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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918536/genome-wide-analyses-for-personality-traits-identify-six-genomic-loci-and-show-correlations-with-psychiatric-disorders
#1
Min-Tzu Lo, David A Hinds, Joyce Y Tung, Carol Franz, Chun-Chieh Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Olav B Smeland, Andrew Schork, Dominic Holland, Karolina Kauppi, Nilotpal Sanyal, Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith, Michael O'Donovan, Hreinn Stefansson, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson, Linda K McEvoy, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen, Chi-Hua Chen
Personality is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated with mental health. However, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unknown. We identified six genetic loci, including five novel loci, significantly associated with personality traits in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 123,132-260,861). Of these genome-wide significant loci, extraversion was associated with variants in WSCD2 and near PCDH15, and neuroticism with variants on chromosome 8p23.1 and in L3MBTL2...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832676/editorial-to-child-and-adolescence-psychopharmacology
#2
G Juckel
The editors of Pharmacopsychiatry have decided in 2016 to prepare special issues regularly in order provide our readers volumes of the journal with a thematic focus 1. The first such special issue is dedicated to the field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Many young patients are treated with psychotherapeutic, but also pharmacotherapeutic, methods worldwide. Most of our psychopharmacological agents are not approved by the federal institutions for persons under 18 years old. However, severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and bipolar disorder frequently require pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788777/test-for-association-of-common-variants-in-grm7-with-alcohol-consumption
#3
Whitney E Melroy-Greif, Csaba Vadasz, Helen M Kamens, Matthew B McQueen, Robin P Corley, Michael C Stallings, Christian J Hopfer, Kenneth S Krauter, Sandra A Brown, John K Hewitt, Marissa A Ehringer
Recent work using a mouse model has identified the glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (Grm7) gene as a strong candidate gene for alcohol consumption. Although there has been some work examining the effect of human glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (GRM7) polymorphisms on human substance use disorders, the majority of the work has focused on other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The current study aimed to evaluate evidence for association between GRM7 and alcohol behaviors in humans using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, as well as a gene-based approach...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743041/predicting-cognitive-executive-functioning-with-polygenic-risk-scores-for-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624435/child-behavior-checklist-profiles-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-and-depressive-disorders
#5
Kukju Kweon, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Kee Jeong Park, Yeonho Joo, Hyo-Won Kim
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles in youths with bipolar and depressive disorders. METHODS: Seventy-four subjects with a mean age of 14.9±1.6years (36 boys) with mood disorders and their parents were recruited from September 2011 to June 2013 in the Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Diagnosis of mood disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorder was confirmed by child psychiatrists using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL)...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608809/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-through-the-lifespan-implication-for-psychopathology
#6
Matteo M Pusceddu, Philip Kelly, Catherine Stanton, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
OBJECTIVE: The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574527/associations-between-polygenic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-and-substance-involvement
#7
Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K Bucholz, Sarah M Hartz, Michael T Lynskey, Elliot C Nelson, Laura J Bierut, Ryan Bogdan
Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522263/characterizing-psychosis-risk-traits-in-africa-a-longitudinal-study-of-kenyan-adolescents
#8
Daniel Mamah, Abednego Musau, Victoria N Mutiso, Akinkunle Owoso, Arbi Ben Abdallah, Linda B Cottler, Catherine W Striley, Elaine F Walker, David M Ndetei
The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513883/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-psychiatric-disorders-co-morbidity-and-heritability-in-a-nationwide-swedish-cohort
#9
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377649/nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-individuals-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-or-hypermobility-syndrome-and-their-siblings
#10
Martin Cederlöf, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Catarina Almqvist, Eva Serlachius, Jonas F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and hypermobility syndrome. METHODS: Nationwide population-based matched cohort study. EDS, hypermobility syndrome and psychiatric disorders were identified through Swedish national registries. Individuals with EDS (n = 1,771) were matched with comparison individuals (n = 17,710). Further, siblings to individuals with EDS who did not have an EDS diagnosis themselves were compared with matched comparison siblings...
July 4, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145016/brain-gaba-levels-across-psychiatric-disorders-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-1-h-mrs-studies
#11
REVIEW
Remmelt R Schür, Luc W R Draisma, Jannie P Wijnen, Marco P Boks, Martijn G J C Koevoets, Marian Joëls, Dennis W Klomp, René S Kahn, Christiaan H Vinkers
The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) is increasingly used to investigate in vivo brain GABA levels. However, integration of the evidence for altered in vivo GABA levels across psychiatric disorders is lacking. We therefore systematically searched the clinical (1) H-MRS literature and performed a meta-analysis...
September 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130821/affective-responses-across-psychiatric-disorders-a-dimensional-approach
#12
Claudia Hägele, Eva Friedel, Florian Schlagenhauf, Philipp Sterzer, Anne Beck, Felix Bermpohl, Meline Stoy, Dada Held-Poschardt, André Wittmann, Andreas Ströhle, Andreas Heinz
Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS)...
