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Andrea F Afonso, Olívia R Pereira, Mónica Válega, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Thymus plants are marketed for diverse usages because of their pleasant odor, as well as high nutritional value and wealth of health-promoting phytochemicals. In this study, Thymus zygis , Thymus pulegioides , and Thymus fragrantissimus grown under organic cultivation regime were characterized regarding nutrients and phenolic compounds. In addition, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of these species were screened. The plants were particularly notable for their high K/Na ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acids content and low omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratios, which are valuable features of a healthy diet...
June 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhenyu Sun, Yuqin Zhang, Hao Yu, Chao Yan, Yongchao Liu, Song Hong, Hengcong Tao, Alex W Robertson, Zhuo Wang, Agílio A H Pádua
Discovering highly efficient, environmentally friendly, and low-cost exfoliating media that can both disperse and protect black phosphorus (BP) remains a challenge. Herein, we demonstrate such a new molecule, N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU), for effective exfoliation and dispersion of two-dimensional BP nanosheets. A very high exfoliation efficiency of up to 16% was achieved in DMPU, significantly surpassing other good solvents. Exfoliated flakes are free from structural disorder or oxidation. Nanosheets retain high stability in DMPU even after addition of 25 vol% of common solvents...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Irene S Kurtz, Jessica D Schiffman
From ship hulls to bandages, biological fouling is a ubiquitous problem that impacts a wide range of industries and requires complex engineered solutions. Eliciting materials to have antibacterial or antifouling properties describes two main approaches to delay biofouling by killing or repelling bacteria, respectively. In this review article, we discuss how electrospun nanofiber mats are blank canvases that can be tailored to have controlled interactions with biologics, which would improve the design of intelligent conformal coatings or freestanding meshes that deliver targeted antimicrobials or cause bacteria to slip off surfaces...
June 22, 2018: Materials
Hend A Elbarbary, Akika Ejima, Kenji Sato
BACKGROUND: The current study was aimed to prepare antimicrobial agents for food preservation from crude cheese whey. Crude cheese whey was digested with porcine pepsin, calf and fungal rennets at various pHs. The digests were assessed for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. RESULTS: The calf rennet digest at pH 3.0 showed the highest antibacterial activity. Three antibacterial peptides against B. subtilis lactoferrin f(20-30), and ß-lactoglobulin f(14-22) and f(92-103) were identified in the calf rennet digest...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mohamed Nadjib Rebizi, Khaled Sekkoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abdelkrim Cheriti, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
The enantioseparation of three fluoroquinoline antibacterial drugs, namely, flumequine, ofloxacin and lomefloxacin using high-performance liquid chromatography was optimized on seven polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases, namely, Chiralpak® IB, chiralpak® IA, Chiralpak® AD, Chiralcel® OJ, Chiralcel® OD, Chiralcel® OD-H and Chiralcel® OZ-3 and applying different mobile phases in isocratic mode is described. The role of addition of organic additives was also investigated. A baseline separation of flumequine, ofloxacin and lomefloxacin enantiomers was achieved...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Vinod K Ahirrao, Vipul P Rane, Kiran R Patil, Vijay J Patil, Ravindra D Yeole, Mahesh V Patel
A highly stereo-specific liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the quantification of enantiomeric impurity (R-enantiomer) in novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agent (WCK 4086), a drug substance. The separation was achieved on Chiralpak AD-H (amylose-based chiral stationary phase) using a mobile phase consisting of n-hexane:2-propanol:methanol:trifluoroacetic acid (80:10:10:0.4, v/v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Chromatographic resolution between two enantiomers was found to be more than 2...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Nushin Arjmand, Alireza Boruziniat, Majid Zakeri, Hamideh Sadat Mohammadipour
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of incorporating nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into a self-etching primer of a resin cement on the microtensile bond strength of dentin, regarding the proven antibacterial feature of NAg and remineralizing effect of NACP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat, mid-coronal dentin from 20 intact extracted human third molars were prepared for cementation using Panavia F2...
