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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#1
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728202/-pyogenic-liver-abscess-changes-of-organisms-and-consequences-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
Alexander Mischnik, Winfried Vincenz Kern, Robert Thimme
Liver abscess is a rare but potentially fatal disease with mortality rates of 2 - 12 %. The spectrum of causative microorganisms varies across the world and is changing due to increasing worldwide travel activity. As a result, previously less frequent pathogens must increasingly be considered in the differential diagnosis. The most common pathogens of liver abscess are so-called abscess streptococci, anaerobes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Certain clones among the Gram-negatives, typically among Klebsiella spp...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728201/-fever-and-headache-after-a-vacation-in-thailand
#3
Benedikt Schwermer, Daniel Eschle, Constantine Bloch-Infanger
History 50 year-old man with fever and headache starting one week after returning from his vacation in Thailand. His general practitioner prescribed amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, without further analyses to pinpoint the infection. Examinations The examination of cerebro-spinal fluid was crucial for the final diagnosis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated a predominantly mononuclear pleocytosis of 80 cells/µl (< 5) with an elevated protein of 782 mg/l (< 450); glucose and lactate were within normal limits...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726761/a-cell-adhesive-plasma-polymerized-allylamine-coating-reduces-the-in-vivo-inflammatory-response-induced-by-ti6al4v-modified-with-plasma-immersion-ion-implantation-of-copper
#4
Uwe Walschus, Andreas Hoene, Maciej Patrzyk, Silke Lucke, Birgit Finke, Martin Polak, Gerold Lukowski, Rainer Bader, Carmen Zietz, Andreas Podbielski, J Barbara Nebe, Michael Schlosser
Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film (PPAAm). Thus, this study aimed to examine in vivo local inflammatory reactions for Ti6Al4V implants treated with Cu-PIII (Ti-Cu), alone or with an additional PPAAm film (Ti-Cu-PPAAm), compared to untreated implants (Ti)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726635/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-anti-microbial-immune-responses
#5
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of crocodilian immune system has remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1~6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese Alligator ( Alligator sinensis )...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722755/the-potential-of-anti-infectives-and-immunomodulators-as-therapies-for-asthma-and-asthma-exacerbations
#6
Michael R Edwards, Ross P Walton, David J Jackson, Wojciech Feleszko, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Tuomas Jartti, Heidi Makrinoti, Alexandra Nikonova, Igor Shilovskiy, Jurgen Schwarze, Sebastian L Johnston, Musa Khaitov
Asthma is responsible for approximately 25,000 deaths annually in Europe despite available medicines that maintain asthma control and reduce asthma exacerbations. Better treatments are urgently needed for the control of chronic asthma and reduction of asthma exacerbations, the major cause of asthma mortality. Much research spanning >20 years shows a strong association between microorganisms including pathogens in asthma onset, severity and exacerbation, yet with the exception of antibiotics, few treatments are available that specifically target the offending pathogens...
July 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721045/synthesis-construction-and-evaluation-of-self-assembled-nano-bacitracin-a-as-an-efficient-antibacterial-agent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Wei Hong, Xiang Gao, Peng Qiu, Jie Yang, Mingxi Qiao, Hong Shi, Dexian Zhang, Chunlian Tian, Shengli Niu, Mingchun Liu
Bacitracin A (BA) is an excellent polypeptide antibiotic that is active against gram-positive bacteria without triggering multidrug resistance. However, BA is inactive against gram-negative bacteria because of its inability to cross the outer membrane of these cells, and it has strong nephrotoxicity, thus limiting its clinical applications. Nanoantibiotics can effectively localize antibiotics to the periplasmic space of bacteria while decreasing the adverse effects of antibiotics. In this study, biodegradable hydrophobic copolymers of poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were attached to the N-termini of BA to design a novel class of self-assembled nano-bacitracin A (nano-BAs), and their potential as antibacterial agents was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#8
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702032/nk-cell-exhaustion
#9
REVIEW
Jiacheng Bi, Zhigang Tian
Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699173/porous-silicon-nanoparticle-delivery-of-tandem-peptide-anti-infectives-for-the-treatment-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infections
#10
Ester J Kwon, Matthew Skalak, Alessandro Bertucci, Gary Braun, Francesco Ricci, Erkki Ruoslahti, Michael J Sailor, Sangeeta N Bhatia
There is an urgent need for new materials to treat bacterial infections. In order to improve antibacterial delivery, an anti-infective nanomaterial is developed that utilizes two strategies for localization: i) a biodegradable nanoparticle carrier to localize therapeutics within the tissue, and ii) a novel tandem peptide cargo to localize payload to bacterial membranes. First, a library of antibacterial peptides is screened that combines a membrane-localizing peptide with a toxic peptide cargo and discovers a tandem peptide that displays synergy between the two domains and is able to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa at sub-micromolar concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697977/potential-biomedical-applications-of-marine-algae
#11
REVIEW
Hui-Min David Wang, Xiao-Chun Li, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy...
