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helper compounds

P Fallahi, R Foddis, G Elia, F Ragusa, A Patrizio, G Guglielmi, G Frenzilli, S Benvenga, A Cristaudo, A Antonelli, S M Ferrari
Vanadium is a soft, silvery‑grey metal with a number of different oxidation states. The most common commercial form of vanadium is vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). All vanadium compounds are considered toxic. An increase in skin rashes has been observed in certain vanadium workers, including the development of atopic dermatitis. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior in vivo or in vitro studies have evaluated the effect of vanadium exposure in human dermal fibroblasts. The present study evaluated the effect of V2O5 on proliferation and chemokine secretion in dermal fibroblasts...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
P Fallahi, R Foddis, G Elia, F Ragusa, A Patrizio, S Benvenga, A Cristaudo, A Antonelli, S M Ferrari
Vanadium is a grey metal, existing in different states of oxidation, whose most common form in commercial products is vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). All vanadium compounds have been considered toxic. A carcinogenic role of vanadium on the thyroid has recently been proposed. However no in vivo or in vitro studies have evaluated thyroid disruption in humans and/or animals after exposure to vanadium. In the present study we evaluate the effect of V2O5 on proliferation, and chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes...
March 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jiabi Zhang, Juan Shan, Xuelu Chen, Shengfu Li, Dan Long, Youping Li
A T helper 17 (Th17) cell/regulatory T (Treg) cell imbalance is involved in many immune disorders and diseases. Celastrol, a Chinese herbal compound that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, has been indicated to suppress T cell proliferation and Th17 cell induction, while facilitating Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression and Treg cell generation. In this study, we explored the impact and mechanism of celastrol on Th17 cell/induced Treg (iTreg) cell induction. CD4+ CD25- T cells were purified, stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or iTreg cells in the presence or absence of celastrol...
February 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michael D Kornberg, Matthew D Smith, Hasti Atashi Shirazi, Peter A Calabresi, Solomon H Snyder, Paul M Kim
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder targeting the central nervous system (CNS). The relapsing-remitting phase of MS is largely driven by peripheral activation of autoreactive T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In contrast, compartmentalized inflammation within the CNS, including diffuse activation of innate myeloid cells, characterizes the progressive phase of MS, the most debilitating phase that currently lacks satisfactory treatments. Recently, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a naturally occurring, CNS-permeable compound with a favorable safety profile in humans, has been shown to act on antigen-presenting cells to promote differentiation of lymphocytes into Th2 cells, an action that might benefit Th1-driven inflammatory conditions such as MS...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maili Lehto, Henrik Wolff, Reko Leino, Harri Alenius, Johannes Savolainen
BACKGROUND: Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) effectively alleviates type I allergic diseases characterized by T helper (Th) 2-type immunity. Our recent studies have shown that a synthetic trivalent glycocluster, triacedimannose (TADM), suppresses the Th2-type allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare TADM with two well-known adjuvants, unmethylated cytocine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in a grass allergen induced chronic allergic inflammation model in mice...
