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circulating Monocyte cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821990/upregulation-of-cd16-monocyte-subsets-in-systemic-lupus-erythematous-patients
#1
Ziyan Wu, Shulan Zhang, Lidan Zhao, Yunyun Fei, Li Wang, Jing Li, Xiaoting Wen, Xiaofeng Zeng, Fengchun Zhang, Yongzhe Li
Monocytes are an important component in the innate immune system. However, studies to date have failed to conclude whether their levels are altered in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We applied the cytodiff counting method and comprehensively measured the circulating levels of distinct white blood cell (WBC) subsets, including CD16+, CD16-, and total monocytes, in 61 SLE patients as well as in 203 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). The absolute number of CD16- monocytes, total monocytes, immature granulocytes, mature neutrophils, total neutrophils, and T cell blasts was significantly higher, that of non-cytotoxic T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T + NK lymphocytes, T + NK lymphocytes, total lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils significantly lower (all p < 0...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820897/persistent-infection-due-to-a-small-colony-variant-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-leads-to-pd-1-upregulation-on-circulating-immune-cells-and-mononuclear-infiltration-in-viscera-of-experimental-balb-c-mice
#2
Jia-Xiang See, Samudi Chandramathi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Jamuna Vadivelu, Esaki M Shankar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease endemic across South East Asia and Northern Australia. The etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B.pseudomallei), is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium residing in the soil and muddy water across endemic regions of the tropical world. The bacterium is known to cause persistent infections by remaining latent within host cells for prolonged duration. Reactivation of the recrudescent disease often occurs in elders whose immunity wanes...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816110/reduced-beta-amyloid-sensitivity-for-platelet-monocyte-aggregates-in-edta-blood-of-alzheimer-patients
#3
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by beta-amyloid plaques, Tau pathology, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Besides that, alterations in monocytes and platelets have been reported in the blood of Alzheimer patients. In the present study, we measured circulating levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates in EDTA blood of cognitively healthy participants and 40 AD patients, and examined their changes induced by stimulation with beta-amyloid peptides...
August 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806642/circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-presented-distinctively-different-responses-toward-bacterial-antigens-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#4
Zun-Qiang Zhou, Da-Nian Tong, Jiao Guan, Mei-Fang Li, Qi-Ming Feng, Min-Jie Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zhang
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease with unknown causes. The initiation of PBC is associated with bacterial infections and abnormal immune correlates, such as the presence of self-reactive anti-mitochondrial antibodies and shifted balance of T cell subsets. In particular, the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are highly activated in PBC patients and are significantly associated with PBC severity, but the underlying reasons are unknown. In this study, we found that the circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells were enriched with the interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting Th1-subtype and the interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th17-subtype, but not the IL-4-secreting Th2 subtype...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805746/melanocortins-melanocortin-receptors-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins
The melanocortins and their receptors have been extensively investigated for their roles in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but to a lesser extent in immune cells and in the nervous system outside the hypothalamic axis. This review discusses corticosteroid dependent and independent effects of melanocortins on the peripheral immune system, central nervous system (CNS) effects mediated through neuronal regulation of immune system function, and direct effects on endogenous cells in the CNS. We have focused on the expression and function of melanocortin receptors in oligodendroglia (OL), the myelin producing cells of the CNS, with the goal of identifying new therapeutic approaches to decrease CNS damage in multiple sclerosis as well as to promote repair...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802718/curcumin-ameliorates-cardiac-dysfunction-induced-by-mechanical-trauma
#6
Xintao Li, Tingting Cao, Shuo Ma, Zehao Jing, Yue Bi, Jicheng Zhou, Chong Chen, Deqin Yu, Liang Zhu, Shuzhuang Li
Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from turmeric (Carcuma longa), has been extensively investigated because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which contributes to secondary cardiac dysfunction. This research was designed to identify the protective effect of curcumin on posttraumatic cardiac dysfunction and investigate its underlying mechanism. Noble-Collip drum was used to prepare a mechanical trauma (MT) model of rats, and the hemodynamic responses of traumatized rats were observed by ventricular intubation 12h after trauma...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802564/interactions-between-platelets-and-inflammatory-monocytes-affect-sickness-behavior-in-mice-with-liver-inflammation
#7
Charlotte D'Mello, Wagdi Almishri, Hongqun Liu, Mark Gordon Swain
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory liver disease commonly develop debilitating symptoms, called sickness behaviors, which arise via changes in brain function. Monocytes that produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) interact with cerebral endothelial cells to activate microglial cells and promote sickness behavior. Platelets regulate inflammation, and aggregates of monocytes and platelets are increased in the circulation of patients with liver disease. We investigated the role of platelets in inducing inflammatory features of circulating monocytes and promoting sickness behaviors in mice with cholestatic liver injury...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800730/genotypes-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-turkey-first-report-and-clinical-profile-of-children-infected-with-sub-genotypes-ia-and-iiia
#8
Huseyin Yilmaz, Asiye Karakullukcu, Nuri Turan, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Ayse A Ozkul, Ozge Aydin, Alper Gunduz, Mahmut Mete, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Taner T Kirazoglu, Juergen A Richt, Bekir Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a food and water-borne virus causing clinical (mainly hepatitis) and subclinical disease in humans. It is important to characterize circulating strains of HAV in order to prevent HAV infections using efficacious vaccines. The aim of this study was the detection and characterization of the circulating strains of HAV in Turkey by performing serology, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. METHODS: In this study, 355 HAV suspected cases were analysed by ELISA for the presence of antibodies to HAV...
