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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210987/antiviral-activity-of-ctn-15-34-a-cathelicidin-derived-eicosapeptide-against-infectious-myonecrosis-virus-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-primary-hemocyte-cultures
#1
P R N Vieira-Girão, C B Falcão, I R C B Rocha, H M R Lucena, F H F Costa, G Rádis-Baptista
The shrimp farming has been converted into a mature aquaculture industry dealing with over millions of metric tonnes of processed commodities. Nevertheless, the global shrimp productions are constantly threatened by disease outbreaks, mainly triggered by rapidly disseminating viruses. Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is one of these epizootic agents affecting shrimp production in Brazil, of which no treatment exists. Herein, the antiviral activity against IMNV of an eicosapeptide, named Ctn[15-34], derived from a member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, was demonstrated...
February 16, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206723/clinical-study-on-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalogram-in-cerebral-injury-caused-by-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#2
Hongwei Wu, Zhenguang Li, Jinfeng Liu, Gang Liu, Xia Yang
BACKGROUND: This study was designed in order to assess the validity of the use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) in cerebral injury caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS: A total of 56 full-term neonates diagnosed with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and admitted to the NICU of our hospital from July 2013 to December 2014 were continuously selected for the study. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) was higher than 342 μmo/l, and was dominated by a higher amount of unconjugated bilirubin...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203681/small-but-mighty-platelets-as-central-effectors-of-host-defense
#3
Thomas J Stocker, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Steffen Massberg, Christian Schulz
Platelets actively participate in inflammatory processes and drive diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer metastasis. However, platelets also have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective properties, which have received less consideration in the past. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the role of platelets in host defense and describe regulatory pathways modulating immune responses. Furthermore, we discuss the role of platelets for the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair...
February 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186697/complement-activated-vitronectin-enhances-the-invasion-of-non-phagocytic-cells-by-bacterial-pathogens-burkholderia-and-klebsiella
#4
Yi Han Tan, Akshamal Gamage, Yunn-Hwen Gan
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. However, their interaction with non-phagocytic cells is poorly understood. We observed that exposure of B. pseudomallei and the closely related yet avirulent B. thailandensis to human plasma increased epithelial cell invasion by >20 fold. Enhanced invasion was primarily driven by a plasma factor which required a functional complement cascade, but surprisingly, was downstream of C3 mediated opsonisation...
February 10, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186134/virulence-inhibitors-from-brazilian-peppertree-block-quorum-sensing-and-abate-dermonecrosis-in-skin-infection-models
#5
Amelia Muhs, James T Lyles, Corey P Parlet, Kate Nelson, Jeffery S Kavanaugh, Alexander R Horswill, Cassandra L Quave
Widespread antibiotic resistance is on the rise and current therapies are becoming increasingly limited in both scope and efficacy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a major contributor to this trend. Quorum sensing controlled virulence factors include secreted toxins responsible for extensive damage to host tissues and evasion of the immune system response; they are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Investigation of botanical folk medicines for wounds and infections led us to study Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree) as a potential source of virulence inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178130/de-escalation-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-improved-survival-for-patients-with-severe-aplastic-anemia-treated-with-antithymocyte-globulin
#6
Rong Fu, Tong Chen, Jia Song, Guojin Wang, Lijuan Li, Erbao Ruan, Hui Liu, Yihao Wang, Huaquan Wang, Limin Xing, Yuhong Wu, Hong Liu, Wen Qu, Zonghong Shao
We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of de-escalation empirical therapy for controlling infection in patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Eighty-seven ATG-treated SAA patients who had microbiological culture-confirmed infections from 2006 to 2015 in our center were retrospectively analyzed. The efficacy of de-escalation and non-de-escalation therapy was compared. Among all 87 patients, 63 patients were treated with de-escalation therapy and 24 patients with non-de-escalation therapy...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176481/synergistic-activity-profile-of-an-antimicrobial-peptide-against-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens
#7
Simona Pollini, Jlenia Brunetti, Samanta Sennati, Gian Maria Rossolini, Luisa Bracci, Alessandro Pini, Chiara Falciani
Infection sustained by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is often untreatable with the standard of care antibiotics, and the combination of anti-infective compounds often represents the only therapeutic strategy to face this major clinical treat. SET-M33 is a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and has shown interesting features in preclinical evaluations. Particularly, it showed efficacy against a number of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant clinical strains of Gram-negative pathogens, in in vitro and in vivo assessments...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162156/-the-clinical-practice-of-improvement-the-volume-and-quality-of-functional-liver-in-autologous-liver-transplantation-for-the-patients-with-alveolar-echinococcosis
#8
Aji Tuerganaili, Y M Shao, J M Zhao, T Li, B Ran, T M Jiang, R Q Zhang, Tuxun Tuerhongjiang, L Wu, M Guo, H Wen
Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of accurate assessment of "volume and quality" of functional liver in Autologous liver transplantation (ALT) in the treatment of the advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE). Methods: The clinical data of 12 patients with advanced HAE who underwent ALT at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from May 2015 to July 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The preoperative hepatic functions of 12 patients were 8 Child-Pugh Grade A, 1 Grade B, and 3 Grade C...