June 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696697/development-of-a-potent-inhibitor-of-the-plasmodium-proteasome-with-reduced-mammalian-toxicity
#12
Gregory M LaMonte, Jehad Almaliti, Betsaida Bibo-Verdugo, Lena Keller, Bing Yu Zou, Jennifer Yang, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Colleen A Boyle, Edgar Vigil, Lawrence Wang, Gregory M Goldgof, Lena Gerwick, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Elizabeth A Winzeler, William H Gerwick, Sabine Ottilie
Naturally derived chemical compounds are the foundation of much of our pharmacopeia, especially in anti-proliferative and anti-infective drug classes. Here, we report that a naturally-derived molecule called carmaphycin B, is a potent inhibitor against both the asexual and sexual blood stages of malaria infection. Using a combination of in silico molecular docking and in vitro directed evolution in a well-characterized drug-sensitive yeast model, we determined that these compounds target the β5 subunit of the proteasome...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690235/-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-one-case-of-elderly-diabetes-complicated-with-still-s-disease
#13
Tuanyu Fang, Kaining Chen, Eryuan Liao
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a clinical syndrome with multiple organ failure. The patients normally show intermittent high fever for a long time, a transient rash, arthritis or joint pain as the main performance, accompanied by an increase in granulocytes and enlargement in liver, spleen and lymph node. A 71-years-old female patient with type 2 diabetes admitted hospital because of high fever, skin rash, joint pain and increased granulocyte. After review of the iron protein, she was diagnosed as AOSD...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687679/targeting-toll-like-receptor-7-8-improves-host-anti-infective-response-in-alcoholic-cirrhosis
#14
EDITORIAL
Emanuele Albano, Felix Stickel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681827/exploring-the-prescribing-behaviours-and-the-mind-of-antibiotic-prescribers-is-critical-for-a-successful-antibiotic-stewardship-programme-results-of-a-survey-from-eastern-india
#15
Nikhila Ravi, Anirban Laha, Lalawmpuia Hmar, Suddhasatwya Chatterjee, Jyotsna Goswami, Gaurav Goel, Kingshuk Dhar, Tanushree Ghosh, Soumyadip Chatterjee, Soumitra Shankar Datta, Sanjay Bhattacharya
Quantitative and qualitative analysis were used to ascertain practices, perceptions and barriers about antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in an oncology hospital in eastern India. In 2014 and 2017, 62% and 69.1% of the patients audited were found to be on anti infective medications respectively. Nearly 47% of patients in the study group (2014) who were on therapeutic antibiotics had an average cost of $46.48 per patient per day (inter-quartile range: $17.23-$94.76). Antibiotic related consultations from clinical microbiologists, was found to be in demand, and education of prescribers and policymakers was identified as critical to the success of ASP...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681702/wound-healing-time-to-look-for-intelligent-natural-immunological-approaches
#16
Olivier Garraud, Wael N Hozzein, Gamal Badr
There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remote places, is not realistic. Instead, we propose to examine how such factors work and to evaluate the reparative tools generously provided by 'nature.' We used two approaches to address these objectives. The first approach was to reappraise the internal capacity of the factors contributing the most to healing in the body, i...
June 21, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674688/d-bmap18-antimicrobial-peptide-is-active-in-vitro-resists-to-pulmonary-proteases-but-loses-its-activity-in-a-murine-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#17
Mario Mardirossian, Arianna Pompilio, Margherita Degasperi, Giulia Runti, Sabrina Pacor, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Marco Scocchi
The spread of antibiotic resistant-pathogens is driving the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Pulmonary infections experienced by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are a dramatic example of this health-care emergency. Antimicrobial peptides could answer the need for new antibiotics but translating them from basic research to the clinic is a challenge. We have previously evaluated the potential of the small membranolytic peptide BMAP-18 to treat CF-related infections, discovering that while this molecule had a good activity in vitro it was not active in vivo because of its rapid degradation by pulmonary proteases...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672877/immune-modulating-topical-s100a8-a9-inhibits-growth-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-mitigates-biofilm-infection-in-chronic-wounds
#18
Hannah Trøstrup, Christian Johann Lerche, Lars Christophersen, Peter Østrup Jensen, Niels Høiby, Claus Moser
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm maintains and perturbs local host defense, hindering timely wound healing. Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa suppressed S100A8/A9 of the murine innate host defense. We assessed the potential antimicrobial effect of S100A8/A9 on biofilm-infected wounds in a murine model and P. aeruginosa growth in vitro. Seventy-six mice, inflicted with a full-thickness burn wound were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) by 10⁶ colony-forming units (CFUs) of P. aeruginosa biofilm. Mice were subsequently randomized into two treatment groups, one group receiving recombinant murine S100A8/A9 and a group of vehicle controls (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) all treated with s...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658594/targeting-protein-localization-for-anti-infective-therapy
#19
J Andrew Alspaugh
Invasive fungal infections are devastating complications of immunocompromised patients. These infections are notoriously difficult to treat given the surprising degree of physiological similarity between fungi and the infected mammalian host. To explore novel targets for antifungal therapy, investigators have studied enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of highly conserved signaling proteins such as the Ras-like GTPases. These modifications are often required for protein localization and function...
June 28, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657934/multitarget-botanical-pharmacotherapy-in-major-depression-a-toxic-brain-hypothesis
#20
Siu W Tang, Wayne H Tang, Brain E Leonard
A significant number of patients with major depression do not respond optimally to current antidepressant drugs. As depression is likely to be a heterogeneous disorder, it is possible that existing neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs do not fully address other pathologies that may exist in certain cases. Biological pathologies related to depression that have been proposed and studied extensively include inflammation and immunology, hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, and impaired angiogenesis. Such pathologies may induce neurodegeneration, which in turn causes cognitive impairment, a symptom increasingly being recognized in depression...
June 27, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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