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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522764/obesity-induced-discrepancy-between-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles-of-female-obese-zucker-rats
#1
Luz M Acevedo, Ana I Raya, Rafael Ríos, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Jose-Luis L Rivero
A clear picture of skeletal muscle adaptations to obesity and related comorbidities remains elusive. This study describes fiber-type characteristics (size, proportions, and oxidative enzyme activity) in two typical hind limb muscles with opposite structure and function in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lesser fiber diameter, fiber type composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of muscle fiber types were assessed in slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (tibialis cranialis) muscles of obese Zucker rats, and compared with age- (16 weeks) and sex-matched (females) lean Zucker rats (N=16/group)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490391/microrna-499-5p-regulates-porcine-myofiber-specification-by-controlling-sox6-expression
#2
X Y Wang, X L Chen, Z Q Huang, D W Chen, B Yu, J He, J Q Luo, Y H Luo, H Chen, P Zheng, J Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and miRNAs have been proven to play vital roles in skeletal muscle development. The miRNA-499-5p has been reported to be negatively related with the expression of Sox6, a critical transcription factor for the maintenance of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. In this study, we amplified a length of 2012-bp mRNA that contains a 1512-bp porcine Sox6 (pSox6) 3'UTR from skeletal muscle of a Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pig...
May 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#3
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells up-regulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early- differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474872/is-the-stiffness-of-human-muscle-and-tendon-structures-related-to-muscle-fiber-composition-in-vivo
#4
Keitaro Kubo, Daisuke Miyazaki, Hideaki Yata, Shozo Shimoju, Masaji Okada, Naoya Tsunoda
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated muscle fiber composition (time-to-peak twitch torque; TPT) and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions as well as stiffness of tendon structures in human plantar flexors. METHODS: TPT was assessed using supramaximal electrical stimulation. Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated based on changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after 50% maximal isometric contractions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459396/-mechanical-ventilation-leads-to-remodeling-of-diaphragma-and-soleus-in-rats
#5
Lei Shao, Zhifang Wang, Feifei Wang, Jiaru Huang, Xiaoping Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the structural response of diaphragm and soleus of the rat after mechanical ventilation (MV), and to explore the specific mechanism of the dysfunction of both muscles. METHODS: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group and MV group, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in MV group were treated with controlled ventilation and maintained anesthesia, and those in control group were only anesthetized without MV and maintained anesthesia...
January 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426081/total-substitution-of-dietary-fish-oil-by-vegetable-oils-stimulates-muscle-hypertrophic-growth-in-senegalese-sole-and-the-upregulation-of-fgf6
#6
Graciliana Lopes, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Luísa Maria Pinheiro Valente
The long term effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by increasing the levels of vegetable oils (VO), 0% (CTR), 50% (VO50) and 100% (VO100), in diets for Senegalese sole were evaluated in terms of skeletal muscle cellularity and expression of related genes. After 140 days of feeding, all fish had similar body weight and length. The inclusion of 50% VO did not result in differences in muscle cellularity, but dorsal muscle cross-sectional area and fast-twitch fibre diameter increased in fish fed total FO substitution, whilst fibre density was reduced (P < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419739/cardiac-troponin-t-and-fast-skeletal-muscle-denervation-in-ageing
#7
Zherong Xu, Xin Feng, Juan Dong, Zhong-Min Wang, Jingyun Lee, Cristina Furdui, Daniel Clark Files, Kristen M Beavers, Stephen Kritchevsky, Carolanne Milligan, Jian-Ping Jin, Osvaldo Delbono, Tan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409282/motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-resistance-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Jik Nijssen, Laura H Comley, Eva Hedlund
In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate. Importantly, certain lower MN subgroups are relatively resistant to degeneration, even though pathogenic proteins are typically ubiquitously expressed. Ocular MNs (OMNs), including the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei (CNIII, IV and VI), which regulate eye movement, persist throughout the disease. Consequently, eye-tracking devices are used to enable paralysed ALS patients (who can no longer speak) to communicate...
June 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408640/long-term-but-not-short-term-high-fat-diet-induces-fiber-composition-changes-and-impaired-contractile-force-in-mouse-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#9
Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshifumi Tamura, Saori Kakehi, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takashi Murayama, Kyoko Nakamura, Ryo Kakigi, Takao Okada, Takashi Sakurai, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
In this study, we investigated the effects of a short-term and long-term high-fat diet (HFD) on morphological and functional features of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) for 4 weeks (4-week HFD) or 12 weeks (12-week HFD). Subsequently, the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle was isolated, and the composition of muscle fiber type, expression levels of proteins involved in muscle contraction, and force production on electrical stimulation were analyzed. The 12-week HFD, but not the 4-week HFD, resulted in a decreased muscle tetanic force on 100 Hz stimulation compared with control (5...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392896/injury-to-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-following-acute-and-sub-acute-pregabalin-exposure
#10
Mohammad Moshiri, Seyed Adel Moallem, Armin Attaranzadeh, Zahra Saberi, Leila Etemad
OBJECTIVES: Pregabalin (PGB) is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP)...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391659/metabolic-control-of-myofibers-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Yehui Duan, Fengna Li, Bie Tan, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of two major fibre types (I and II) that differ in terms of size, metabolism and contractile properties. In general, slow-twitch type I fibres are rich in mitochondria and have a greater insulin sensitivity than fast-twitch type II skeletal muscles. Although not widely appreciated, a forced induction of the slow skeletal muscle phenotype may inhibit the progress of obesity and diabetes. This potentially forms the basis for targeting slow/oxidative myofibers in the treatment of obesity...
