chronic HBV infection often shows weak or absent virus-specific T-cell reactivity, which is described as the 'exhaustion' state characterized by poor effector cytotoxic activity, impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene-3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and CD244...
March 19, 2015: Cell Death & Disease
Shahzma Merani, Wenna Chen, Shokrollah Elahi
In recent years, a critical role for β-galactoside-binding protein, Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has emerged in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. It is a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), a type-I glycoprotein that is persistently expressed on dysfunctional T cells during chronic viral infections. Gal-9 exerts its pivotal immunomodulatory effects by inducing apoptosis or suppressing effector functions via engagement with its receptor, Tim-3. Recent studies report elevation of circulating Gal-9 in humans infected with different viral infections...
May 2015: Reviews in Medical Virology
Roberto Manfredi, Leonardo Calza, Ginevra Marinacci, Alessandra Cascavilla, Vincenzo Colangeli, Caterina Salvadori, Giulia Martelli, Lucia Appolloni, Cristina Puggioli, Pierluigi Viale
Raltegravir, as the first HIV integrase inhibitor, has been used and prospectively monitored since 2010 in our HIV outpatient centre, where over 1,200 patients are monitored. The aim of our report is to perform an interim assessment of the background, the safety profile and the clinical-laboratory monitoring of all patients treated with a combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) including raltegravir, for at least 12 months. In all, 109 pretreated patients started a raltegravir-containing cART when aged 44...
December 2014: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Fujie Zhang, Hao Zhu, Yasong Wu, Zhihui Dou, Yao Zhang, Nora Kleinman, Marc Bulterys, Zunyou Wu, Ye Ma, Decai Zhao, Xia Liu, Hua Fang, Jing Liu, Wei-Ping Cai, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-related liver diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among people with HIV/AIDS taking combination antiretroviral therapy. We assessed the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV outcomes in patients in China. METHODS: We did a nationwide retrospective observational cohort study with data from the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program from 2010-11. Patients older than 18 years starting standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV who had tested positive for HBV and HCV were followed up to Dec 31, 2012...
November 2014: Lancet Infectious Diseases
A T Nunes, L Pereira, A Cerqueira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, I Ferreira, I Tavares, J Santos, M Pestana
INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation (RT) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has significantly improved under the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The authors describe their experience in RT in patients with HIV from September 2010 to June 2013. CASES REPORT: Four patients underwent transplantation (3 with HIV-1 and 1 with HIV-2), three patients were male, and one was black. None were coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
July 2014: Transplantation Proceedings
Hyosun Cho, Masahiro Kikuchi, Yun Li, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Valerianna K Amorosa, Mary E Valiga, Kyong-Mi Chang
Persistent viral infections including HCV, HBV, and HIV are associated with increased immune regulatory pathways including the extrinsic FoxP3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and intrinsic inhibitory pathways such as programed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) with potentially reversible suppression of antiviral effector T cells (1-12). Immunological consequences of viral coinfections relative to these immune regulatory pathways and their interplay are not well-defined. In this study, we examined the frequency, phenotype, and effector function of circulating T cell subsets in patients with chronic HCV and/or HIV infection, hypothesizing that HCV/HIV coinfection will result in greater immune dysregulation with pathogenetic consequences (13, 14)...
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
Louise Nygaard Clausen
Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals as a result of shared routes of transmission, and this coinfection represents a special challenge. For HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals, the burden of disease is largely related to their HCV diseases, including a faster progression to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver-related deaths. In the present thesis we investigated factors associated with spontaneous resolution and progression of HIV-HCV coinfection...
April 2014: Danish Medical Journal
Mauro Andreotti, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Haswell Jere, Martin Maulidi, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Richard Luhanga, Roberta Amici, Maria Grazia Mancini, Elisabetta Gennaro, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with the hepatitis viruses is common in the HIV population in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and to determine the impact of these infections on the occurrence of liver toxicity and on the viro-immunological response. METHODS: Women were screened for HBsAg and HCV-RNA before starting, at week 25 of gestational age, an antiretroviral regimen consisting of lamivudine and nevirapine plus either stavudine or zidovudine...
April 4, 2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
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