January 26, 2018: Allergy
Adelina Orellana, Vicente García-González, Rosa López, Sonia Pascual-Guiral, Estrella Lozoya, Julia Díaz, Daniel Casals, Antolín Barrena, Stephane Paris, Miriam Andrés, Victor Segarra, Dolors Vilella, Rajneesh Malhotra, Paul Eastwood, Anna Planagumà, Montserrat Miralpeix, Arsenio Nueda
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine released by human lung epithelium in response to external insult. Considered as a master switch in T helper 2 lymphocyte (Th2) mediated responses, TSLP is believed to play a key role in allergic diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to use a phenotypic approach to identify new biological and chemical starting points for inhibition of TSLP production in human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with the objective of reducing Th2-mediated airway inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Dries Van Rompaey, Kenneth Verstraete, Frank Peelman, Savvas N Savvides, Koen Augustyns, Pieter Van Der Veken, Hans De Winter
The pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of various allergy disorders that are mediated by type 2 helper T cell (Th2) responses, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. TSLP forms a ternary complex with the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) and the interleukin-7-receptor subunit alpha (IL-7Rα), thereby activating a signaling cascade that culminates in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, we conducted an in silico characterization of the TSLP:TSLPR complex to investigate the drugability of this complex...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Annoor Awadasseid, Kuugbee Eugene, Mayada Jamal, Jie Hou, Ahmed Musa Hago, Yaser Gamallat, Abdo Meyiah, Djibril Bamba, Chiwala Gift, Mohnad Abdalla, Yufang Ma, Yi Xin
Coriolus versicolor (CV) contains high levels of bioactive compounds, including the glucan (1→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl. However, there is a lack of data regarding the potential effect of this CV glucan (CVG) on the stimulation of cytokine production. The present study evaluated the effect of CVG on the stimulation of cytokine production in sarcoma-180-bearing mice. Mice were treated with three doses of CVG (40, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) for nine days, after which serum levels of cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6, -10, -17A and interferon (IFN)-α and -γ, were investigated by ELISA...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
Ulf Guendisch, Jessica Weiss, Florence Ecoeur, Julia Christina Riker, Klemens Kaupmann, Joerg Kallen, Samuel Hintermann, David Orain, Janet Dawson, Andreas Billich, Christine Guntermann
Retinoic acid receptor-related-orphan-receptor-C (RORγt) is the key transcription factor that is driving the differentiation of IL-17 producing T-helper 17 (Th17) cells that are implicated in the pathology of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Based on the importance of RORγt in promoting Th17-driven pathology, there is considerable interest to develop low-molecular-weight compounds with the aim of inhibiting the transcriptional activity of this nuclear hormone receptor. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a potent and selective small-molecular-weight RORγt inverse agonist...
2017: PloS One
Thea Magrone, Anna Spagnoletta, Rosaria Salvatore, Manrico Magrone, Francesco Dentamaro, Matteo A Russo, Graziana Difonzo, Carmine Summo, Francesco Caponio, Emilio Jirillo
BACKGROUND: Olive tree leaves have been used in the Mediterranean area as traditional medicine in virtue of their healthy effects. Olive leaf extracts (OLEs) contain higher amounts of polyphenols than those detected in the extra virgin olive oil and fruit. Several lines of evidence support the cardioprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by OLEs. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from twenty-five healthy donors were cultured in the presence of 3 µg of two OLE extracts, extract A (resuspended in water) and extract B (resuspended in 70% ethanol)...
2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
James E S Haggerty, Laura T Schelhas, Daniil A Kitchaev, John S Mangum, Lauren M Garten, Wenhao Sun, Kevin H Stone, John D Perkins, Michael F Toney, Gerbrand Ceder, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman, Janet Tate
Structure-specific synthesis processes are of key importance to the growth of polymorphic functional compounds such as TiO2, where material properties strongly depend on structure as well as chemistry. The robust growth of the brookite polymorph of TiO2, a promising photocatalyst, has been difficult in both powder and thin-film forms due to the disparity of reported synthesis techniques, their highly specific nature, and lack of mechanistic understanding. In this work, we report the growth of high-fraction (~95%) brookite thin films prepared by annealing amorphous titania precursor films deposited by pulsed laser deposition...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jakob von Moltke, Marion Pepper
Type 2 immune responses have evolved to sense and respond to large, non-replicating infections or non-microbial noxious compounds in tissues. The development of these responses therefore depends upon highly coordinated and tightly regulated tissue-residing cellular sensors and responders. Multiple exposure to type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-inducing stimuli further enhances both the diversity and potency of the response. This review discusses advances in our understanding of the interacting cellular subsets that comprise both primary and secondary type 2 responses...
