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Marisol Báez-Magaña, Violeta Díaz-Murillo, Joel E López-Meza, Alejandra Ochoa-Zarzosa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key elements of plant defense mechanisms, resembling conserved protection strategies also present in mammals. Among the AMPs, plant thionins are particularly interesting due that display antibacterial and antifungal activities. In Arabidopsis thaliana have been described four thionins: Thi2.1, Thi2.2, Thi2.3 and Thi2.4. Work from our group shows that Thi2.1 expressed by bovine endothelial cells has direct antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolates, bacteria able to persist inside bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs)...
February 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Sakineh Mashjoor, Morteza Yousefzadi, Hossein Zolgharnain, Ehsan Kamrani, Mojtaba Alishahi
Following the recent progress in magnetic nanotechnology, concern over the optimal benefits and potential risks of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe NPs), has increased. Hence, to minimize the negative impacts of inorganic Fe NPs, we report the phyco-synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 NPs via reduction of ferric/ferrous chloride solution (2:1 M ratio; 88 °C) with green macroalga, Ulva flexuosa (wulfen) J.Agardh aqueous extract. The biogenic process is clean, eco-friendly, rapid, and facile to handle...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuqin Gu, Peiyu Ding, Zhipeng Liang, Yan Song, Yonghong Liu, Guangtong Chen, Jian Lin Li
As an attempt to utilize of rare earth elements as a novel method to activate the silent genes in fungus, the marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum was cultured under ordinary laboratory fermentation conditions in the presence of scandium chloride (ScCl3 , 50 μM), and chemical investigation led to the isolation and characterization of three new peptide derivatives (1-3), along with four known pyrrolidine alkaloids (4-7). Those structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, as well as chemical reactions...
February 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
Mingwei Yuan, Chengdong Xiong, Lin Jiang, Hongli Li, Minglong Yuan
Graphene oxide (GO) was employed for the preparation of GO-zinc oxide (ZnO). The hydroxyl group on the surface was exploited to trigger the l-lactide ring-opening polymerization. A composite material with poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) chains grafted to the GO-ZnO surface, GO-ZnO-PLLA, was prepared. The results demonstrated that the employed method allowed one-step, rapid grafting of PLLA to the GO-ZnO surface. The chemical structure of the GO surface was altered by improved dispersion of GO-ZnO in organic solvents, thus enhancing the GO-ZnO dispersion in the PLLA matrix and the interface bonding with PLLA...
February 23, 2018: Materials
Yueli Bao, Shanrong Wang, Hongli Li, Yunjiao Wang, Haiyun Chen, Minglong Yuan
BF-30 is a single chain polypeptide of an N-segment with an α-helix from cathelicidin gene encoding, and it contains 30 amino acid residues, with a relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of 3637.54 and 11.79, respectively. Cathelicidin-BF-30 was entrapped in four-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol-b-dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) block copolymers (4-arm-PEG-PLGA) by a double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Three release phases of cathelicidin-BF-30loaded 4-arm-PEG-PLGA microspheres were observed, including an initial burst-release phase, followed by a lag phase with minimal drug release and finally a secondary zero-order release phase...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alan Hibbitts, Cian O'Leary
In a recent report, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classified antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains at the core of this threat, with persistent and resilient strains detectable in up to 90% of S. aureus infections. Unfortunately, there is a lack of novel antibiotics reaching the clinic to address the significant morbidity and mortality that MRSA is responsible for. Recently, nanomedicine strategies have emerged as a promising therapy to combat the rise of MRSA...
