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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937247/amino-acid-concentrations-and-protein-metabolism-of-two-types-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-in-postprandial-state-and-after-brief-starvation
#1
M Holeček, S Mičuda
We have investigated amino acid concentrations and protein metabolism in musculus extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch, white muscle) and musculus soleus (SOL, slow-twitch, red muscle) of rats sacrificed in the fed state or after one day of starvation. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FRPS) were measured using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine). Activities of two major proteolytic systems in muscle (the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal) were examined by measurement of chymotrypsin like activity of proteasome (CTLA), expression of ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle-ring-finger-1 (MuRF-1), and cathepsin B and L activities...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927901/age-related-reductions-in-muscle-quality-influence-the-relative-differences-in-strength-and-power
#2
Gena R Gerstner, Hayden K Giuliani, Jacob A Mota, Eric D Ryan
Age-related changes in the relative differences in isokinetic strength and power may reflect fast twitch fiber function. We aimed to examine the influence of muscle quality on the relative differences in strength and power in younger and older men. Twenty younger (20.1±1.5yrs) and 20 older (69.5±3.1yrs) healthy, recreationally active men performed two plantarflexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) and three maximal concentric isokinetic contractions at a slow (0.52rad·s(-1)) and fast (2.09rad·s(-1)) velocity...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886574/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-fast-twitch-muscle-and-slow-twitch-muscle-in-takifugu-rubripes
#3
Kailun Gao, Zhicheng Wang, Xiaoxu Zhou, Haoze Wang, Derong Kong, Chen Jiang, Xiuli Wang, Zhiqiang Jiang, Xuemei Qiu
Fast twitch muscle and slow twitch muscle are two important organs of Takifugu rubripes. Both tissues are of ectodermic origin, and the differences between the two muscle fibers reflect the differences in their myofibril protein composition and molecular structure. In order to identify and characterize the gene expression profile in the two muscle fibers of T. rubripes, we generated 54 million and 44 million clean reads from the fast twitch muscle and slow twitch muscle, respectively, using RNA-Seq and identified a total of 580 fast-muscle-specific genes, 1533 slow-muscle-specific genes and 11,806 genes expressed by both muscles...
August 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860475/long-term-pgc1%C3%AE-overexpression-leads-to-apoptosis-autophagy-and-muscle-wasting
#4
Danesh H Sopariwala, Vikas Yadav, Pierre-Marie Badin, Neah Likhite, Megha Sheth, Sabina Lorca, Isabelle K Vila, Eun Ran Kim, Qingchun Tong, Min Sup Song, George G Rodney, Vihang A Narkar
Skeletal muscle wasting is prevalent in many chronic diseases, necessitating inquiries into molecular regulation of muscle mass. Nuclear receptor co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α) and its splice variant PGC1α4 increase skeletal muscle mass. However, the effect of the other PGC1 sub-type, PGC1β, on muscle size is unclear. In transgenic mice selectively over-expressing PGC1β in the skeletal muscle, we have found that PGC1β progressively decreases skeletal muscle mass predominantly associated with loss of type 2b fast-twitch myofibers...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843993/circuits-in-the-rodent-brainstem-that-control-whisking-in-concert-with-other-orofacial-motor-actions
#5
REVIEW
Lauren E McElvain, Beth Friedman, Harvey J Karten, Karel Svoboda, Fan Wang, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The world view of rodents is largely determined by sensation on two length scales. One is within the animal's peri-personal space. Sensorimotor control on this scale involves active movements of the nose, tongue, head, and vibrissa, along with sniffing to determine olfactory clues. The second scale involves the detection of more distant space through vision and audition; these detection processes also impact repositioning of the head, eyes, and ears. Here we focus on orofacial motor actions, primarily vibrissa-based touch but including nose twitching, head bobbing, and licking, that control sensation at short, peri-personal distances...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838967/molecular-regulation-of-high-muscle-mass-in-developing-blonde-d-aquitaine-cattle-fetuses
#6
Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Céline Boby, Brigitte Picard, Antonio Reverter, Nicholas J Hudson
The Blonde d'Aquitaine (BA) is a French cattle breed with enhanced muscularity, partly attributable to a MSTN mutation. The BA m. Semitendinosus has a faster muscle fibre isoform phenotype comprising a higher proportion of fast type IIX fibres compared to age matched Charolais (CH). To better understand the molecular network of modifications in BA compared to CH muscle, we assayed the transcriptomes of the m. Semitendinosus at 110, 180, 210 and 260 days post conception (dpc). We used a combination of differential expression (DE) and Regulatory Impact Factors (RIF) to compare and contrast muscle gene expression between the breeds...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836761/high-speed-4d-computational-microscopy-of-bacterial-surface-motility
#7
Jaime de Anda, Ernest Y Lee, Calvin K Lee, Rachel R Bennett, Xiang Ji, Soheil Soltani, Mark C Harrison, Amy E Baker, Yun Luo, Tom Chou, George A O'Toole, Andrea M Armani, Ramin Golestanian, Gerard C L Wong
Bacteria exhibit surface motility modes that play pivotal roles in early-stage biofilm community development, such as type IV pili-driven "twitching" motility and flagellum-driven "spinning" and "swarming" motility. Appendage-driven motility is controlled by molecular motors, and analysis of surface motility behavior is complicated by its inherently 3D nature, the speed of which is too fast for confocal microscopy to capture. Here, we combine electromagnetic field computation and statistical image analysis to generate 3D movies close to a surface at 5 ms time resolution using conventional inverted microscopes...
