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HCV, HBV, HIV, immunology

Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
Marcia Bellon, Christophe Nicot
The progressive loss of immunological memory during aging correlates with a reduced proliferative capacity and shortened telomeres of T cells. Growing evidence suggests that this phenotype is recapitulated during chronic viral infection. The antigenic volume imposed by persistent and latent viruses exposes the immune system to unique challenges that lead to host T-cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired T-cell functions. These dysfunctional memory T cells lack telomerase, the protein capable of extending and stabilizing chromosome ends, imposing constraints on telomere dynamics...
October 5, 2017: Viruses
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Zewdie Mekonnen, Yesuf Adem, Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe, Asmare Amuamuta, Wondimu Gebeyehu
INTRODUCTION: Establishing national population haematological and immunological reference ranges are essential for clinical management of patients. However, there is scarcity of information on community based haematological reference ranges established from Ethiopian population. Therefore, this study aimed at determining haematological and CD4+ T cells reference ranges in healthy adults from East and West Gojjam zones, Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to December 2015 in healthy adult residents of Gojjam zone...
2017: PloS One
Colin P Sharp, William F Gregory, Louise Hattingh, Amna Malik, Emily Adland, Samantha Daniels, Anriette van Zyl, Jonathan M Carlson, Susan Wareing, Anthony Ogwu, Roger Shapiro, Lynn Riddell, Fabian Chen, Thumbi Ndung'u, Philip J R Goulder, Paul Klenerman, Peter Simmonds, Pieter Jooste, Philippa C Matthews
Background: The seroprevalence of human parvovirus-4 (PARV4) varies considerably by region. In sub-Saharan Africa, seroprevalence is high in the general population, but little is known about the transmission routes or the prevalence of coinfection with blood-borne viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV.  Methods: To further explore the characteristics of PARV4 in this setting, with a particular focus on the prevalence and significance of coinfection, we screened a cohort of 695 individuals recruited from Durban and Kimberley (South Africa) and Gaborone (Botswana) for PARV4 IgG and DNA, as well as documenting HIV, HBV and HCV status...
April 7, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
H Pinto, R Leal, L Rodrigues, L Santos, C Romãozinho, F Macário, R Alves, J Pratas, V Sousa, C Marinho, L Prado E Castro, F Costa, M Campos, A Mota, A Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a rare form of glomerular injury. Although commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it can occur in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 50-year-old man, with chronic kidney disease secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, who received a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2007. There were no relevant intercurrences until May 2015, when he presented with nephrotic range proteinuria (± 4 g/d)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and HHV-8 seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
Sithakom Phusanti, Kwanhatai Manosudprasit, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) with HIV is common and associated with increased mortality and increased risk of progression to chronic liver disease. We aimed to study long-term liver diseases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with and without HBV or HCV coinfection. A retrospective cohort of 92 patients (32 patients with HBV and/or HCV coinfection) was analyzed. Overall mean age was 38.3 years, and 54.3% were males. Immunological and virological responses were similar between the 2 groups ( P > ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Rupali Mandal, Krishnendu Mondal
BACKGROUND: In modern health services, blood transfusion is an essentially life-saving manoeuvre. With this situation healthy donor compilation is the cornerstone of transfusion medicine. Henceforth, a provision for strict criterion in recruitment and deferral of blood donors, particularly emphasizing transfusion transmissible infections (TTI), may improve safe transfusion practice. OBJECTIVES: The present study was executed to assess the prevalence of TTIs within blood donors at a sub-Himalayan rural tertiary care institution in Darjeeling, India; which can ultimately aid in determination of the population subset to be targeted for enhancing donor pool...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Eva Billerbeck, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Amir Shlomai, Jing W Xiao, Linda Andrus, Ankit Bhatta, Koen Vercauteren, Eleftherios Michailidis, Marcus Dorner, Anuradha Krishnan, Michael R Charlton, Luis Chiriboga, Charles M Rice, Ype P de Jong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human liver chimeric mice are useful models of human hepatitis virus infection, including hepatitis B and C virus infections. Independently, immunodeficient mice reconstituted with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from fetal liver reliably develop human T and B lymphocytes. Combining these systems has long been hampered by inefficient liver reconstitution of human fetal hepatoblasts. Our study aimed to enhance hepatoblast engraftment in order to create a mouse model with syngeneic human liver and immune cells...