June 2018: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
Theodora A M Claushuis, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Alex F de Vos, Anita E Grootemaat, Nicole N van der Wel, Joris Roelofs, Jerry Ware, Cornelis Van't Veer, Tom van der Poll
OBJECTIVE: Nbeal2 -/- mice, a model of human gray platelet syndrome, have reduced neutrophil granularity and impaired host defense against systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection. We here aimed to study the role of Nbeal2 deficiency in both leukocytes and platelets during gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied the role of Nbeal2 in platelets and leukocytes during murine pneumonia and sepsis by Klebsiella pneumoniae . Apart from platelet α-granule deficiency and reduced neutrophil granularity, also monocyte granularity was reduced in Nbeal2 -/ - mice, whereas plasma levels of MPO (myeloperoxidase), elastase, NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9), and leukocyte CD11b expression were increased...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Swetha Kameswari Maddili, Zhen-Zhen Li, Vijaya Kumar Kannekanti, Rammohan R Yadav Bheemanaboina, Balaraju Tuniki, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of new azoalkyl ether imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazoles were developed via a convenient synthetic procedure. The antimicrobial assays showed that a good number of the prepared derivatives exhibited significant inhibitory properties against most of the tested strains. Especially 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole derivative 5a presented superior inhibit activity against MRSA and B. typhi with MIC = 4 μg/mL and MIC = 1 μg/mL, respectively. The highly active compound 5a showed low toxicity against mammalian cells without obvious triggering of the development of bacterial resistance, and it also possessed rapid bactericidal efficacy...
June 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Kate Hoffman, Stephanie C Hammel, Allison L Phillips, Amelia M Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Thomas F Webster, Heather M Stapleton
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are used extensively in consumer and personal care products; electronics; furniture; and building materials and are detected in most indoor environments. As a result, human exposure to mixtures of SVOCs is wide-spread. However, very few studies have measured biomarkers of exposure to multiple SVOC classes, and exposure determinants have not been thoroughly explored, particularly for young children. In this study, we investigated biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs among children (age 3-6 years), who may experience higher exposures and be more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than other age groups...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
Ying Jia, Justin Villarreal
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) has widely been reported to possess antibacterial effects, and PLA2 is the major component of cottonmouth snake venoms. We assessed the antibacterial activities of crude venoms from Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) snakes against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae) bacteria...
June 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
C de Baat, P G M A Zweers, A Vissink
Medications and self care products may have adverse effects on the gingiva. These adverse effects can be divided into inflammation, intrinsic discolouration, irritation, trauma, cytotoxicity, lichenoid reaction, and proliferation. This article deals with the first 6 types of adverse effects mentioned: a subsequent article will deal with the last type mentioned. Since contraceptives were introduced, there have been indications that they cause or promote gingivitis, but with the current contraceptives this adverse effect is rarely seen...
