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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822091/effect-of-ap102-a-subtype-2-and-5-specific-somatostatin-analog-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rats
#1
Erika Tarasco, Petra Seebeck, Svende Pfundstein, Adrian F Daly, Philippe J Eugster, Alan G Harris, Eric Grouzmann, Thomas A Lutz, Christina N Boyle
PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821813/metabolomic-and-lipidomic-profiling-identifies-the-role-of-the-rna-editing-pathway-in-endometrial-carcinogenesis
#2
Tatiana Altadill, Tyrone M Dowdy, Kirandeep Gill, Armando Reques, Smrithi S Menon, Cristian P Moiola, Carlos Lopez-Gil, Eva Coll, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Silvia Cabrera, Angel Garcia, Jaume Reventos, Stephen W Byers, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Amrita K Cheema, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer (EC) remains the most common malignancy of the genital tract among women in developed countries. Although much research has been performed at genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic level, there is still a significant gap in the metabolomic studies of EC. In order to gain insights into altered metabolic pathways in the onset and progression of EC carcinogenesis, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to characterize the metabolomic and lipidomic profile of 39 human EC and 17 healthy endometrial tissue samples...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821788/bioenergetic-adaptations-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#3
Sajad Dar, Jasdeep Chhina, Ismail Mert, Dhananjay Chitale, Thomas Buekers, Hareena Kaur, Shailendra Giri, Adnan Munkarah, Ramandeep Rattan
Earlier investigations have revealed that tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming and mainly derive their cellular energy from aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation even in the presence of oxygen. However, recent studies have shown that certain cancer cells display increased oxidative phosphorylation or high metabolically active phenotype. Cellular bioenergetic profiling of 13 established and 12 patient derived ovarian cancer cell lines revealed significant bioenergetics diversity. The bioenergetics phenotype of ovarian cancer cell lines correlated with functional phenotypes of doubling time and oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820390/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-dna-pk-for-tumor-sensitization-to-anticancer-therapy
#4
M Pospisilova, M Seifrtova, M Rezacova
The most sensitive cell structure - a DNA molecule, is the common target of cancer therapy. DNA damage response (controlled by enzymes from the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases family - PIKK) presents many encouraging targets for improving both conventional cytotoxic anticancer therapy and individualized monotherapy. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a member of the PIKK superfamily and plays an important role in the detection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks via the non-homologous end-joining pathway...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#5
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819926/targeting-metabolic-pathways-for-head-and-neck-cancers-therapeutics
#6
Masashi Yamamoto, Hidenori Inohara, Takashi Nakagawa
Cancer cells have distinctive energy metabolism pathways that support their rapid cell division. The preference for anaerobic glycolysis under the normal oxygen condition is known as the Warburg effect and has been observed in head and neck cancers. These metabolic changes are controlled by cancer-related transcription factors, such as tumor suppressor gene and hypoxia inducible factor 1α. In addition, various metabolic enzymes also actively regulate cancer-specific metabolism including the switch between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819582/relationship-of-metabolic-alterations-and-pd-l1-expression-in-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer
#7
M Wangpaichitr, H Kandemir, Y Y Li, C Wu, Djm Nguyen, L G Feun, M T Kuo, N Savaraj
Despite numerous reports on immune checkpoint inhibitor for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the response rate remains low but durable. Thus cisplatin still plays a major role in the treatment of NSCLC. While there are many mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance, alteration in metabolic phenotypes with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are found in several cisplatin resistant tumors. These resistant cells become more reliant on mitochondria oxidative metabolism instead of glucose...
