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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919748/anti-cd24-neutralizing-antibody-exacerbates-concanavalin-a-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-via-liver-m1-macrophages
#1
Hongyu Liu, Hai Lei, Jingqi Tian, Jie Xiang, Yatong Fan, Hua Zhang, Jianhui Liu, Xuejun Zhang
Liver largely relies on its innate immune immunity to initiate quick and effective defense against potentially toxic agents, and innate immune cells are major players in this process. However, excessive inflammation due to out-of-control immune response may eventually cause liver injury. Thus, it is important to fully understand the regulatory mechanisms associated with liver inflammation. Here we show that anti-CD24 neutralizing antibody exacerbates hepatic inflammation in a Con A-induced acute liver injury murine model...
December 2, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#2
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911104/upregulation-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-containing-3-tim-3-in-monocytes-macrophages-associates-with-gastric-cancer-progression
#3
Zhenxin Wang, Ni Yin, Zixiang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Guangbo Zhang, Weichang Chen
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) is an important immune regulatory molecule in cancer immune system. However, expression and function of Tim-3 in monocytes/macrophages in cancer progression mainly remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Tim-3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 62 gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls using flow cytometry and then associated Tim-3 levels with clinical pathological data from patients. We found Tim-3 level was significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls, and that upregulated Tim-3 levels associated with depth of tumor invasion and tumor lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages of gastric cancer patients...
December 2, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906187/systemic-application-of-3-methyladenine-markedly-inhibited-atherosclerotic-lesion-in-apoe-mice-by-modulating-autophagy-foam-cell-formation-and-immune-negative-molecules
#5
Shen Dai, Bo Wang, Wen Li, Liyang Wang, Xingguo Song, Chun Guo, Yulan Li, Fengming Liu, Faliang Zhu, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yongyu Shi, Jianing Wang, Wei Zhao, Lining Zhang
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we tested the effect of two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-chromone (LY294002), commonly used as inhibitors of autophagy, in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Systemic application of 3-MA but not LY294002 markedly reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaque and increased the stability of lesions in high-fat diet-fed mice as compared with controls...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906184/1-methyl-tryptophan-attenuates-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-due-to-the-inhibition-of-estrogen-ido1-mrc2-axis-in-endometriosis
#6
Chunyan Wei, Jie Mei, Lingli Tang, Yukai Liu, Dajin Li, Mingqing Li, Xiaoyong Zhu
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal Treg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal Treg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905994/the-role-of-il-10-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection
#7
REVIEW
Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905947/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-potentially-inhibits-microrna-33-expression-to-affect-macrophage-actions
#8
EDITORIAL
Yuan Guo, Fei Luo, Yuhong Yi, Danyan Xu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathological processes. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33), a novel non-coding RNA that coexpresses with sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), affects macrophage actions to prevent atherosclerosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of lipid metabolism, especially for macrophage-related cholesterol export, but the mechanism is not fully studied. Interestingly, FGF21 has been evidenced to prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting SREBP-2 expression...
December 1, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#9
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900675/sirp-alpha-protein-downregulates-in-human-astrocytoma-presumptive-involvement-of-hsa-mir-520d-5p-and-hsa-mir-520d-3p
#10
Ravindra Pramod Deshpande, Y B V K Chandra Sekhar, Manas Panigrahi, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors with poor survival in malignant forms. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha) is a transmembrane protein expressed on immune cells and macrophages and is reported to modulate tumor cell phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-520d-5p and miR-520d-3p in regulation of SIRP alpha expression. Here, we report mRNA and protein expression profile of SIRP alpha in 39 surgically resected human astrocytoma tissue samples and 14 control brain tissue samples...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895816/clinical-impact-of-chemotherapy-to-improve-tumor-microenvironment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Shintaro Takeuchi, Toru Nakamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
A perioperative multimodal strategy including combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in addition to surgical resection, has been acknowledged to improve patient prognosis. However chemotherapy has not been actively applied as an immunomodulating modality because of concerns about various immunosuppressive effects. It has recently been shown that certain chemotherapeutic agents could modify tumor microenvironment and host immune responses through several underlying mechanisms such as immunogenic cell death, local T-cell infiltration and also the eradication of immune-suppressing regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895424/irf5-regulates-lung-macrophages-m2-polarization-during-severe-acute-pancreatitis-in-vitro
#12
