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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087910/-progress-on-anti-tumor-molecular-mechanisms-of-dihydroartemisinin
#1
Peng Cao, Dongjin Leng, Ying Li, Ziwei Zhang, Lei Liu, Xiaoyan Li
Artemisinin is an anti-malarial drug with poor water solubility and oral absorption; so a variety of derivatives based on the parent nucleus have been developed. Compared with artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has a stronger anti-malaria activity, and has the advantages of high metabolic rate and better water solubility. Recent studies have discovered that DHA has a good inhibitory effect on tumor cells, which is closely related to the peroxide bridge in its molecular structure. Since tumor cells need more Fe(3+) than normal cells, there are a large number of transferrin receptors on the tumor cell membrane...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087607/type-2-diabetes-obesity-and-breast-cancer-risk-the-multiethnic-cohort
#2
Gertraud Maskarinec, Simone Jacobs, Song-Yi Park, Christopher A Haiman, Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been more consistently associated with breast cancer than type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis examined the combination of the two factors in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). METHODS: Women aged 45-75 years entered the MEC in 1993-1996 by completing a questionnaire. T2D status was self-reported at baseline, two follow-up questionnaires, and confirmed by administrative data. Cancers were identified from tumor registries and deaths through vital records until 2010...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087332/exo-mfa-a-13c-metabolic-flux-analysis-to-dissect-tumor-microenvironment-secreted-exosome-contributions-towards-cancer-cell-metabolism
#3
Abhinav Achreja, Hongyun Zhao, Lifeng Yang, Tae Hyun Yun, Juan Marini, Deepak Nagrath
Dissecting the pleiotropic roles of tumor micro-environment (TME) on cancer progression has been brought to the foreground of research on cancer pathology. Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, to mediate intercellular communication between TME components and have emerged as candidates for anti-cancer therapy. We previously reported that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) derived exosomes (CDEs) contain metabolites in their cargo that are utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promote cancer growth...
January 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087256/manganese-superoxide-dismutase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-1-contribute-to-the-rise-and-fall-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-which-drive-oncogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Dede N Ekoue, Chenxia He, Alan M Diamond, Marcelo G Bonini
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) largely originating in the mitochondria play essential roles in the metabolic and (epi)genetic reprogramming of cancer cell evolution towards more aggressive phenotypes. Recent studies have indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) may promote tumor progression by serving as a source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is a form of ROS that is particularly active as a redox agent affecting cell signaling due to its ability to freely diffuse out of the mitochondria and alter redox active amino acid residues on regulatory proteins...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086949/nek2-promotes-aerobic-glycolysis-in-multiple-myeloma-through-regulating-splicing-of-pyruvate-kinase
#5
Zhimin Gu, Jiliang Xia, Hongwei Xu, Ivana Frech, Guido Tricot, Fenghuang Zhan
BACKGROUND: Aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of cancer, is characterized by increased metabolism of glucose and production of lactate in normaxia. Recently, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been identified as a key player for regulating aerobic glycolysis and promoting tumor cell proliferation and survival. METHODS: Tandem affinity purification followed up by mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) were used to study the interaction between NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) A1/2...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081256/inhibition-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-1-acc1-and-2-acc2-reduces-proliferation-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-of-egfrviii-human-glioblastoma-cells
#6
Jessica E C Jones, William P Esler, Rushi Patel, Adhiraj Lanba, Nicholas B Vera, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn, Cecile Vernochet
Tumor cell proliferation and migration processes are regulated by multiple metabolic pathways including glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is at the junction of lipids synthesis and oxidative metabolic pathways, we investigated whether use of a dual ACC inhibitor would provide a potential therapy against certain lipogenic cancers. The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular viability and metabolism of two glioblastoma multiform cancer cell lines, U87 and a more aggressive form, U87 EGFRvIII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079829/breath-hold-and-free-breathing-f-18-fdg-pet-ct-in-malignant-melanoma-detection-of-additional-tumoral-foci-and-effects-on-quantitative-parameters
#7
Robert Bärwolf, Mariana Zirnsak, Martin Freesmeyer
During PET/CT acquisition, respiratory motion generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which may impair lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. This observational study was undertaken to verify whether breath-hold F-18-FDG-PET/CT (bhPET) detects additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET) in cases of malignant melanoma, and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and metabolic isocontoured volume (mVic40).Thirty-four patients with melanoma were examined...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079713/interrogating-idh-mutation-in-brain-tumor-magnetic-resonance-and-hyperpolarization