November 6, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Gerrit Wienhausen, Beatriz E Noriega-Ortega, Jutta Niggemann, Thorsten Dittmar, Meinhard Simon
Recent studies applying Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) showed that the exometabolome of marine bacteria is composed of a surprisingly high molecular diversity. To shed more light on how this diversity is generated we examined the exometabolome of two model strains of the Roseobacter group, Phaeobacter inhibens and Dinoroseobacter shibae, grown on glutamate, glucose, acetate or succinate by FT-ICR-MS. We detected 2,767 and 3,354 molecular formulas in the exometabolome of each strain and 67 and 84 matched genome-predicted metabolites of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Weili Zhan, Yanhong Kang, Ning Chen, Chongshan Mao, Yi Kang, Jia Shang
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has caused acute and chronic liver diseases in ~350 million infected people worldwide. Halofuginone (HF) is a plant alkaloid which has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in immune regulation. Our present study explored the function of HF in the immune response of HBV-infected Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Plasmid containing pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 was injected in SD rats for the construction of an acute HBV-infected animal model. Our data showed that HF reduced the high concentrations of serum hepatitis B e-antigen, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HBV DNA induced by HBV infection...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Seonghu Park, Yeeun Park, Sang-Hyun Son, Kiho Lee, Yong Woo Jung, Ki Yong Lee, Young Ho Jeon, Youngjoo Byun
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a type II cytokine which is associated with most inflammatory allergic disorders in humans. It is produced mainly by epithelial cells with important role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases by activating T-helper cell type-2 (TH 2) pathways. In this study, a total of 16 peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis based on amino acid sequences of the interface between TSLP and TSLP receptor. Their TSLP inhibition activities were determined by ELISA assay...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Farrah Kheradmand, R You, Bon Hee Gu, D B Corry
Smoking-related lung diseases are among the most preventable and incurable ailments in the world. Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that can be further complicated by emphysema and lung cancer. A subset of former smokers shows persistent lung inflammation and progressive loss of lung function, indicating a role for activation of acquired immunity in smoking-induced lung diseases. In addition to the well-established noxious effects of volatile compounds in cigarette smoke, incomplete combustion of tobacco generates nano-sized carbon black (nCB) that accumulate in lung myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Lili Li, Sofie Kromann, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Søren Wedel Svenningsen, Rikke Heidemann Olsen
Sertraline, an antidepressive drug, has been reported to inhibit general bacterial efflux pumps. In the present study, we report for the first time a synergistic effect of sertraline and tetracycline in a TetA-encoded tetracycline-resistant strain of Escherichia coli. Synergy between sertraline and tetracycline in an E. coli strain with TetA-mediated tetracycline resistance (E. coli APEC_O2) was assessed by the MIC and checkerboard assays. The global transcriptome of E. coli APEC_O2 exposed to ½ MIC concentrations of sertraline and/or tetracycline was analyzed to elucidate the interaction mechanism between sertraline and tetracycline...
August 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Zhiwei You, Maheshwor Timilshina, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jae-Hoon Chang
CD4+ T cells differentiate into distinct effector subsets upon antigenic stimulation. Cytokines, and micro-environmental factors present during T-cell priming, direct differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells. From extensive screening of 2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol derivatives with various functional groups at C(6)-position, BJ-2266, a 6-thioureido-derivative, showed potent inhibitory activity on in vitro T helper (Th)-cell differentiation. This compound inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17 production from polyclonal CD4+ T cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells that were activated by T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement...
September 2017: European Journal of Immunology
Roland Benz, Holger Barth
A-B types of toxins are among the most potent bacterial protein toxins produced by gram-positive bacteria. Prominent examples are the tripartite anthrax toxin of Bacillus anthracis and the different A-B type clostridial toxins that are the causative agents of severe human and animal diseases and could serve as biological weapons. The components of all these toxins comprise one binding/transport (B) subunit and one or two separate, non-linked enzymatically active (A) subunits. The A and B subunits are separately produced and secreted by the pathogenic gram-positive bacteria and must assemble on the surface of eukaryotic target cells to form biologically active toxin complexes...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Hadi Maazi, Omid Akbari
Innate lymphoid cells are functionally diverse subsets of immune cells including the conventional natural killer cells, lymphoid tissue inducers, type 1, 2, and 3 with significant roles in immunity and pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) resemble type 2 helper (Th2) cells in cytokine production and contribute to anti-helminth immunity, maintaining mucosal tissue integrity, and adipose tissue browning. ILC2s play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and asthma...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
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