August 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796240/glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocytes-in-healthy-and-asthmatic-adolescents-in-response-to-exercise
#9
Kim D Lu, Dan Cooper, Fadia Haddad, Frank Zaldivar, Monica Kraft, Shlomit Radom-Aizik
BackgroundPoor aerobic fitness is associated with worsening of asthma symptoms, and fitness training may improve asthma control. The mechanism linking fitness with asthma is not known. We hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would lead to a downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression on circulating leukocytes, reflecting a reduced responsiveness to stress.MethodsIn a prospective exercise training intervention of healthy and asthmatic adolescents, GR expression in leukocytes was measured using flow cytometry in response to an acute exercise challenge before and after the exercise training intervention...
August 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794503/inflammatory-genes-tnf%C3%AE-and-il6-display-no-signs-of-increased-h3k4me3-in-circulating-monocytes-from-untreated-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#10
T C Messemaker, H M M Mikkers, T W Huizinga, R E M Toes, A H M van der Helm-van Mil, F Kurreeman
Innate immune cells, such as monocytes, can adopt a long-lasting pro-inflammatory phenotype, a phenomenon called 'trained immunity'. In trained immunity, increased cytokine levels of genes, like interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, are observed, which are associated with increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in the promoter region. As systemic IL6 and TNFα levels are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and monocytes are known to be the primary producers of TNFα and IL6, we hypothesized that 'trained immunity' signals may be observed at these genes in monocytes from RA patients...
August 10, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794002/klf4-regulation-of-ch25h-and-lxr-mitigates-atherosclerosis-susceptibility
#11
Zhao Li, Marcy Martin, Jin Zhang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Liang Bai, Jiao Zhang, Jian Kang, Ming He, Jie Li, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Guangjin Zhou, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Yong-Jiang Xu, Ting Lei, Hsien-Da Huang, Mohit Jain, Mukesh K Jain, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy
Background -Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory disease involving cells in the vascular wall [e.g., endothelial cells (ECs)] as well as circulating and resident immunogenic cells (e.g., monocytes/macrophages). Acting as a ligand for liver X receptor (LXR), but an inhibitor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and its catalyzing enzyme cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) are important in regulating cellular inflammatory status and cholesterol biosynthesis in both ECs and monocytes/macrophages...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791196/simulated-bacterial-infection-disrupts-the-circadian-fluctuation-of-immune-cells-in-wrinkle-lipped-bats-chaerephon-plicatus
#12
Philipp Weise, Gábor A Czirják, Oliver Lindecke, Sara Bumrungsri, Christian C Voigt
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte concentrations follow a circadian pattern in mammals, with elevated values at times of potential contact with pathogens and parasites. We hypothesized that this pattern is disturbed after an immune challenge. METHODS: In Thailand, we captured wrinkle-lipped bats (Chaerephon plicatus), when they returned to their colony at dawn. We challenged half of the animals (experimental group) with bacterial lipopolysaccharides and treated the others only with the carrier liquid (control group)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777871/the-functional-characteristics-ccni-modulation-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-liver-inflammation
#14
Haiyan Zhang, Min Lian, Jun Zhang, Zhaolian Bian, Ruqi Tang, Qi Miao, Yanshen Peng, Jingyuan Fang, Zhengrui You, Pietro Invernizzi, Qixia Wang, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
There is increasing awareness of the immunologic roles of liver mononuclear populations including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We took advantage of a large well defined cohort of 148 patients with liver inflammation and 45 health controls to focus on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of MDSCs. We investigated the frequency, phenotype and functional capacities of MDSCs using peripheral blood MDSCs in a cohort of 55 patients with PBC, 40 with AIH, 39 with CHB, 14 with NAFLD and 45 healthy controls, and thereafter a liver targeted determination in 27 PBC, 27 AIH, 20 CHB, 14 NAFLD and 6 controls...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771483/myeloid-specific-deletion-of-nox2-prevents-the-metabolic-and-neurologic-consequences-of-high-fat-diet