#8
Jingzhe Hu, Travis C Salzillo, Napapon Sailasuta, Frederick F Lang, Pratip Bhattacharya
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to noninvasively quantify 2HG concentration in the brain in the clinic, thereby serving as a valuable tool for patient-stratification as well as targeted treatment monitoring. Recently, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance techniques have opened up new opportunities for metabolic imaging not possible with conventional MRS in the brain. With over 10,000-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic metabolic processes can be interrogated in vivo with very high specificity by hyperpolarized MRI...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079013/natural-product-inhibitors-of-topoisomerases-review-and-docking-study
#9
L Scotti, F J B Mendonça Júnior, F F Ribeiro, J F Tavares, M S Da Silva, J M Barbosa Filho, M T Scotti
Since ancient times, natural products have been used in treating various diseases effectively and safely. Nowadays, these natural compounds are submitted to sophisticated methodologies from isolation, computing, analytical, and even serving as pharmacophore suggestions for synthesis. The substances extracted from marine species, plants, and microorganisms present activities beneficial to our health, including protection against malignant tumors. The topoisomerase enzymes play an important role in DNA metabolism, and searching for enzyme inhibitors is an important target in the search for new anticancer drugs...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077876/microenvironmental-autophagy-promotes-tumour-growth
#10
Nadja S Katheder, Rojyar Khezri, Fergal O'Farrell, Sebastian W Schultz, Ashish Jain, Mohammed M Rahman, Kay O Schink, Theodossis A Theodossiou, Terje Johansen, Gábor Juhász, David Bilder, Andreas Brech, Harald Stenmark, Tor Erik Rusten
As malignant tumours develop, they interact intimately with their microenvironment and can activate autophagy, a catabolic process which provides nutrients during starvation. How tumours regulate autophagy in vivo and whether autophagy affects tumour growth is controversial. Here we demonstrate, using a well characterized Drosophila melanogaster malignant tumour model, that non-cell-autonomous autophagy is induced both in the tumour microenvironment and systemically in distant tissues. Tumour growth can be pharmacologically restrained using autophagy inhibitors, and early-stage tumour growth and invasion are genetically dependent on autophagy within the local tumour microenvironment...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077838/low-grade-metabolically-induced-inflammation-mediators-interleukin-6-adiponectin-and-tnf-%C3%AE-serum-levels-in-obese-pregnant-patients-in-the-perinatal-period
#11
Malgorzata Zembala-Szczerba, Andrzej Jaworowski, Hubert Huras, Dorota Babczyk, Robert Jach
BACKGROUND Obesity is a major clinical problem. The number of obese pregnant women is rising rapidly. The consequences of obesity are significant and affect every aspect of perinatal care for both the mother and the developing fetus. Adipose tissue may be responsible for chronic subclinical inflammation in obesity, being a source of inflammatory mediators. The study was designed to evaluate the analysis of the serum concentration of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and adiponectin, in obese pregnant women at full-term pregnancies...
January 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077677/pharmacological-rescue-of-diabetic-skeletal-stem-cell-niches
#12
Ruth Tevlin, Eun Young Seo, Owen Marecic, Adrian McArdle, Xinming Tong, Bryan Zimdahl, Andrey Malkovskiy, Rahul Sinha, Gunsagar Gulati, Xiyan Li, Taylor Wearda, Rachel Morganti, Michael Lopez, Ryan C Ransom, Christopher R Duldulao, Melanie Rodrigues, Allison Nguyen, Michael Januszyk, Zeshaan Maan, Kevin Paik, Kshemendra-Senarath Yapa, Jayakumar Rajadas, Derrick C Wan, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael Snyder, Philip A Beachy, Fan Yang, Stuart B Goodman, Irving L Weissman, Charles K F Chan, Michael T Longaker
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease frequently associated with impaired bone healing. Despite its increasing prevalence worldwide, the molecular etiology of DM-linked skeletal complications remains poorly defined. Using advanced stem cell characterization techniques, we analyzed intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of mouse skeletal stem cell (mSSC) function to identify specific mSSC niche-related abnormalities that could impair skeletal repair in diabetic (Db) mice. We discovered that high serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α directly repressed the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mSSCs and in their downstream skeletogenic progenitors in Db mice...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077268/development-of-high-resolution-3d-hyperpolarized-carbon-13-mr-molecular-imaging-techniques
#13
Eugene Milshteyn, Cornelius von Morze, Galen D Reed, Hong Shang, Peter J Shin, Zihan Zhu, Hsin-Yu Chen, Robert Bok, Andrei Goga, John Kurhanewicz, Peder E Z Larson, Daniel B Vigneron
The goal of this project was to develop and apply techniques for T2 mapping and 3D high resolution (1.5 mm isotropic; 0.003 cm(3)) (13)C imaging of hyperpolarized (HP) probes [1-(13)C]lactate, [1-(13)C]pyruvate, [2-(13)C]pyruvate, and [(13)C,(15)N2]urea in vivo. A specialized 2D bSSFP sequence was implemented on a clinical 3T scanner and used to obtain the first high resolution T2 maps of these different hyperpolarized compounds in both rats and tumor-bearing mice. These maps were first used to optimize timings for highest SNR for single time-point 3D bSSFP acquisitions with a 1...