January 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160417/nmr-structure-based-optimization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-sortase-a-pyridazinone-inhibitors
#9
Albert H Chan, Sung Wook Yi, Ethan M Weiner, Brendan R Amer, Christopher K Sue, Jeff Wereszczynski, Carly A Dillen, Silvia Senese, Jorge Z Torres, J Andrew McCammon, Lloyd S Miller, Michael E Jung, Robert T Clubb
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States and is a major health concern as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and other antibiotic resistant strains are common. Compounds that inhibit the S. aureus sortase (SrtA) cysteine transpeptidase may function as potent anti-infective agents as this enzyme attaches virulence factors to the bacterial cell wall. While a variety of SrtA inhibitors have been discovered, the vast majority of these small molecules have not been optimized using structure-based approaches...
February 3, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159413/broad-spectrum-anti-infective-properties-of-benzisothiazolones-and-the-parallels-in-their-anti-bacterial-and-anti-fungal-effects
#10
P Gopinath, R K Yadav, P K Shukla, K Srivastava, S K Puri, K M Muraleedharan
Various mono- and bis-benzisothiazolone derivatives were synthesized and screened against different strains of bacteria and fungi in order to understand the effect of multiple electrophilic sulfur atoms and substitution pattern in the immediate vicinity of reactive sulfur. Staphyllococcus aureus-ATCC 7000699, MRSA and S. aureus-ATCC 29213 (Quality Control strain) were more susceptible to this class of compounds, and the most potent derivative 1.15 had MIC50 of 0.4μg/mL (cf. Gentamicin=0.78μg/mL). CLogP value, optimally in the range of 2...
January 12, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154809/phloretin-attenuates-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-simultaneously-targeting-listeriolysin-o-and-sortase-a
#11
Jianfeng Wang, Bowen Liu, Zihao Teng, Xuan Zhou, Xiyan Wang, Bing Zhang, Gejin Lu, Xiaodi Niu, Yongjun Yang, Xuming Deng
The critical roles of sortase A (SrtA) and listeriolysin O (LLO) in Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity render these two virulence factors as ideal targets for the development of anti-virulence agents against L. monocytogenes infection. Additionally, the structures of SrtA and LLO are highly conserved among the members of sortase enzyme family and cholesterol dependent toxin family. Here, phloretin, a natural polyphenolic compound derived from apples and pears that has little anti-L. monocytogenes activity, was identified to simultaneously inhibit LLO expression and neutralize SrtA catalytic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133966/fabrication-of-antibacterial-and-antiwear-hydroxyapatite-coatings-via-in-situ-chitosan-mediated-pulse-electrochemical-deposition
#12
Ling Yan, Yi Xiang, Jia Yu, Yingbo Wang, Wenguo Cui
Although bioinert titanium has been widely applied in orthopedics and related fields, its usage is limited by its unsatisfying osteoinductivity, anti-infection capability, and wear-resistance. Osteoinductive apatite coating can be fabricated on a titanium surface by electrochemical methods, but this causes bacterial adhesion and poor wear-resistance. On the basis of pulse electrochemical technology, a wear-resistance and antibacterial osteoinductive coating was fabricated through codeposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and nano-Ag effectuated by the cohybridization ofchitosan (CS) with Ag(+) and Ca(2+)...
January 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132128/optimized-expression-of-the-antimicrobial-protein-gloverin-from-galleria-mellonella-using-stably-transformed-drosophila-melanogaster-s2-cells
#13
Jan Zitzmann, Tobias Weidner, Peter Czermak
Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are valuable as leads in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here we describe the efficient heterologous expression and basic characterization of a Gloverin-family AMP derived from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Highly productive single-cell clones prepared by limiting dilution achieved a 100% increase in productivity compared to the original polyclonal Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell line. Comprehensive screening for suitable expression conditions using statistical experimental designs revealed that optimal induction was achieved using 600 µM CuSO4 at the mid-exponential growth phase...
