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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772187/platelet-rich-plasma-releasate-promotes-regeneration-and-decreases-inflammation-and-apoptosis-of-injured-skeletal-muscle
#1
Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Li-Ping Lin, Miao-Sui Lin, Jong-Hwei S Pang
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors that may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. Based on the authors' previous study, PRP releasate can promote proliferation and migration of skeletal muscle cells in vitro, so animal studies are performed to support the use of PRP to treat muscle injury in vivo. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of PRP releasate on regeneration of injured muscle, as well as its effect on inflammatory reaction and cell apoptosis, in the early stages of the muscle-healing process...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768191/loss-of-a-negative-regulator-of-mtorc1-induces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-altered-fiber-composition-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
Paul A Dutchak, Sandi J Estill-Terpack, Abigail A Plec, Xiaozheng Zhao, Chendong Yang, Jun Chen, Bookyung Ko, Ralph J Deberardinis, Yonghao Yu, Benjamin P Tu
The conserved GATOR1 complex consisting of NPRL2-NPRL3-DEPDC5 inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. Here, we show that loss of NPRL2 and GATOR1 function in skeletal muscle causes constitutive activation of mTORC1 signaling in the fed and fasted states. Muscle fibers of NPRL2 knockout animals are significantly larger and show altered fiber-type composition, with more fast-twitch glycolytic and fewer slow-twitch oxidative fibers. NPRL2 muscle knockout mice also have altered running behavior and enhanced glucose tolerance...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761850/unexpected-regulation-pattern-of-the-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-murf1-pathway-with-remarkable-muscle-plasticity-in-the-daurian-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#3
Yanhong Wei, Lingchen Gong, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Zhe Wang, Jie Zhang, Er Ning, Hui Chang, Huiping Wang, Yunfang Gao
As a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) spends considerable time in a state of reduced activity with prolonged fasting. Despite this, they experience little muscle atrophy and have thus become an interesting anti-disuse muscle atrophy model. The IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway is significant to muscle atrophy due to the protein degradation resulting from the upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. The current study showed that the IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway and MuRF1 maintained relatively steady mRNA and protein expression levels, with little muscle atrophy observed in the soleus (slow-twitch, SOL) or extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch, EDL) during hibernation (HIB); however, mRNA expression significantly increased in the SOL and EDL muscle during interbout arousal (IBA), as did the MuRF1 mRNA level in the SOL and MuRF1 protein level in the EDL...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758057/ankk1-is-found-in-myogenic-precursors-and-muscle-fibers-subtypes-with-glycolytic-metabolism
#4
Estrella Rubio-Solsona, Salvador Martí, Juan J Vílchez, Francesc Palau, Janet Hoenicka
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene has been widely related to neuropsychiatry disorders. The localization of ANKK1 in neural progenitors and its correlation with the cell cycle has suggested its participation in development. However, ANKK1 functions still need to be identified. Here, we have further characterized the ANKK1 localization in vivo and in vitro, by using immunolabeling, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in the myogenic lineage. Histologic investigations in mice and humans revealed that ANKK1 is expressed in precursors of embryonic and adult muscles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744875/expression-of-pannexin-1-and-pannexin-3-during-skeletal-muscle-development-regeneration-and-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#5
Tammy L Pham, Marie-Eve St-Pierre, Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis, Tara E C Parks, Stéphanie Langlois, Silvia Penuela, Bernard J Jasmin, Kyle N Cowan
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722626/abundance-of-clc-1-chloride-channel-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibre-type-specific-differences-and-effect-of-training
#6