September 1, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806470/efficacy-and-safety-of-sugammadex-versus-neostigmine-in-reversing-neuromuscular-blockade-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Ana-Marija Hristovska, Patricia Duch, Mikkel Allingstrup, Arash Afshari
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, have traditionally been used for reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. However, these drugs have significant limitations, such as indirect mechanisms of reversal, limited and unpredictable efficacy, and undesirable autonomic responses. Sugammadex is a selective relaxant-binding agent specifically developed for rapid reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium. Its potential clinical benefits include fast and predictable reversal of any degree of block, increased patient safety, reduced incidence of residual block on recovery, and more efficient use of healthcare resources...
August 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775067/running-training-experience-attenuates-disuse-atrophy-in-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#9
Keisuke Nakamura, Ikumi Ohsawa, Ryo Masuzawa, Ryotaro Konno, Atsuya Watanabe, Fuminori Kawano
Responsiveness to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and muscular inactivation, differs in individuals. However, the mechanisms responsible for these individual differences remain poorly understood. We tested whether a prior experience of exercise training affects the responses of skeletal muscles to unloading. Young rats were assigned to perform daily running training using a treadmill for 8 weeks. After an additional 8 weeks of normal habitation, the rats were hindlimb unloaded by tail suspension for 1 week...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769032/vestigial-like-2-contributes-to-normal-muscle-fiber-type-distribution-in-mice
#10
Masahiko Honda, Kyoko Hidaka, So-Ichiro Fukada, Ryo Sugawa, Manabu Shirai, Masahito Ikawa, Takayuki Morisaki
Skeletal muscle is composed of heterogeneous populations of myofibers that are classified as slow- and fast-twitch fibers. The muscle fiber-type is regulated in a coordinated fashion by multiple genes, including transcriptional factors and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, players involved in this regulation are not fully elucidated. One of the members of the Vestigial-like factors, Vgll2, is thought to play a pivotal role in TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor-mediated muscle-specific gene expression because of its restricted expression in skeletal muscles of adult mice...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767362/modeling-of-stretch-reflex-activation-considering-muscle-type
#11
Moon J Kang, Choongsoo S Shin, Hong H Yoo
Although the stretch reflex plays an important role in spasticity, so far the stretch reflex has not been sufficiently investigated. Previous stretch reflex activation models have some limitations, whereby they are not able to predict outcomes of some stretch reflex cases and do not consider uneven distribution of muscle length and stretch velocity on reflex activation. The purpose of this study was 1) to develop a modified stretch reflex activation model employing a new muscle length threshold and weighting factors for slow-twitch fiber and fast-twitch fiber, and 2) to validate the model using pendulum experiments of the lower and upper limbs...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743820/the-effects-of-suramin-on-ca-2-activated-force-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-release-in-skinned-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-rat
#12
Dane W Williams, Dimitrie George Stephenson, Giuseppe S Posterino
Suramin has long been used in the treatment of various human diseases. Intravenous infusions of Suramin are commonly administered to patients over extended periods of time but there are a number of significant contraindications with peripheral muscle weakness being one of the most frequently reported. Previous work has shown that even after a single infusion (300 mg kg(-1)) Suramin remains in skeletal muscle in effective concentrations (11.6 μg mL(-1); 84 days) for prolonged periods. These observations provide a strong rationale for investigation of the specific effects of Suramin on skeletal muscle function...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730836/effects-of-rapid-or-slow-body-weight-reduction-on-intramuscular-protein-degradation-pathways-during-equivalent-weight-loss-on-rats
#13
Y Nonaka, S Urashima, M Inai, S Nishimura, K Higashida, S Terada
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715662/preaged-remodeling-of-myofibrillar-cytoarchitecture-in-skeletal-muscle-expressing-r349p-mutant-desmin
#14
Stefanie Diermeier, Andreas Buttgereit, Sebastian Schürmann, Lilli Winter, Hongyang Xu, Robyn M Murphy, Christoph S Clemen, Rolf Schröder, Oliver Friedrich
The majority of hereditary and acquired myopathies are clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness. We hypothesized that ongoing derangement of skeletal muscle cytoarchitecture at the single fiber level may precede and be responsible for the progressive muscle weakness. Here, we analyzed the effects of aging in wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (het) and homozygous (hom) R349P desmin knock-in mice. The latter harbor the ortholog of the most frequently encountered human R350P desmin missense mutation...