June 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064142/challenges-and-promises-of-pediatric-psychopharmacology
#13
REVIEW
Lisa L Giles, D Richard Martini
Most prescriptions for psychotropic medications are written by primary care physicians, yet pediatricians, many of whom are teaching residents and medical students about pediatric psychopharmacology, often feel inadequately trained to treat mental health concerns. Over the past several decades, the number, size, and quality of psychopharmacologic studies in youth has greatly increased. Here we review the current evidence for efficacy and safety of each of the major pharmacologic drug classes in youth (psychostimulants, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics)...
August 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903256/gender-differences-in-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#14
Cæcilie Ottosen, Liselotte Petersen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Søren Dalsgaard
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD), and to explore the impact of comorbid psychiatric conditions. METHOD: This was a cohort study of all children born in Denmark in 1990 to 2003 (n = 729,560). By record linkage across nationwide registers, we merged data on birth characteristics, socioeconomic status, familial psychiatric history, and diagnoses of ADHD (N = 19,645), comorbidities, and SUD...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365198/working-memory-genetics-in-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders-an-rdoc-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Emanuel Schwarz, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Improved classification of mental disorders through neurobiological measures will require a set of traits that map to transdiagnostic subgroups of patients and align with heritable, core psychopathological processes at the center of the disorders of interest. A promising candidate is working memory (WM) function, for which deficits have been reported across multiple diagnostic entities including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism, and major depressive disorder. Here we review genetic working memory associations and their brain functional correlates from the perspective of identifying patient subgroups across conventional diagnostic boundaries, explore the utility of multimodal investigations integrating functional information at the neural systems level and explore potential limitations as well as future directions for research...
January 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26363969/psychiatric-disorders-in-child-and-adolescent-offspring-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-controlled-study
#16
Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau, Soledad Romero, Dolores Moreno, Elena de la Serna, Inmaculada Baeza, Gisela Sugranyes, Carmen Moreno, Teresa Sanchez-Gutierrez, Elisa Rodriguez-Toscano, Josefina Castro-Fornieles
BACKGROUND: Early clinical manifestations predating schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) have not been fully characterized. Child offspring studies are a valuable opportunity to study the natural history of the illness from its earliest stages. However, there is limited evidence assessing young offspring of SZ and BP simultaneously. We set out to assess rates of psychiatric disorders in child and adolescent offspring of SZ and BP, relative to offspring of community controls, so as to characterize the early phenotype of the disorders comparatively...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26303662/common-psychiatric-disorders-share-the-same-genetic-origin-a-multivariate-sibling-study-of-the-swedish-population
#17
E Pettersson, H Larsson, P Lichtenstein
Recent studies have shown that different mental-health problems appear to be partly influenced by the same set of genes, which can be summarized by a general genetic factor. To date, such studies have relied on surveys of community-based samples, which could introduce potential biases. The goal of this study was to examine whether a general genetic factor would still emerge when based on a different ascertainment method with different biases from previous studies. We targeted all adults in Sweden (n=3 475 112) using national registers and identified those who had received one or more psychiatric diagnoses after seeking or being forced into mental health care...
May 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257835/cntn6-copy-number-variations-in-14-patients-a-possible-candidate-gene-for-neurodevelopmental-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
Jie Hu, Jun Liao, Malini Sathanoori, Sally Kochmar, Jessica Sebastian, Svetlana A Yatsenko, Urvashi Surti
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of brain function that affect emotion, learning, and memory. Copy number variations of contactin genes (CNTNs), including CNTN3, CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6, have been suggested to be associated with these disorders. However, phenotypes have been reported in only a handful of patients with copy number variations involving CNTNs. METHODS: From January 2009 to January 2013, 3724 patients ascertained through the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were referred to our laboratory for clinical array comparative genomic hybridization testing...
2015: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26172220/epistatic-and-gene-wide-effects-in-ywha-and-aromatic-amino-hydroxylase-genes-across-adhd-and-other-common-neuropsychiatric-disorders-association-with-ywhae
#19
Kaya K Jacobsen, Rune Kleppe, Stefan Johansson, Tetyana Zayats, Jan Haavik
Monoamines critically modulate neurophysiological functions affected in several neuropsychiatric disorders. We therefore examined genes encoding key enzymes of catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis (tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases-TH and TPH1/2) as well as their regulatory 14-3-3 proteins (encoded by YWHA-genes). Previous studies have focused mainly on the individual genes, but no analysis spanning this regulatory network has been reported. We explored interactions between these genes in Norwegian patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (aADHD), followed by gene-complex association tests in four major neuropsychiatric conditions; childhood ADHD (cADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder...
July 14, 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26005109/updating-the-research-domain-criteria-the-utility-of-a-motor-dimension
#20
EDITORIAL
J A Bernard, V A Mittal
Within the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, dimensions of behavior are investigated across diagnoses with the goal of developing a better understanding of their underlying neural substrates. Currently, this framework includes five domains: cognitive, social, arousal/regulatory, negative, and positive valence systems. We argue that the inclusion of a motor systems domain is sorely needed as well. Independent of medication, distinct areas of motor dysfunction (e.g. motor planning/inhibition/learning/coordination, involuntary movements) commonly appear across a number of mental disorders (e...
October 2015: Psychological Medicine
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