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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342189/the-microbiota-metabolite-indole-inhibits-salmonella-virulence-involvement-of-the-phopq-two-component-system
#1
Nandita Kohli, Zeni Crisp, Rebekah Riordan, Michael Li, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman
The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337217/peptide-drug-stability-the-anti-inflammatory-drugs-pep19-2-5-and-pep19-4lf-in-cream-formulation
#2
Nicole Kuhlmann, Lena Heinbockel, Wilmar Correa, Thomas Gutsmann, Torsten Goldmann, Uwe Englisch, Klaus Brandenburg
In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335761/adjacent-intervertebral-space-infection-after-lumbar-fusion
#3
Hong-Kui Xin, Qing He
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection is a catastrophic complication after spinal surgery, which seriously affects the progress of rehabilitation and clinical outcome. Currently the clinical reports on spinal surgical site infections are mostly confined to the surgical segment itself and there are few reports on adjacent segment infections after spinal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical case with adjacent level infection after spinal fusion...
January 15, 2018: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330644/hydrocarbon-stapled-antimicrobial-peptides
#4
Dorian Migoń, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz
Antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates for anti-infective pharmaceuticals. Unfortunately, because of their low proteolytic and chemical stability, their usage is generally narrowed down to topical formulations. Until now, numerous approaches to increase peptide stability have been proposed. One of them, peptide hydrocarbon stapling, a modification based on stabilizing peptide secondary structure with a side-chain covalent hydrocarbon bridge, have been successfully applied to many peptides. Moreover, constraining secondary structure of peptides have also been proven to increase their biological activity...
January 12, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322274/evidence-of-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-pharmacist-interventions-related-to-antimicrobials-in-the-hospital-setting
#5
REVIEW
L Leache, I Aquerreta, A Aldaz, A Idoate, A Ortega
The purpose of this paper was to review the literature regarding the clinical and economic impact of pharmacist interventions (PIs) related to antimicrobials in the hospital setting. A PubMed literature search from January 2003 to March 2016 was conducted using the terms pharmacist* or clinical pharmacist* combined with antimicrobial* or antibiotic* or anti-infective*. Comparative studies that assessed the clinical and/or economic impact of PIs on antimicrobials in the hospital setting were reviewed. Outcomes were classified as: treatment-related outcomes (TROs), clinical outcomes (COs), cost and microbiological outcomes (MOs)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318458/diagnostic-performance-of-blood-culture-bottles-for-vitreous-culture-compared-to-conventional-microbiological-cultures-in-patients-with-suspected-endophthalmitis
#6
Jan Kehrmann, Valerie Chapot, Jan Buer, Philipp Rating, Norbert Bornfeld, Joerg Steinmann
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of blood culture bottles in comparison to conventional microbiological culture techniques in detecting causative microorganisms of endophthalmitis and to determine their anti-infective susceptibility profiles. All consecutive cases with clinically suspected endophthalmitis in a university-based ophthalmology department between January 2009 and December 2016 were analysed in this retrospective comparative case series. Samples from 247 patients with suspected endophthalmitis underwent microbiological diagnostic work-up...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313072/-antibiotic-stewardship-measures-for-optimizing-prescription-of-anti-infective-agents
#7
REVIEW
C Lanckohr, H Bracht
Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy...
January 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310400/clinical-analysis-of-hyperkalemia-after-esophagectomy-a-case-report
#8
Qiang Chen, Wei-Guo Zhang, Shu-Chang Chen
RATIONALE: The occurrence of hyperkalemia after esophagectomy is clinically rare. Patients who underwent esophagectomy often have a serum potassium level due to perioperative reduced intake, fluids loss, consumption and other reasons. These patients often require the artificial administration of potassium. Rapid fluid loss and physiological consumption lead to the deficiency of potassium, even hypokalemia. Patients often require the addition of a large amount of potassium after operation...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304211/we-can-do-better-a-fresh-look-at-echinocandin-dosing
#9
Justin C Bader, Sujata M Bhavnani, David R Andes, Paul G Ambrose
First-line antifungal therapies are limited to azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, the former two of which are associated with high occurrences of severe treatment-emergent adverse events or frequent drug interactions. Among antifungals, echinocandins present a unique value proposition given their lower rates of toxic events as compared with azoles and polyenes. However, with the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida species and the fact that a pharmacometric approach to the development of anti-infective agents was not a mainstream practice at the time these agents were developed, we question whether echinocandins are being dosed optimally...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289797/survey-on-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-in-senegal-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-tb-and-assessment-of-their-antimycobacterial-activity
#10
ElHadji Assane Diop, Emerson Ferreira Queiroz, Sébastien Kicka, Serge Rudaz, Tahir Diop, Thierry Soldati, Jean-Luc Wolfender
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this study was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288450/systems-biology-modeling-to-study-pathogen-host-interactions
#11
Müberra Fatma Cesur, Saliha Durmuş
Pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) underlie the process of infection. The systems biology view of the whole PHI system is superior to the investigation of the pathogen or host separately in understanding the infection mechanisms. Especially, the identification of host-oriented drug targets for the next-generation anti-infection therapeutics requires the properties of the host factors targeted by pathogens. Here, we provide an outline of computational analysis of PHI networks, focusing on the properties of the pathogen-targeted host proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288370/letermovir-first-global-approval
#12
Esther S Kim
Letermovir (Prevymis™) is an orally or intravenously administered cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA terminase complex inhibitor being developed by Merck & Co., Inc., under a global license from AiCuris Anti-infective Cures GmbH. Letermovir has been approved in Canada and the USA for the prophylaxis of CMV infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients of an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). In addition, letermovir has received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, and is under review in several countries, including Japan...