January 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077129/hypoglycemic-and-pancreatic-protective-effects-of-portulaca-oleracea-extract-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Basma K Ramadan, Mona F Schaalan, Amina M Tolba
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major public health concern. In spite of continuous new drug development to treat diabetes, herbal remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Portulaca oleracea has been traditionally used to manage several diseases due to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic effects it imparts. To better understand the mechanisms associated with potential protective effect of P. oleracea extract against diabetes, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used in this study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076790/the-anti-warburg-effect-elicited-by-the-camp-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway-drives-differentiation-of-glioblastoma-cells-into-astrocytes
#15
Fan Xing, Yizhao Luan, Jing Cai, Sihan Wu, Jialuo Mai, Jiayu Gu, Haipeng Zhang, Kai Li, Yuan Lin, Xiao Xiao, Jiankai Liang, Yuan Li, Wenli Chen, Yaqian Tan, Longxiang Sheng, Bingzheng Lu, Wanjun Lu, Mingshi Gao, Pengxin Qiu, Xingwen Su, Wei Yin, Jun Hu, Zhongping Chen, Ke Sai, Jing Wang, Furong Chen, Yinsheng Chen, Shida Zhu, Dongbing Liu, Shiyuan Cheng, Zhi Xie, Wenbo Zhu, Guangmei Yan
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most aggressive of human cancers. Although differentiation therapy has been proposed as a potential approach to treat GBM, the mechanisms of induced differentiation remain poorly defined. Here, we established an induced differentiation model of GBM using cAMP activators that specifically directed GBM differentiation into astroglia. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in induced differentiation of GBM...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076486/serum-leptin-levens-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-review-article
#16
Luiza Vitelo Andrighetto, Aline Kirjner Poziomyck
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objective: To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075057/two-dimensional-nanomaterials-for-cancer-nanotheranostics
#17
Yongjiu Chen, Yakun Wu, Bingbing Sun, Sijin Liu, Huiyu Liu
Emerging nanotechnologies show unprecedented advantages in accelerating cancer theranostics. Among them, two-dimensional nanomaterials (2DNMs) represent a novel type of material with versatile physicochemical properties that have enabled a new horizon for applications in both cancer diagnosis and therapy. Studies have demonstrated that 2DNMs may be used in diverse aspects, including i) cancer detection due to their high propensity towards tumor markers; ii) molecular imaging for guided tumor therapies, and iii) drug and gene loading, photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapies...
January 11, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074537/neuroblastoma-causes-alterations-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-gut-hormones-inflammatory-cytokines-and-bile-acid-composition
#18
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Margarita Kaiser, Thomas Kaiser, Jianfeng Huang, Daniela Sperl, Karl Kashofer, Guenter Fauler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Höfler, Holger Till
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neuroblastoma (NB) on the intestinal microbiome, metabolism, and inflammatory parameters in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic Hsd:Fox1nu mice received subperitoneal implantation of human NB cells (MHH-NB11) (tumor group, TG) or culture medium (sham group). Following 10 weeks of tumor growth, all animals were sacrificed to collect total white adipose tissue (WAT). Luminex assays were performed for gut hormone and inflammation marker analysis...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#19
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074274/glioma-experimental-models-and-reality
#20
REVIEW
Krissie Lenting, Roel Verhaak, Mark Ter Laan, Pieter Wesseling, William Leenders
In theory, in vitro and in vivo models for human gliomas have great potential to not only enhance our understanding of glioma biology, but also to facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies for these tumors. For reliable prediction and validation of the effects of different therapeutic modalities, however, glioma models need to comply with specific and more strict demands than other models of cancer, and these demands are directly related to the combination of genetic aberrations and the specific brain micro-environment gliomas grow in...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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