#15
Jennifer K Pepping, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Jingying Zhang, Randall L Mynatt, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769122/modulation-of-gr1-low-monocytes-subset-impacts-insulin-sensitivity-and-weight-gain-upon-high-fat-diet-in-female-mice
#16
S Béliard, W Le Goff, F Saint-Charles, L Poupel, V Deaswerte, L Boucharechas, T Huby, P Lesnik
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood monocytes are expanded during obesity. However, the differential contribution of monocytes subsets in obesity-related metabolic disorders remains unknown. The aim of the study was to define the role of the Gr1(low) monocytes subset upon high-fat-diet (HFD). METHODS: We used transgenic female mouse models allowing the modulation of circulating Gr1(low) monocytes number (decreased number in CX3CR1(-/-) mice, increased number in CD11c-hBcl2 mice) and studied obesity upon HFD...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768728/extracellular-micrornas-induce-potent-innate-immune-responses-via-tlr7-myd88-dependent-mechanisms
#17
Yan Feng, Lin Zou, Dan Yan, Hongliang Chen, Ganqiong Xu, Wenling Jian, Ping Cui, Wei Chao
Tissue ischemia, such as transient myocardial ischemia, leads to release of cellular RNA including microRNA(miRNA) into the circulation and extracellular (ex-) space, but the biological function of the ex-RNA is poorly understood. We recently reported that cardiac RNA of both human and rodent origins induced cytokine production and immune cell activation. However, the identity of the ex-RNA responsible for the proinflammatory effect remains unclear. In the current study, using an miRNA array, we profiled the plasma miRNAs 4 h after transient myocardial ischemia (45 min) or sham procedure...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765923/bombyx-mori-hemocyte-extract-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-human-phorbol-myristate-acetate-differentiated-thp%C3%A2-1-cells-via-tlr4-mediated-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#18
Young Il Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Seong Ryul Kim, Tae-Won Goo, Seung-Won Park
Hemolymph is the circulating fluid of insects and is a key component of their immune system. However, little is known concerning hemocyte identification, development, differentiation and related cellular immune responses. The present study aimed to determine whether a hemocyte extract prepared from Bombyx mori larvae had anti‑inflammatory effects; THP‑1 (a human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells that had been differentiated into macrophage‑like cells by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763796/the-metabolic-regulator-mtorc1-controls-terminal-myeloid-differentiation
#19
Pui Y Lee, David B Sykes, Sarah Ameri, Demetrios Kalaitzidis, Julia F Charles, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Kevin Wei, Pierre Cunin, Allyn Morris, Astrid E Cardona, David E Root, David T Scadden, Peter A Nigrovic
Monocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of intermediate progenitor stages, but the factors that regulate this process are incompletely defined. Using a Ccr2/Cx3cr1 dual-reporter system to model murine monocyte ontogeny, we conducted a small-molecule screen that identified an essential role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the development of monocytes and other myeloid cells. Confirmatory studies using mice with inducible deletion of the mTORC1 component Raptor demonstrated absence of mature circulating monocytes, as well as disruption in neutrophil and dendritic cell development, reflecting arrest of terminal differentiation at the granulocyte-monocyte progenitor stage...
May 26, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761130/lipodystrophy-and-obesity-are-associated-with-decreased-number-of-t-cells-with-regulatory-function-and-pro-inflammatory-macrophage-phenotype
#20
S Berger, G Ceccarini, G Scabia, I Barone, C Pelosini, F Ferrari, S Magno, A Dattilo, L Chiovato, P Vitti, F Santini, M Maffei
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In lipodystrophy (LD) adipose tissue function to store lipids is impaired, leading to metabolic syndrome, similar to that found in obesity. Emerging evidence links dysmetabolism with disorders of the immune system. Our aim is to investigate whether T-cell populations with regulatory function and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are affected by LD and obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Blood was collected from 16 LD, 16 obese (OB, BMI>30 kg m(-2)) and 16 healthy normal-weight women (CNT)...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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