August 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Marcelo Chen, Wing-Wai Wong, Matthew G Law, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Evy Yunihastuti, Tuti Parwati Merati, Poh Lian Lim, Romanee Chaiwarith, Praphan Phanuphak, Man Po Lee, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Vonthanak Saphonn, Rossana Ditangco, Benedict L H Sim, Kinh Van Nguyen, Sanjay Pujari, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Fujie Zhang, Thuy Thanh Pham, Jun Yong Choi, Shinichi Oka, Pacharee Kantipong, Mahiran Mustafa, Winai Ratanasuwan, Nicolas Durier, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models...
2016: PloS One
Monia Puglia, Cristina Stasi, Monica Da Frè, Fabio Voller
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide about 30% of HIV-infected patients are coinfected with HCV or HBV. The HIV/HCV coinfection is more common in individuals who have a history of drug addiction. The aims of this study were to assess the HCV and HBV prevalence in HIV-infected patients and analyze their characteristics. METHODS: We considered the new HIV diagnoses notified by the regional surveillance system of Tuscany from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic characteristics, routes of transmission, and reason to perform the test...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maria Concetta Postorino, Filippo Luciani, Carmelo Mangano, Maria Stella Carpentieri, Paolo Scerbo, Armando Priamo, Giuseppina Berardelli, Roberto Marino, Alfredo Vallone, Nicola Serrao, Vincenzo Pisani, Chiara Costa, Albano Terremoto, Giuseppe Foti, Lucio Cosco, Massimo Calderazzo, Domenico Corigliano, Preziosa Scordo, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). METHODS: The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database...
2015: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Saleh Abdullah, Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi
Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines...
January 2016: Parasitology Research
Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy
l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid that possesses diverse metabolic, neurological, and immunological roles spanning from the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitter serotonin, and neurohormone melatonin, to its degradation into immunosuppressive catabolites by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the kynurenine pathway (KP). Trp catabolites, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), play an important role in antimicrobial defense and immune regulation. IDO/AhR acts as a double-edged sword by both depleting l-Trp to starve the invaders and by contributing to the state of immunosuppression with microorganisms that were not cleared during acute infection...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Paulo R L Machado, Lídia M Machado, Mayume Shibuya, Jamile Rego, Warren D Johnson, Marshall J Glesby
BACKGROUND: The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
O Cirioni, L E Weimer, V Fragola, A Giacometti, F Ancarani, M Maracci, E Gabrielli, E Marchionni, M F Pirillo, S Vella
In this case report, we examine the impact of a simplified two-drug highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen of raltegravir and lamivudine in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C, D and B viruses (HCV/HDV/HBV) under immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation. Pharmacokinetic interactions between integrase inhibitors and immunosuppressant drugs are described. Raltegravir, the first integrase inhibitor, associated with lamivudine, was introduced because its metabolism does not interfere with immunosuppressant therapy...
December 2014: West Indian Medical Journal
B Ye, X Liu, X Li, H Kong, L Tian, Y Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of inflammatory liver disease, of which the clinical recovery and effective anti-viral therapy is associated with the sustained viral control of effector T cells. In humans, chronic HBV infection often shows weak or absent virus-specific T-cell reactivity, which is described as the 'exhaustion' state characterized by poor effector cytotoxic activity, impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene-3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and CD244...
March 19, 2015: Cell Death & Disease
Shahzma Merani, Wenna Chen, Shokrollah Elahi
In recent years, a critical role for β-galactoside-binding protein, Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has emerged in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. It is a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), a type-I glycoprotein that is persistently expressed on dysfunctional T cells during chronic viral infections. Gal-9 exerts its pivotal immunomodulatory effects by inducing apoptosis or suppressing effector functions via engagement with its receptor, Tim-3. Recent studies report elevation of circulating Gal-9 in humans infected with different viral infections...
May 2015: Reviews in Medical Virology
Roberto Manfredi, Leonardo Calza, Ginevra Marinacci, Alessandra Cascavilla, Vincenzo Colangeli, Caterina Salvadori, Giulia Martelli, Lucia Appolloni, Cristina Puggioli, Pierluigi Viale
Raltegravir, as the first HIV integrase inhibitor, has been used and prospectively monitored since 2010 in our HIV outpatient centre, where over 1,200 patients are monitored. The aim of our report is to perform an interim assessment of the background, the safety profile and the clinical-laboratory monitoring of all patients treated with a combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) including raltegravir, for at least 12 months. In all, 109 pretreated patients started a raltegravir-containing cART when aged 44...
December 2014: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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