April 28, 2017: Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819434/identification-of-transcription-factor-yy1-as-a-regulator-of-a-prostate-cancer-specific-pathway-using-proteomic-analysis
#8
Arum Park, Jiyeong Lee, Sora Mun, Doo Jin Kim, Byung Heun Cha, Kyong Tae Moon, Tag Keun Yoo, Hee-Gyoo Kang
Prostate-specific antigen, a biomarker used to diagnose prostate cancer, exhibits poor sensitivity. Although previous studies have focused on identifying a new diagnostic biomarker, the molecules or networks identified in these studies are also present in other cancers, making it difficult to detect prostate cancer specifically. A unique characteristic of the prostate gland is the increased mitochondrial energy metabolism when normal prostate cells progress to cancer cells. Thus, we attempted to find a prostate cancer-specific signature present in this unique environment...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819410/characterization-of-the-role-of-the-malate-dehydrogenases-to-lung-tumor-cell-survival
#9
Boxi Zhang, Johan Tornmalm, Jerker Widengren, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Erik Norberg
Cellular compartmentalization of biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells is critical for many functions including shuttling of reducing equivalents across membranes. Although coordination of metabolic flux between different organelles is vital for cell physiology, its impact on tumor cell survival is not well understood. By using an integrative approach, we have dissected the role of the key metabolic enzymes Malate dehydrogenases (MDH1 and MDH2) to the survival of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinomas. Here, we report that while both the MDH1 (cytosolic) and the MDH2 (mitochondrial) enzymes display elevated levels in patients compared to normal counterparts, only high expression of MDH1 is associated with poor prognosis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819401/identification-and-validation-of-soluble-carrier-family-expression-signature-for-predicting-poor-outcome-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Wan Fangning, Ma Chunguang, Zhang Hailiang, Shi Guohai, Zhu Yao, Dai Bo, Shen Yijun, Zhu Yiping, Ye Dingwei
The soluble carrier (SLC) family plays an important role in cell metabolism. The purpose of the current study was to screen SLCs as potential prognostic factors in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 509 patients with ccRCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were enrolled in this study. The expression profile of SLCs was obtained from the TCGA RNAseq database. Metadata of the TCGA cohort, including age, sex, TNM stage, tumor grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, laterality, and overall survival, were collected...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819393/phosphoglycerate-mutase-1-predicts-the-poor-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-is-associated-with-cell-migration
#11
Dadong Zhang, Heming Wu, Xiaomin Zhang, Xu Ding, Min Huang, Meiyu Geng, Hongwei Li, Zuoquan Xie
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor with high metastatic potential. However, no good biomarker has been identified to refine which subtype is of high metastatic potential to make decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymphatic metastases. In this study, we investigated the role of the metabolic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) in OSCC. PGAM1 expression was examined in tissue samples of 122 OSCC patients using immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between clinicopathological expression and PGAM1 expression was determined...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819251/g9a-regulates-breast-cancer-growth-by-modulating-iron-homeostasis-through-the-repression-of-ferroxidase-hephaestin
#12
Ya-Fang Wang, Jie Zhang, Yi Su, Yan-Yan Shen, Dong-Xian Jiang, Ying-Yong Hou, Mei-Yu Geng, Jian Ding, Yi Chen
G9a, a H3K9 methyltransferase, shows elevated expression in many types of human cancers, particularly breast cancer. However, the tumorigenic mechanism of G9a is still far from clear. Here we report that G9a exerts its oncogenic function in breast cancer by repressing hephaestin and destruction cellular iron homeostasis. In the case of pharmacological inhibition or short hairpin RNA interference-mediated suppression of G9a, the expression and activity of hephaestin increases, leading to the observed decrease of intracellular labile iron content and the disturbance of breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819156/cell-damage-produced-by-magnetic-fluid-hyperthermia-on-microglial-bv2-cells
#13
M Pilar Calatayud, Elisa Soler, Teobaldo E Torres, Enrique Campos-Gonzalez, Concepción Junquera, M Ricardo Ibarra, Gerardo F Goya
We present evidence on the effects of exogenous heating by water bath (WB) and magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) on a glial micro-tumor phantom. To this, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of 30-40 nm were designed to obtain particle sizes for maximum heating efficiency. The specific power absorption (SPA) values (f = 560 kHz, H = 23.9 kA/m) for as prepared colloids (533-605 W/g) dropped to 98-279 W/g in culture medium. The analysis of the intracellular MNPs distribution showed vesicle-trapped MNPs agglomerates spread along the cytoplasm, as well as large (~0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819084/the-significance-of-lactate-and-lipid-peaks-for-predicting-primary-neuroepithelial-tumor-grade-with-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#14
Hisao Nakamura, Masatomo Doi, Takuya Suzuki, Yasuyuki Yoshida, Masahiro Hoshikawa, Masashi Uchida, Yuichiro Tanaka, Masayuki Takagi, Yasuo Nakajima
PURPOSE: (1)H-MRS is a non-invasive technique used to assess the metabolic activity of brain tumors. The technique is useful for the preoperative prediction of tumor grade, which is important for treatment planning and accurate prognosis. We used (1)H-MRS to study the lactate peak, which appears in various conditions, including hyperglycemia, ischemia, and hypoxia and lipid peak, which is associated with necrotic cells. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the frequency and significance of lactate and lipid peaks in relation to brain tumor grade...
