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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730836/effects-of-rapid-or-slow-body-weight-reduction-on-intramuscular-protein-degradation-pathways-during-equivalent-weight-loss-on-rats
#1
Y Nonaka, S Urashima, M Inai, S Nishimura, K Higashida, S Terada
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715662/preaged-remodeling-of-myofibrillar-cytoarchitecture-in-skeletal-muscle-expressing-r349p-mutant-desmin
#2
Stefanie Diermeier, Andreas Buttgereit, Sebastian Schürmann, Lilli Winter, Hongyang Xu, Robyn M Murphy, Christoph S Clemen, Rolf Schröder, Oliver Friedrich
The majority of hereditary and acquired myopathies are clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness. We hypothesized that ongoing derangement of skeletal muscle cytoarchitecture at the single fiber level may precede and be responsible for the progressive muscle weakness. Here, we analyzed the effects of aging in wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (het) and homozygous (hom) R349P desmin knock-in mice. The latter harbor the ortholog of the most frequently encountered human R350P desmin missense mutation...
June 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695966/dyrk2-displays-muscle-fiber-type-specific-function-during-zebrafish-early-somitogenesis
#3
Wei Sun, Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase. In zebrafish, DYRK2 is expressed in the lateral somites and adaxial cells at the early stage of embryo development. However, its role in early myogenesis had not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that DYRK2 mRNA and MyoD mRNA were colocalized in the muscle progenitor cells in somites, including both the posterior compartment of the lateral somites and adaxial cells. Knockdown of DYRK2 reduced the levels of MyoD transcripts in the muscle progenitor cells in somites...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675601/proteasomal-activity-based-probes-mark-protein-homeostasis-in-muscles
#4
Vered Raz, Yotam Raz, Guillem Paniagua-Soriano, Jacomina Cornelia Roorda, Cyriel Olie, Muhammad Riaz, Bogdan I Florea
BACKGROUND: Protein homeostasis, primarily regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is crucial for proper function of cells. In tissues of post-mitotic cells, the impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system is found in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders. Activity-based probes (ABPs) measure proteasomal proteolytic subunits and can be used to report protein homeostasis. Despite the crucial role of the proteasome in neuromuscular pathologies, ABPs were not employed in muscle cells and tissues, and measurement of proteasomal activity was carried out in vitro using low-throughput procedures...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673735/properties-of-paraspinal-muscles-in-japanese-high-school-baseball-players-with-terminal-stage-lumbar-spondylolysis
#5
Hiroyuki Tsuboi, Yukihide Nishimura, Takeshi Sakata, Hideaki Tanina, Hideki Arakawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Yuichi Umezu, Fumihiro Tajima
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spondylolysis is a defect in the pars interarticularis that is common in young athletes; the stress distribution at the pars interarticularis is the highest in extension and rotation movements. The paraspinal muscles play an important role in stabilization of the lumbar spine; however, no study has assessed the properties of paraspinal muscles in athletes with lumbar spondylolysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of paraspinal muscles in athletes with lumbar spondylolysis...
June 30, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663372/muscle-hypertrophy-in-pre-diabetic-men-after-sixteen-weeks-of-resistance-training
#6
Charles A Stuart, Michelle L Lee, Mark A South, Mary E A Howell, Michael H Stone
Resistance training of healthy young men typically results in muscle hypertrophy and a shift in vastus lateralis composition away from type IIx fibers to an increase in IIa fiber content. Our previous studies of eight weeks of resistance training found many metabolic syndrome men and women paradoxically increased IIx fibers with a decrease in IIa fibers. To confirm the hypothesis that obese subjects might have muscle remodeling after resistance training very different from healthy lean subjects, we subjected a group of nine obese men volunteers to progressive resistance training for a total of sixteen weeks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652350/chimpanzee-super-strength-and-human-skeletal-muscle-evolution
#7
Matthew C O'Neill, Brian R Umberger, Nicholas B Holowka, Susan G Larson, Peter J Reiser
Since at least the 1920s, it has been reported that common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ from humans in being capable of exceptional feats of "super strength," both in the wild and in captive environments. A mix of anecdotal and more controlled studies provides some support for this view; however, a critical review of available data suggests that chimpanzee mass-specific muscular performance is a more modest 1.5 times greater than humans on average. Hypotheses for the muscular basis of this performance differential have included greater isometric force-generating capabilities, faster maximum shortening velocities, and/or a difference in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content in chimpanzee relative to human skeletal muscle...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648117/alteration-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-atpase-expression-in-lower-limb-ischemia-caused-by-atherosclerosis-obliterans
#8
J Fodor, A Gomba-Tóth, T Oláh, E Zádor, Zs Cs Tóth, I Ioannis, B Molnár, I Kovács, L Csernoch
Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca(2+) level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca(2+) removal mechanisms. Ca(2+) is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle...