Martin Thomassen, Morten Hostrup, Robyn M Murphy, Brett A Cromer, Casper Skovgaard, Thomas Petursson Gunnarsson, Peter Møller Christensen, Jens Bangsbo
Cl- channel protein 1 (ClC-1) may be important for excitability and contractility in skeletal muscle, but ClC-1 abundance has not been examined in human muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine ClC-1 abundance in human skeletal muscle, including fibre type specific differences and the effect of exercise training. A commercially available antibody was tested with positive and negative control tissue, and it recognised specifically ClC-1 in the range from 100-150 kDa. Abundance of ClC-1 was 38% higher (P < 0...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714038/the-force-and-stiffness-of-myosin-motors-in-the-isometric-twitch-of-a-cardiac-trabecula-and-the-effect-of-the-extracellular-calcium-concentration
#7
Francesca Pinzauti, Irene Pertici, Massimo Reconditi, Theyencheri Narayanan, Ger J M Stienen, Gabriella Piazzesi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Marco Linari, Marco Caremani
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: -Fast sarcomere-level mechanics in intact trabeculae, which allows the definition of the mechano-kinetic properties of cardiac myosin in situ, is a fundamental tool to understand the molecular mechanisms of heart performance and regulation, but also to investigate the mechanisms of the cardiomyopathy-causing mutations in the myosin and test small molecules for therapeutic interventions. -The approach has been applied to measure the stiffness and the force of the myosin motor and the fraction of motors attached during isometric twitches of electrically paced trabeculae under different extracellular Ca2+ concentrations...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705696/microrna-139-5p-suppresses-myosin-heavy-chain-i-and-iia-expression-via-inhibition-of-the-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-pathway
#8
Meng Xu, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Hong Chen, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are widely involved in a variety of biological processes. Different skeletal muscle fiber type composition exhibits characteristic differences in functional properties and energy metabolism of skeletal muscle. However, the molecular mechanism by which miRNAs control the different type of muscle fiber formation is still not fully understood. In the present study, we characterized the role of microRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) in the regulation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression and its underlying mechanisms...
April 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691309/locomotor-muscle-fiber-heterogeneity-and-metabolism-in-the-fastest-large-bodied-rorqual-the-fin-whale-balaenoptera-physalus
#9
José-Luis L Rivero
From a terrestrial ancestry, fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) is one of the largest animal on Earth with a sprinter antipredator strategy, and a characteristic feeding mode, lunge feeding, which involve bouts of high-intensity muscle activity demanding high metabolic output. We investigated the locomotor muscle morphology and metabolism of this cetacean to determine whether its muscle profile (1) explains this unique swimming performance and feeding behaviour, (2) is or is not homogeneous within the muscle, and (3) predicts allometric variations inherent to an extreme body size...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684379/effect-of-a-long-term-treatment-with-metformin-in-dystrophic-mdx-mice-a-reconsideration-of-its-potential-clinical-interest-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Paola Mantuano, Francesca Sanarica, Elena Conte, Maria Grazia Morgese, Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Anna Cozzoli, Adriano Fonzino, Angelo Quaranta, Jean-Francois Rolland, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Luigia Trabace, Annamaria De Luca
The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677652/cardiomyocytes-have-mosaic-patterns-of-protein-expression
#11
Tony Y Wang, Dongwong Lee, Karen Fox-Talbot, Dan E Arking, Aravinda Chakravarti, Marc K Halushka
Skeletal myocytes have well-established fast and slow twitch fibers with unique gene and protein specific expression patterns. By immunohistochemical staining, these show a mosaic pattern across myocytes. We hypothesized cardiac myocytes may behave similarly where some proteins are differentially expressed between mature cardiomyocytes. We utilized the tool HPASubC on over 52,000 cardiac images of the Human Protein Atlas to identify differential protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry across the cardiomyocytes...