August 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818916/a-pathology-atlas-of-the-human-cancer-transcriptome
#15
Mathias Uhlen, Cheng Zhang, Sunjae Lee, Evelina Sjöstedt, Linn Fagerberg, Gholamreza Bidkhori, Rui Benfeitas, Muhammad Arif, Zhengtao Liu, Fredrik Edfors, Kemal Sanli, Kalle von Feilitzen, Per Oksvold, Emma Lundberg, Sophia Hober, Peter Nilsson, Johanna Mattsson, Jochen M Schwenk, Hans Brunnström, Bengt Glimelius, Tobias Sjöblom, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Dijana Djureinovic, Patrick Micke, Cecilia Lindskog, Adil Mardinoglu, Fredrik Ponten
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and there is great interest in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of individual tumors. We used systems-level approaches to analyze the genome-wide transcriptome of the protein-coding genes of 17 major cancer types with respect to clinical outcome. A general pattern emerged: Shorter patient survival was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in cell growth and with down-regulation of genes involved in cellular differentiation...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818685/ethyl-carbamate-induces-cell-death-through-its-effects-on-multiple-metabolic-pathways
#16
Huichang Liu, Bo Cui, Yi Xu, Chaoyang Hu, Ying Liu, Guorun Qu, Dawei Li, Yongning Wu, Dabing Zhang, Sheng Quan, Jianxin Shi
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a multisite carcinogenic chemical causing tumors in various animal species, is probably carcinogenic to humans. However, information about the possible carcinogenic and toxicological effects of EC in humans is quite limited. Because EC is found in many dietary foods (such as fermented foods) and tobacco and its products, and exposure of humans to EC often occurs inevitably, its toxicological effects in humans need to be studied. This study was conducted to understand the metabolomic and transcriptomic changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to 100 mM EC for short term (4 h) and long term (12 h) period, respectively...
August 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817650/snorna-and-pirna-expression-levels-modified-by-tobacco-use-in-women-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#18
Natasha Andressa Nogueira Jorge, Gabriel Wajnberg, Carlos Gil Ferreira, Benilton de Sa Carvalho, Fabio Passetti
Lung cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stage and thus have poor prognosis. Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, however most smokers do not develop lung cancer while 20% of women with lung adenocarcinoma are non-smokers. Therefore, it is possible that these two groups present differences besides the smoking status, including differences in their gene expression signature. The altered expression patterns of non-coding RNAs in complex diseases make them potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817456/role-of-various-semiquantitative-parameters-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-studies-for-interim-treatment-response-evaluation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Akshima Sharma, Anant Mohan, Ashu Seith Bhalla, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Anil Kumar Pandey, Chandra Sekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the role of various semiquantitative parameters obtained from fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in interim treatment response assessment in biopsy-proven non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to find the best parameter, if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 32 patients (male/female: 25/7) with biopsy proven NSCLC and a mean age of 54.71±12.65 years were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent whole-body F-FDG PET/CT scan after injecting 5...
August 16, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817063/changes-in-lipids-and-inflammatory-markers-after-consuming-diets-high-in-red-meat-or-dairy-for-four-weeks
#20
Kirsty M Turner, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter J Meikle, Peter M Clifton
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
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