June 26, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#9
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596299/postexercise-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-amplifies-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-proliferation-in-older-men-24%C3%A2-hours-postexercise
#10
Paul T Reidy, Christopher S Fry, Jared M Dickinson, Micah J Drummond, Blake B Rasmussen
Aged skeletal muscle has an attenuated and delayed ability to proliferate satellite cells in response to resistance exercise. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is a focal point for cell growth, however, the effect of postexercise mTORC1 activation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) proliferation is unknown. To test the proliferative capacity of skeletal muscle SC in aging muscle to a potent mTORC1 activator (i.e., EAA; essential amino acids) we recruited older (~72y) men to conduct leg resistance exercise (8setsx10reps) without (-EAA; n = 8) and with (+EAA: n = 11) ingestion of 10 g of EAA 1 h postexercise...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594686/genetics-and-classifications
#11
Judith G Hall, Eva Kimber, Harold J P van Bosse
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital (AMC) is a descriptive term for a group of conditions that all share the characteristic of congenital contractures. There are an estimated 400 discrete diagnoses that can lead to a child being born with arthrogryposis. The 2 biggest categories of conditions are amyoplasia and distal arthrogryposis, which combined make up ∼50% to 65% of all diagnoses within the AMC subset. Amyoplasia, the most common AMC condition, seems to be a nongenetic syndrome, leading to very characteristic upper and lower limb contractures...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594135/the-igf-1-akt-s6-pathway-and-expressions-of-glycolytic-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-are-upregulated-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-the-first-week-after-hatching
#12
Takaoki Saneyasu, Tatsuya Tsuchihashi, Ayana Kitashiro, Nami Tsuchii, Sayaka Kimura, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592916/a-reduction-in-selenoprotein-s-amplifies-the-inflammatory-profile-of-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-in-the-mdx-dystrophic-mouse
#13
Craig Robert Wright, Giselle Larissa Allsopp, Alex Bernard Addinsall, Natasha Lee McRae, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Nicole Stupka
Excessive inflammation is a hallmark of muscle myopathies, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). There is interest in characterising novel genes that regulate inflammation due to their potential to modify disease progression. Gene polymorphisms in Selenoprotein S (Seps1) are associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines, and in vitro SEPS1 is protective against inflammatory stress. Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579089/muscle-strength-and-force-development-in-high-and-low-functioning-elderly-men-influence-of-muscular-and-neural-factors
#14
Charlotte H Pion, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Félix St-Jean-Pelletier, Stéphanie Chevalier, Pierrette Gaudreau, Gilles Gouspillou, José A Morais, Marc Bélanger, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
BACKGROUND: Aging leads to a loss of muscle strength and functional capacity likely resulting from a combination of neural and muscle alterations. The aim of this study was to identify possible disparities in muscle strength and force development profiles in high- and low-functioning elderly men and to investigate muscular and neurophysiological factors that could explain the differences. METHODS: Sixty community-dwelling men in good general health were divided in two groups based on a functional capacity (FC) z-score derived from 6 tests of the Short Physical Performance Battery and Senior Fitness Test (Normal and fast 4m-walk tests, normal and fast Timed-up and go, chair and stair tests)...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576821/contraction-induced-enhancement-of-relaxation-during-high-force-contractions-of-mouse-lumbrical-muscle-at-37%C3%A2-c
#15
Ian C Smith, Rene Vandenboom, A Russell Tupling
Repeated stimulation of unfatigued rodent fast twitch skeletal muscle accelerates the kinetics of tension relaxation through an unknown mechanism. This effect varies with muscle type and stimulation parameters, and has been observed at physiological temperatures for submaximal but not maximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare relaxation kinetics of C57BL/6 mouse lumbrical muscles ex vivo from maximal isometric force (500 Hz for 20 ms) when evoked before (Pre) and after (Post) an intervening tetanic contraction at 37°C...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573481/copper-pyrithione-a-booster-biocide-induces-abnormal-muscle-and-notochord-architecture-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#16
Kelly M Almond, Louis D Trombetta
The metal pyrithiones, principally zinc (ZnPT) and copper (CuPT), are replacing tributyltin (TBT) as antifouling agents. Zebrafish embryos were exposed within the first hour after fertilization to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT for 24 h. Morphological abnormalities in notochord and muscle architecture were observed at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). TEM revealed abnormal electron dense deposits in the notochord sheath and muscle fiber degeneration in animals treated with 12 µg/L of CuPT. Embryos that were exposed to 64 µg/L of CuPT displayed severe muscle fiber degeneration including abnormal A and I band patterning and altered z disk arrangement...
June 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569355/comparative-physiology-of-vocal-musculature-in-two-odontocetes-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-and-the-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena
#17
Nicole M Thometz, Jennifer L Dearolf, Robin C Dunkin, Dawn P Noren, Marla M Holt, Olivia C Sims, Brandon C Cathey, Terrie M Williams
The mechanism by which odontocetes produce sound is unique among mammals. To gain insight into the physiological properties that support sound production in toothed whales, we examined myoglobin content ([Mb]), non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (β), fiber-type profiles, and myosin heavy chain expression of vocal musculature in two odontocetes: the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 4) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena; n = 5). Both species use the same anatomical structures to produce sound, but differ markedly in their vocal repertoires...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522764/obesity-induced-discrepancy-between-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles-of-female-obese-zucker-rats
#18
Luz M Acevedo, Ana I Raya, Rafael Ríos, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Jose-Luis L Rivero
A clear picture of skeletal muscle adaptations to obesity and related comorbidities remains elusive. This study describes fiber-type characteristics (size, proportions, and oxidative enzyme activity) in two typical hind limb muscles with opposite structure and function in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lesser fiber diameter, fiber type composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of muscle fiber types were assessed in slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (tibialis cranialis) muscles of obese Zucker rats, and compared with age- (16 weeks) and sex-matched (females) lean Zucker rats (N=16/group)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490391/microrna-499-5p-regulates-porcine-myofiber-specification-by-controlling-sox6-expression
#19
X Y Wang, X L Chen, Z Q Huang, D W Chen, B Yu, J He, J Q Luo, Y H Luo, H Chen, P Zheng, J Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and miRNAs have been proven to play vital roles in skeletal muscle development. The miRNA-499-5p has been reported to be negatively related with the expression of Sox6, a critical transcription factor for the maintenance of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. In this study, we amplified a length of 2012-bp mRNA that contains a 1512-bp porcine Sox6 (pSox6) 3'UTR from skeletal muscle of a Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pig...
May 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#20
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
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