Kang Sun, Song-Bing He, Jian-Guo Qu, Sheng-Chun Dang, Ji-Xiang Chen, Ai-Hua Gong, Rong Xie, Jian-Xin Zhang
AIM: To investigate the role of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in reversing polarization of lung macrophages during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in vitro. METHODS: A mouse SAP model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of 20 μg/kg body weight caerulein. Pathological changes in the lung were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Lung macrophages were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The quantity and purity of lung macrophages were detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895418/molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ulrike Billmeier, Walburga Dieterich, Markus F Neurath, Raja Atreya
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies are successfully used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of action of these agents is still a matter of debate. Apart from neutralization of TNF, influence on the intestinal barrier function, induction of apoptosis in mucosal immune cells, formation of regulatory macrophages as well as other immune modulating properties have been discussed as central features. Nevertheless, clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies were shown to differ in their mode-of-action in vivo and in vitro...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895397/th17-involvement-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
REVIEW
Carla Melisa Chackelevicius, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, Claudio Tiribelli, Natalia Rosso
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895180/regulatory-t-cells-promote-myositis-and-muscle-damage-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#15
Richard M Jin, Sarah J Blair, Jordan Warunek, Reid R Heffner, Ira J Blader, Elizabeth A Wohlfert
The coordination of macrophage polarization is essential for the robust regenerative potential of skeletal muscle. Repair begins with a phase mediated by inflammatory monocytes (IM) and proinflammatory macrophages (M1), followed by polarization to a proregenerative macrophage (M2) phenotype. Recently, regulatory T cells (Tregs) were described as necessary for this M1 to M2 transition. We report that chronic infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes a nonresolving Th1 myositis with prolonged tissue damage associated with persistent M1 accumulation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#16
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890012/the-biology-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-on-human-dendritic-cell-based-on-microrna-155-and-microrna-221
#17
Nakisa Tabrizian, Nazanin Arjomand Fard, Ali Farazmand, Rahil Eftekhari, Farzaneh Tofighi Zavareh, Abbas Mirshafiey
: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ß-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) on related miRNAs to dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation. DC-based immunosuppressive drugs can suppress the progression of autoimmune diseases, however, their notable side effects in increasing the risk of infectious diseases and cancers should be considered. The ß-D-mannuronic acid, as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been tested in various experimental models. The effect of M2000 on expression of miRNA-155 and miRNA-221 was examined...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889386/protein-disulfide-isomerases-redox-connections-in-and-out-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#18
Ana Iochabel Soares Moretti, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo
Protein disulfide isomerases are thiol oxidoreductase chaperones from thioredoxin superfamily. As redox folding catalysts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), their roles in ER-related redox homeostasis and signaling are well-studied. PDIA1 exerts thiol oxidation/reduction and isomerization, plus chaperone effects. Also, substantial evidence indicates that PDIs regulate thiol-disulfide switches in other cell locations such as cell surface and possibly cytosol. Subcellular PDI translocation routes remain unclear and seem Golgi-independent...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888539/macrophage-depletion-impairs-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-the-roles-of-regulatory-factors-for-muscle-regeneration
#19
Xiaoguang Liu, Yu Liu, Linlin Zhao, Zhigang Zeng, Weihua Xiao, Peijie Chen
Though macrophages are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration, which is a complex process, the roles and mechanisms of the macrophages in the process of muscle regeneration are still not fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the roles of macrophages and the mechanisms involved in the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. One hundred and twelve C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into muscle contusion and macrophages depleted groups. Their gastrocnemius muscles were harvested at the time points of 12h, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14d post-injury...
November 26, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888289/epigenetic-synergism-between-interleukin-4-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-human-macrophages
#20
Wei-Ting Liao, Jian-He Lu, Wei-Ting Wang, Chih-Hsing Hung, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Shau-Ku Huang
: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-ligand axis is involved in immune regulation, but its molecular basis remains to be fully elucidated. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is an important chemoattractant, but how CCL1 is regulated remains to be defined. The role of AhR in regulating CCL1 expression in two major subsets of macrophage was investigated. We used a human THP-1 cell line, monocytes, and mouse peritoneal macrophages to generate M(IFN-γ/LPS) and M(IL-4) subsets, and the AhR's ligand effect was determined by the use of a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation, PCR, and ELISA...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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