February 23, 2018: Materials
Kuldeep Dhama
BACKGROUND: Punica granatum L (pomegranate), is a shrub mostly available in the Mediterranean Sea region. The fruits have gained the substantial attention among researchers due to its promising biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, immune modulatory, antitumor, wound healing and antifungal that have been attributed to various constituents of seeds, bark, juice, pericarp and leaf of this tree across the globe. The phenolic compounds of pomegranate have been documented to possess numbers of prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various pathological infections as well as non-infectious disorders...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Qingcheng Ren, Chuan Gao, Zhi Xu, Yan Xu, Ming-Liang Liu, Xiang Wu, Jian-Guo Guan, Lianshun Feng
Bis-coumarins have caused great interests in recent years. These compounds exhibit diverse biological activities which are ascribed to their ability to exert noncovalent interactions with the various active sites in organisms. Some of them such as dicoumarolum and dicoumarol were approved for therapeutic purposes in clinical practice. Encouraged by the above facts, numerous bis-coumarin derivatives have been synthesized and screened for their biological activities, and many of them showed promising potency...
February 20, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Praveen Papareddy, Gopinath Kasetty, Saud Alyafei, Emanuel Smeds, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Stefan R Hansson, Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald
Coagulation, complement, and innate immunity are tightly interwoven and form an alliance that can be traced back to early eukaryotic evolution. Here we employed an ecoimmunological approach using Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI)-1-derived peptides from the different classes of vertebrates (i.e. fish, reptile, bird, and mammals) and tested whether they can boost killing of various human bacterial pathogens in plasma. We found signs of species-specific conservation and diversification during evolution in these peptides that significantly impact their antibacterial activity...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Yusha Zi, Bo Zhang, Biao Jiang, Xingyao Yang, Zilu Liang, Weiyi Liu, Congfen He, Lei Liu
BACKGROUND: Lentinus edodes is one of the largest edible fungi. Lentinan, extracted from its fruiting body has clinically significant anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticoagulant effects; however, its preventive effects on skin oxidative damage are unclear. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidation capability of lentinan and its protective and reparative effects on a model of cell oxidative damage. METHODS: We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of lentinan by assessing its free-radical quenching ability using DPPH and ABTS and superoxide anions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Sadeghi Kalani Behrooz, Lotfollahi Lida, Shivaee Ali, Moghadampour Mehdi, Mirzaei Rasoul, Ohadi Elnaz, Biderouni Tahvildar Farid, Irajian Gholamreza
Today, to replace the antibacterial targets to overcome antibiotic resistance, toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is noticeable, where the unstable antitoxin neutralizes the stable toxin and protects the bacteria against the toxic effects. The presence and expression of TA genes in clinical and non-clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated in this study. After identification of three TA pairs (mazEF, sam, and phd-doc) via existing databases (earlier, there has been no information in the case of S...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Moisés Cipriano-Salazar, Saúl Rojas-Hernández, Jaime Olivares-Pérez, Régulo Jiménez-Guillén, Cruz-Lagunas Blas, Luis Miguel Camacho Díaz, Amadike Eziuche Ugbogu
This present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of tannic acid (TA) against isolated ruminal bacteria from adult sheep. Rumen samples were collected from two (2) adults sheep, and a total of nine (9) ruminal bacterial were isolated from the sample. The sensitivity of the ruminal bacteria isolates to 0.63, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg TA/L was determined using clearance zone (CZ) of Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test. There was observable increase in the sensitivity of all bacterial isolates as the level of TA increases...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Gracy K V V Medeiros, Rita C R E Queiroga, Whyara K A Costa, Carlos A A Gadelha, Rodrigo R E Lacerda, José T J G Lacerda, Luciano S Pinto, Elizandra Braganhol, Fernanda C Teixeira, Paula P de S Barbosa, Maria I F Campos, Gregório F Gonçalves, Hilzeth L F Pessôa, Tatiane S Gadelha
Goat whey is normally discarded in the milk processing industry. However, several studies have addressed its biological properties and possible use in human or animal diet. The present study aimed to analysis the protein profile of goat whey to evaluate its possible oxidant, antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumour, and cytotoxic activities in vitro against human erythrocytes. Goat whey was skimmed, and crude protein extract (CPE) was obtained. Next, protein fractions (F) were obtained using ammonium sulphate precipitation method...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Parminder K Ajji, Shailendra P Sonkar, Ken Walder, Munish Puri