June 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356343/targeted-deletion-of-kcne3-impairs-skeletal-muscle-function-in-mice
#12
Elizabeth C King, Vishal Patel, Marie Anand, Xiaoli Zhao, Shawn M Crump, Zhaoyang Hu, Noah Weisleder, Geoffrey W Abbott
KCNE3 (MiRP2) forms heteromeric voltage-gated K(+) channels with the skeletal muscle-expressed KCNC4 (Kv3.4) α subunit. KCNE3 was the first reported skeletal muscle K(+) channel disease gene, but the requirement for KCNE3 in skeletal muscle has been questioned. Here, we confirmed KCNE3 transcript and protein expression in mouse skeletal muscle using Kcne3(-/-) tissue as a negative control. Whole-transcript microarray analysis (770,317 probes, interrogating 28,853 transcripts) findings were consistent with Kcne3 deletion increasing gastrocnemius oxidative metabolic gene expression and the proportion of type IIa fast twitch oxidative muscle fibers, which was verified using immunofluorescence...
March 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355378/systematic-review-of-the-synergist-muscle-ablation-model-for-compensatory-hypertrophy
#13
Stella Maris Lins Terena, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Sandra Kalill Bussadori, Alessandro Melo Deana, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Method: Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review...
February 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335860/-muscling-throughout-life-integrating-studies-of-muscle-development-homeostasis-and-disease-in-zebrafish
#14
REVIEW
Michelle F Goody, Erin V Carter, Elisabeth A Kilroy, Lisa Maves, Clarissa A Henry
The proper development and function of skeletal muscle is vital for health throughout the lifespan. Skeletal muscle function enables posture, breathing, and locomotion; and also impacts systemic processes-such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Diseases of skeletal muscle (myopathies, muscular dystrophies) and even some neurological, age-related, and metabolic diseases compromise muscle function and negatively affect health span and quality of life. There have been numerous, recent examples of studies on skeletal muscle development with exciting, therapeutic implications for muscle diseases...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294567/growth-hormone-secretagogues-prevent-dysregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-calcium-homeostasis-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#15
Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonietta Mele, Michela De Bellis, Sabata Pierno, Francesco Rana, Adriano Fonzino, Roberta Caloiero, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Arcangela Giustino, Maria Addolorata Mariggiò, Mauro Coluccia, Domenico Tricarico, Marcello Diego Lograno, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281032/mouse-soleus-slow-muscle-shows-greater-intramyocellular-lipid-droplet-accumulation-than-edl-fast-muscle-fiber-type-specific-analysis
#16
Yusuke Komiya, Shoko Sawano, Daisuke Mashima, Riho Ichitsubo, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue of lipid metabolism and accordingly is critical for homeostasis and energy production; however, the determinants of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle are unknown. Here, we examined whether the soleus muscle (predominantly slow-twitch fibers) has a higher lipid accumulation capacity than that of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast-twitch fibers) muscle in mice. Soleus and EDL muscles were harvested from male C57BL/6J mice. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid import and triglyceride synthesis and accumulation were examined in soleus and EDL muscles...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268659/comparison-of-mean-frequency-and-median-frequency-in-evaluating-muscle-fiber-type-selection-in-varying-gait-speed-across-healthy-young-adult-individuals
#17
C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow
The preferential slow and fast twitches fiber involvement in varying gait speed has not been thoroughly investigated. Attempt to classify fiber type in changing speed should be closely investigated and scrutinized as the histochemical-related experiments are cumbersome and time consuming. In addressing this issue, electromyography (EMG) is utilized to extract the muscle fiber type features by altering the muscle fatigue indices, namely mean frequency (MNF) and median frequency (MDF). Recently, there are no universal indices to determine the muscle type...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235404/progesterone-signalling-in-broiler-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-divergent-feed-efficiency
#18
Walter Bottje, Byung-Whi Kong, Antonio Reverter, Ashley J Waardenberg, Kentu Lassiter, Nicholas J Hudson
BACKGROUND: We contrast the pectoralis muscle transcriptomes of broilers selected from within a single genetic line expressing divergent feed efficiency (FE) in an effort to improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis of FE. RESULTS: Application of a virtual muscle model to gene expression data pointed to a coordinated reduction in slow twitch muscle isoforms of the contractile apparatus (MYH15, TPM3, MYOZ2, TNNI1, MYL2, MYOM3, CSRP3, TNNT2), consistent with diminishment in associated slow machinery (myoglobin and phospholamban) in the high FE animals...
February 24, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226843/comparison-of-mean-frequency-and-median-frequency-in-evaluating-muscle-fiber-type-selection-in-varying-gait-speed-across-healthy-young-adult-individuals
#19
C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, C H Yeow
The preferential slow and fast twitches fiber involvement in varying gait speed has not been thoroughly investigated. Attempt to classify fiber type in changing speed should be closely investigated and scrutinized as the histochemical-related experiments are cumbersome and time consuming. In addressing this issue, electromyography (EMG) is utilized to extract the muscle fiber type features by altering the muscle fatigue indices, namely mean frequency (MNF) and median frequency (MDF). Recently, there are no universal indices to determine the muscle type...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223172/a-simple-model-of-cardiac-muscle-for-multiscale-simulation-passive-mechanics-crossbridge-kinetics-and-calcium-regulation
#20
Fyodor A Syomin, Andrey K Tsaturyan
A simple model of cardiac muscle was designed for multiscale simulation of heart mechanics. Relaxed cardiac muscle was described as a transversally isotropic hyperelastic material. Active tension caused by actin-myosin crossbridges depends on the ensemble averaged strain of myosin heads bound to actin. Calcium activation was modeled by Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C. To account for the dependence of troponin affinity for Ca(2+) on myosin heads strongly bound to actin, the kinetics of troponin binding to Ca(2+) in the overlap zone of the thin and thick filaments and outside it were separated...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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