June 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Vishvanath Tiwari, Neha Mishra, Keval Gadani, P S Solanki, N A Shah, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen, which causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Carbapenems (beta-lactam) are most effective antibiotics till now against A. baumannii , but the development of resistance against it may lead to high mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop an alternative drug against A. baumannii . In the present study, we have synthesized ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natasha L Maia, Mariana de Barros, Leandro L de Oliveira, Silvia A Cardoso, Marcelo H Dos Santos, Fabio A Pieri, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Maria A S Moreira
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that causes major losses in the dairy industry. Streptococcus spp. are among the main agents of this disease. Increased resistance to antibiotics is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. Plants, due to their broad chemodiversity, are an interesting source of new molecules with antibacterial activity. Using these compounds along with traditional antibiotics is a possible method for reversing resistance. The objective of this work was to determine the interactions between the activities of guttiferone-A and 7-epiclusianone, two active substances isolated from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis , and traditional antibiotics against Streptococcus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leopoldo Spadea, Emanuele Tonti, Andrea Spaterna, Andrea Marchegiani
Conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and corneal ulcers are common eye disorders frequently diagnosed in both humans and animals, and are currently treated by topical administration of eye drops containing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents. The current molecules often lack efficacy because infections in hypoxic tissue contain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; thus, new products for the treatment of ocular pain and inflammation are needed. The use of ozone, a molecule stabilized for topical use as an ozonide, could be providential due to its anti-inflammatory and bactericidal activity in certain anterior segment pathologies, in addition to promoting tissue repair properties...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Mengzhe Li, Yanqiu Jin, Hong Lin, Jingxue Wang, Xiuping Jiang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen that is generally transmitted via raw or undercooked seafood. Endolysins originating from bacteriophages offer a new way to control bacterial pathogens. The objectives of this study were to sequence a novel lytic V. parahaemolyticus phage VPp1 and determine the antibacterial activities of the recombinant endolysin (LysVPp1) derived from this phage. The complete VPp1 genome contained a double-stranded DNA of 50,431 bp with a total G+C content of 41.35%...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Thiago F Martins, Ilka M Vasconcelos, Rodolpho G G Silva, Fredy D A Silva, Pedro F N Souza, Anna L N Varela, Louise M Albuquerque, Jose T A Oliveira
Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for several cases of hospital-acquired infections, which constitute a global public health problem. The introduction of new healthcare strategies and/or the discovery of molecules capable of inhibiting the growth or killing S. aureus would have a huge impact on the treatment of S. aureus-mediated diseases. Herein, a Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor ( LzaBBI), with strong in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus, was purified to homogeneity from Luetzelburgia auriculata seeds...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Martin Schmidt, Alina Romanovska, Youssef Wolf, Thanh-Duong Nguyen, Anna Krupp, Hannah Lea Tumbrink, Jonas Lategahn, Jan Volmer, Daniel Rauh, Stephen Luetz, Christian Krumm, Joerg C Tiller
The influence on the resistance formation of polymers attached to antibiotics is rarely investigated. In this study, ciprofloxacin (CIP) was conjugated to poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)s with an ethylene diamine end group (Me-PMOx28-EDA) via two different spacers (CIP modified with α,α´-dichloro-p-xylene - xCIP, CIP modified with chloroacetyl chloride - eCIP). The antibacterial activity of the conjugates against a number of bacterial strains shows a great dependence on the nature of the spacer. The Me-PMOx39-EDA-eCIP, containing a potentially cleavable linker, does not exhibit a molecular weight dependence on antibacterial activity in contrast to Me-PMOx27-EDA-xCIP...
June 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Fiorela Ghilini, Miriam Candelaria Rodriguez Gonzalez, Alejandro Guillermo Miñán, Diego Ezequiel Pissinis, Alberto Hernández Creus, Roberto Carlos Salvarezza, Patricia Laura Schilardi
The increasing incidence of infections in implantable devices has encouraged the search for biocompatible antimicrobial surfaces. In order to inhibit the bacterial adhesion and proliferation on biomaterials, several surface functionalization strategies have been developed. However, most of these strategies lead to bacteriostatic effect and only few of these are able to reach the bactericidal condition. In this work, bactericidal surfaces were designed through the functionalization of titanium surfaces with poly-L-lysine (PLL) as mediator for the incorporation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michele Boghi, Dennis G Hall
A comprehensive study on the preparation, hydrolytic stability, and the structural and spectrophotometric properties of 1,2,4,5-oxadiazaboroles is presented by way of a comparison between the NSAID drug valdecoxib (1) and its unprecedented B-N isostere, borazavaldecoxib (2). Knowledge gained from this study was employed in the design of oxadiazaborate salts, a novel class of tetrahedral boron heterocycles displaying good stability in aqueous conditions with promising antifungal and antibacterial properties.
June 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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