January 28, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131941/rationally-designed-dual-functional-block-copolymers-for-bottlebrush-like-coatings-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antimicrobial-antibiofilm-and-antifouling-properties
#14
Qiang Gao, Meng Yu, Yajuan Su, Meihua Xie, Xin Zhao, Peng Li, Peter X Ma
: Numerous antimicrobial coatings have been developed for biomedical devices/implants, but few can simultaneously fulfill the requirements for antimicrobial and antifouling ability and biocompatibility. In this study, to develop an antimicrobial and antibiofilm surface coating, diblock amphiphilic molecules with antimicrobial and antifouling segments in a single chain were rationally designed and synthesized. Cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (AMP) were first synthesized by N-carboxyanhydride ring-opening polymerization (NCA-ROP)...
January 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131846/novel-human-bioactive-peptides-identified-in-apolipoprotein-b-evaluation-of-their-therapeutic-potential
#15
Rosa Gaglione, Eliana Dell'Olmo, Andrea Bosso, Marco Chino, Katia Pane, Flora Ascione, Francesco Itri, Sergio Caserta, Angela Amoresano, Angelina Lombardi, Henk P Haagsman, Renata Piccoli, Elio Pizzo, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Eugenio Notomista, Angela Arciello
Host defence peptides (HDPs) are short, cationic amphipathic peptides that play a key role in the response to infection and inflammation in all complex life forms. It is increasingly emerging that HDPs generally have a modest direct activity against a broad range of microorganisms, and that their anti-infective properties are mainly due to their ability to modulate the immune response. Here, we report the recombinant production and characterization of two novel HDPs identified in human Apolipoprotein B (residues 887-922) by using a bioinformatics method recently developed by our group...
January 25, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131363/echinococcus-host-interactions-at-cellular-and-molecular-levels
#16
K Brehm, U Koziol
The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host-parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host-parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127437/effect-of-extracorporeal-cytokine-removal-on-vascular-barrier-function-in-a-septic-shock-patient
#17
Sascha David, Kristina Thamm, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Christine S Falk, Jan T Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are major healthcare problems, affecting millions of individuals around the world each year. Pathophysiologically, septic multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) is a life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response of the host's organism to an infection. We experimentally tested if high circulating cytokine levels might increase vascular permeability-a critical hallmark of the disease-and if this phenomenon can be reversed by therapeutic cytokine removal (CytoSorb®) in an exemplary patient...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122162/targeting-proteasomes-in-infectious-organisms-to-combat-disease
#18
REVIEW
Betsaida Bibo-Verdugo, Zhenze Jiang, Conor R Caffrey, Anthony J O'Donoghue
Proteasomes are multisubunit, energy-dependent, proteolytic complexes that play an essential role in intracellular protein turnover. They are present in eukaryotes, archaea, and in some actinobacteria species. Inhibition of proteasome activity has emerged as a powerful strategy for anticancer therapy and three drugs have been approved for treatment of multiple myeloma. These compounds react covalently with a threonine residue located in the active site of a proteasome subunit to block protein degradation. Proteasomes in pathogenic organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum also have a nucleophilic threonine residue in the proteasome active site and are therefore sensitive to these anticancer drugs...
January 25, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119451/flavonoids-suppress-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-through-allosteric-inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-receptors
#19
Jon E Paczkowski, Sampriti Mukherjee, Amelia R McCready, Jian-Ping Cong, Christopher J Aquino, Hahn Kim, Brad R Henke, Chari D Smith, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing is a process of cell-cell communication that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Quorum sensing depends on the production, detection, and group-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In many bacterial species, quorum sensing controls virulence factor production. Thus, disrupting quorum sensing is considered a promising strategy to combat bacterial pathogenicity. Several members of a family of naturally-produced plant metabolites called flavonoids inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by an unknown mechanism...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118541/nonwoven-polymer-nanofiber-coatings-that-inhibit-quorum-sensing-in-staphylococcus-aureus-toward-new-nonbactericidal-approaches-to-infection-control
#20
Michael J Kratochvil, Tian Yang, Helen E Blackwell, David M Lynn
We report the fabrication and biological evaluation of nonwoven polymer nanofiber coatings that inhibit quorum sensing (QS) and virulence in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Our results demonstrate that macrocyclic peptide 1, a potent and synthetic nonbactericidal quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) in S. aureus, can be loaded into degradable polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and that this approach can deposit QSI-loaded nanofiber coatings onto model nonwoven mesh substrates. The QSI was released over ∼3 weeks when these materials were incubated in physiological buffer, retained its biological activity, and strongly inhibited agr-based QS in a GFP reporter strain of S...
February 20, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
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