June 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695966/dyrk2-displays-muscle-fiber-type-specific-function-during-zebrafish-early-somitogenesis
#15
Wei Sun, Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase. In zebrafish, DYRK2 is expressed in the lateral somites and adaxial cells at the early stage of embryo development. However, its role in early myogenesis had not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that DYRK2 mRNA and MyoD mRNA were colocalized in the muscle progenitor cells in somites, including both the posterior compartment of the lateral somites and adaxial cells. Knockdown of DYRK2 reduced the levels of MyoD transcripts in the muscle progenitor cells in somites...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675601/proteasomal-activity-based-probes-mark-protein-homeostasis-in-muscles
#16
Vered Raz, Yotam Raz, Guillem Paniagua-Soriano, Jacomina Cornelia Roorda, Cyriel Olie, Muhammad Riaz, Bogdan I Florea
BACKGROUND: Protein homeostasis, primarily regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is crucial for proper function of cells. In tissues of post-mitotic cells, the impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system is found in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders. Activity-based probes (ABPs) measure proteasomal proteolytic subunits and can be used to report protein homeostasis. Despite the crucial role of the proteasome in neuromuscular pathologies, ABPs were not employed in muscle cells and tissues, and measurement of proteasomal activity was carried out in vitro using low-throughput procedures...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673735/properties-of-paraspinal-muscles-in-japanese-high-school-baseball-players-with-terminal-stage-lumbar-spondylolysis
#17
Hiroyuki Tsuboi, Yukihide Nishimura, Takeshi Sakata, Hideaki Tanina, Hideki Arakawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Yuichi Umezu, Fumihiro Tajima
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spondylolysis is a defect in the pars interarticularis that is common in young athletes; the stress distribution at the pars interarticularis is the highest in extension and rotation movements. The paraspinal muscles play an important role in stabilization of the lumbar spine; however, no study has assessed the properties of paraspinal muscles in athletes with lumbar spondylolysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of paraspinal muscles in athletes with lumbar spondylolysis...
June 30, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663372/muscle-hypertrophy-in-pre-diabetic-men-after-sixteen-weeks-of-resistance-training
#18
Charles A Stuart, Michelle L Lee, Mark A South, Mary E A Howell, Michael H Stone
Resistance training of healthy young men typically results in muscle hypertrophy and a shift in vastus lateralis composition away from type IIx fibers to an increase in IIa fiber content. Our previous studies of eight weeks of resistance training found many metabolic syndrome men and women paradoxically increased IIx fibers with a decrease in IIa fibers. To confirm the hypothesis that obese subjects might have muscle remodeling after resistance training very different from healthy lean subjects, we subjected a group of nine obese men volunteers to progressive resistance training for a total of sixteen weeks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652350/chimpanzee-super-strength-and-human-skeletal-muscle-evolution
#19
Matthew C O'Neill, Brian R Umberger, Nicholas B Holowka, Susan G Larson, Peter J Reiser
Since at least the 1920s, it has been reported that common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ from humans in being capable of exceptional feats of "super strength," both in the wild and in captive environments. A mix of anecdotal and more controlled studies provides some support for this view; however, a critical review of available data suggests that chimpanzee mass-specific muscular performance is a more modest 1.5 times greater than humans on average. Hypotheses for the muscular basis of this performance differential have included greater isometric force-generating capabilities, faster maximum shortening velocities, and/or a difference in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content in chimpanzee relative to human skeletal muscle...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648117/alteration-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-atpase-expression-in-lower-limb-ischemia-caused-by-atherosclerosis-obliterans
#20
J Fodor, A Gomba-Tóth, T Oláh, E Zádor, Zs Cs Tóth, I Ioannis, B Molnár, I Kovács, L Csernoch
Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca(2+) level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca(2+) removal mechanisms. Ca(2+) is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle...
June 1, 2017: Physiology International
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