January 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287992/comorbidity-concomitant-medication-use-of-resources-and-healthcare-costs-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-carriers-in-spain
#13
Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Ruth Navarro-Artieda, Marc Sáez-Zafra
OBJECTIVES: To assess the comorbidity, concomitant medications, healthcare resource use and healthcare costs of chronic hepatitis C virus patients in the Spanish population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, observational, non-interventional study. Patients included were≥18 years of age who accessed medical care between 2010-2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis. The follow-up period was 12 months. Main assessment criteria included general comorbidity level (determined by the resource utilisation band score) and prevalence of specific comorbidities, concomitant medications, healthcare resource use and healthcare costs...
December 26, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280850/anti-infective-drugs
#14
Kavitha S Dlal, Mary Barna Bridgeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278614/childhood-infections-and-subsequent-school-achievement-among-598-553-danish-children
#15
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Holger J Sørensen, Merete Nordentoft, John J McGrath, Michael E Benros, Liselotte Petersen
BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for infections have been associated with subsequent decreased cognitive ability, but it is uncertain if childhood infections influence subsequent scholastic achievement (SA). We aimed to estimate the association between infections during childhood and SA. METHODS: Nationwide prospective cohort-study including 598,553 children born in Denmark between 1987 and 1997 and their parents. Exposures were hospitalization for infections and treatment with anti-infective agents...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276300/multilayer-model-of-pharmacy-participation-in-the-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-at-a-large-academic-medical-center
#16
Yanina Dubrovskaya, Marco R Scipione, Justin Siegfried, Shin-Pung Jen, Vinh Pham, John Papadopoulos, Arnold Decano, Tyler Lewis, Arash Dabestani
Purpose: Leveraging pharmacy personnel resources for the purpose of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) operations presents a challenging task. We describe our experience integrating all pharmacists into an ASP, and evaluate the impact on ASP interventions, antimicrobial utilization, rate of selected hospital-onset infections and readmission. Summary: During a study period (January 1 to December 31, 2015), a total of 14 552 ASP-related pharmacy interventions were performed (ASP clinical pharmacotherapy specialists [CPS] n = 4025; non-ASP CPS n = 4888; hospital pharmacists n = 5639)...
October 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275629/inhibitors-of-lexa-autoproteolysis-and-the-bacterial-sos-response-discovered-by-an-academic-industry-partnership
#17
Charlie Y Mo, Matthew J Culyba, Trevor Selwood, Jeffrey M Kubiak, Zachary M Hostetler, Anthony J Jurewicz, Paul M Keller, Andrew J Pope, Amy Quinn, Jessica L Schneck, Katherine L Widdowson, Rahul M Kohli
The RecA/LexA axis of the bacterial DNA damage (SOS) response is a promising, yet non-traditional drug target. The SOS response is initiated upon genotoxic stress, when RecA, a DNA damage sensor, induces LexA, the SOS repressor, to undergo autoproteolysis, thereby de-repressing downstream genes that can mediate DNA repair and accelerate mutagenesis. As genetic inhibition of the SOS response sensitizes bacteria to DNA damaging antibiotics and decreases acquired resistance, inhibitors of the RecA/LexA axis could potentiate our current antibiotic arsenal...
December 24, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274111/influence-of-ciprofloxacin-based-additives-on-the-hydrolysis-of-nanofiber-polyurethane-membranes
#18
Meghan Ee Wright, Andrew T Wong, Daniel Levitt, Ian C Parrag, Meilin Yang, J Paul Santerre
A degradable polycarbonate urethane (PCNU) and an antimicrobial oligomer (AO) were used to generate anti-infective nanofiber scaffolds via blend electrospinning. The AO consists of two molecules of ciprofloxacin (CF) bound via hydrolysable linkages to triethylene glycol (TEG). The membranes were conceived for use as tissue engineering scaffolds for the regeneration of soft tissues for the periodontium, where there would be a need for a local dose of antibiotic to the periodontal space as the scaffold degrades in order to prevent biomaterial-associated infection...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259979/effects-of-target-temperature-management-on-the-outcome-of-septic-patients-with-fever
#19
Ye Gao, Jianjun Zhu, Chenyu Yin, Jianliang Zhu, Tao Zhu, Lijun Liu
Objectives: To investigate the effects of target temperature management on hemodynamic changes, inflammatory and immune factors, and clinical outcomes of sepsis patients with fever. Methods: Patients diagnosed with sepsis with a core temperature of ≥39°C were randomly divided into two groups: a low-temperature group (LT group: 36.5°C-38°C) and a high-temperature group (HT group: 38.5°C-39.5°C). A target core temperature was achieved within 6 hrs posttreatment and maintained for 24 hrs...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248479/nanomaterials-and-molecular-transporters-to-overcome-the-bacterial-envelope-barrier-towards-advanced-delivery-of-antibiotics
#20
Rita S Santos, Céu Figueiredo, Nuno F Azevedo, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt
With the dramatic consequences of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, nanomaterials and molecular transporters have started to be investigated as alternative antibacterials or anti-infective carrier systems to improve the internalization of bactericidal drugs. However, the capability of nanomaterials/molecular transporters to overcome the bacterial cell envelope is poorly understood. It is critical to consider the sophisticated architecture of bacterial envelopes and reflect how nanomaterials/molecular transporters can interact with these envelopes, being the major aim of this review...
December 14, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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