Balsamin, a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), has been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication at the translation step. Our recent studies have shown that balsamin also possess anti-tumor, antibacterial and DNase-like activity, however, the amount of natural balsamin in Momordica balsamina seeds is limited and preclinical studies require large quantities of pure, bioactive balsamin. Therefore, in this study, we cloned the balsamin gene, expressed it in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain and purified it by nickel affinity chromatography...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zorik Chilingaryan, Stephen J Headey, Allen T Y Lo, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Gottfried Otting, Nicholas E Dixon, Martin J Scanlon, Aaron J Oakley
In bacteria, the DnaG primase is responsible for synthesis of short RNA primers used to initiate chain extension by replicative DNA polymerase(s) during chromosomal replication. Among the proteins with which Escherichia coli DnaG interacts is the single-stranded DNA-binding protein, SSB. The C-terminal hexapeptide motif of SSB (DDDIPF; SSB-Ct) is highly conserved and is known to engage in essential interactions with many proteins in nucleic acid metabolism, including primase. Here, fragment-based screening by saturation-transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) and surface plasmon resonance assays identified inhibitors of the primase/SSB-Ct interaction...
February 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Fei Liu, Furkan Türker Saricaoglu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, David F Bridges, Gary R Takeoka, Vivian C H Wu, Bor-Sen Chiou, Delilah F Wood, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w / w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Lucia Frade, Sarah Raquel de Annunzio, Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto, Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Marlus Chorilli, Carla Raquel Fontana
Chitosan (CH) is a biopolymer that exhibits a number of interesting properties such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity and is also a promising platform for the incorporation of photosensitizing agents. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial activity of chitosan hydrogel formulation alone and in combination with the methylene blue (MB) associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against planktonic and biofilm phase of Propionibacterium acnes . Suspensions were sensitized with 12...
February 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jan Hynek, Jaroslav Zelenka, Jiri Rathousky, Pavel Kubát, Tomáš Ruml, Jan Demel, Kamil Lang
Microbial colonization of biomedical devices is a recognized complication contributing to healthcare-associated infections. One of the possible approaches to prevent surfaces from the biofilm formation is antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, based on the cytotoxic effect of singlet oxygen, O2 (1 Δg ), a short-lived, highly oxidative species, produced by energy transfer between excited photosensitizers and molecular oxygen. We synthesized porphyrin-based covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by the Schiff-base chemistry...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kate Prichard, David Campkin, Nicholas O'Brien, Atsushi Kato, George W J Fleet, Michela I Simone
3,4,5-Trihydroxypiperidines belong to the family of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-iminosugar natural products and are structural analogues of pentose monosaccharides in the pyranose form. The biological activities of these apparently structurally simple molecules and their N- and O-alkylated and -arylated derivatives are no less remarkable than their C-6 hydroxymethyl counterparts of the hexoses (such as 1-deoxynojirimycin, DNJ). Their biological profiles indicate that the hydroxymethyl branch is crucial to neither potency nor selectivity, with O-alkylation demonstrated to produce exquisite selectivity extending beyond glycosidase inhibition, to immunosuppressant and antibacterial activities...
February 22, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Pei Li, Xiaofang Wang, Wenyu Gao, Wei Yan, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma, Yu Yu, Fengmin Ji, Songmei Wu, Kejian Ding
This work presents a novel rapid and sensitive label-free electrochemical method for the detection of bacteria on surface nanostructures. A simple electrochemical deposition and calcination method is employed to prepare different gold nanostructures on FTO substrate. The sensor based on nanostructure gold exhibits excellent linear relation between E. coli DH5α bacteria and the changes of ΔRct , especially FTO-GEDC-D30, with a correction coefficient R2 = 0.998. Both the spectrophotometric (OD600 methods) and fluorescence-staining methods also verified the reliability of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods for evaluating the antibacterial activity of the gold nanostructure...
February 22, 2018: Analyst
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