March 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672614/adaptation-of-motor-unit-contractile-properties-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius-to-treadmill-endurance-training-relationship-to-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#12
Katarzyna Kryściak, Joanna Majerczak, Jakub Kryściak, Dawid Łochyński, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Piotr Krutki, Anna Gawedzka, Magdalena Guzik, Michał Korostynski, Zbigniew Szkutnik, Elżbieta Pyza, Wiesława Jarmuszkiewicz, Jerzy A Zoladz, Jan Celichowski
This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668323/deficiency-of-selenoprotein-s-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-oxidoreductase-impairs-the-contractile-function-of-fast-twitch-hindlimb-muscles
#13
Alex Bernard Addinsall, Craig Robert Wright, Christopher S Shaw, Natasha L McRae, Leonard George Forgan, Chia-Heng Weng, Xavier A Conlan, Paul S Francis, Zoe M Smith, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Nicole Stupka
Selenoprotein S (Seps1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident antioxidant implicated in ER stress and inflammation. In human vastus lateralis and mouse hindlimb muscles, Seps1 localization and expression was fiber type specific. In male Seps1+/- heterozygous mice, spontaneous physical activity was reduced compared to wild type littermates ( d=1.10, P=0.029). A similar trend also observed in Seps1-/- knockout mice ( d=1.12, P=0.051). Whole body metabolism, body composition, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus mass, and myofibre diameter were unaffected by genotype...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648516/the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-reverts-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-of-patients-with-copd-cachexia
#14
Esther Barreiro, Ester Puig-Vilanova, Anna Salazar-Degracia, Sergi Pascual-Guardia, Carme Casadevall, Joaquim Gea
Peripheral muscle weakness and mass loss are characteristic features in severe COPD. We hypothesized that the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast-induced cAMP may ameliorate proteolysis and metabolism in skeletal muscles of COPD patients with severe muscle wasting. In myogenic precursor cells (isolated from muscle biopsies and cultured up to obtain differentiated myotubes) from 10 severe COPD patients and 10 healthy controls, which were treated with 1 microM roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) for three time-cohorts (1h, 6h, and 24h), genes of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress marker, myogenesis and muscle metabolism, proteolysis (tyrosine release assay) and ubiquitin-proteasome system markers, autophagy, and myosin isoforms were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunoblotting...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606582/kir4-1-dependent-astrocyte-fast-motor-neuron-interactions-are-required-for-peak-strength
#15
Kevin W Kelley, Lucile Ben Haim, Lucas Schirmer, Giulia E Tyzack, Michaela Tolman, John G Miller, Hui-Hsin Tsai, Sandra M Chang, Anna V Molofsky, Yongjie Yang, Rickie Patani, Andras Lakatos, Erik M Ullian, David H Rowitch
Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576313/training-induced-changes-in-quadriceps-activation-during-maximal-eccentric-contractions
#16
Dimitrios Voukelatos, Mathew Kirkland, Matthew T G Pain
Despite full voluntary effort, neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps group of muscles appears inhibited during eccentric contractions. A nerve stimulation protocol during dynamic contractions of the quadriceps was developed that employed triplets of supramaximal pulses to assess suppressed eccentric activation. Subsequently the effects of a short training intervention, performed on a dynamometer, on eccentric strength output and neural inhibition were examined. Torque-angular velocity (T-ω) and experimental voluntary neural drive-angular velocity (%VA-ω; %VA, obtained via the interpolated twitch technique) datasets, were obtained from pre- and post-training testing sessions...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558694/identification-of-ccl5-rantes-as-a-novel-contraction-reducible-myokine-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#17
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555850/electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-development-of-a-self-sustained-large-scale-epileptic-network-in-the-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit. We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538357/pulmonary-and-diaphragmatic-pathology-in-collagen-alpha1-type-i-col1a1-mutant-mice-with-osteogenesis-imperfect
#19
Carolyn J Baglole, Feng Liang, Hussein Traboulsi, Angela Rico de Souza, Christian Giordano, Josephine T Tauer, Frank Rauch, Basil J Petrof
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in type I collagen genes. Respiratory complications have been largely attributed to spine and ribcage deformities. We hypothesized that direct involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma and/or diaphragm by the disease may occur. METHODS: In Col1a1Jrt/+ mice, a model of severe dominant OI, mean linear intercept length (Lm) was used to assess distal airspace size. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) phenotype of diaphragm muscle fibers, as well as contractile properties, were determined...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523879/aav1-nt-3-gene-therapy-increases-muscle-fiber-diameter-through-activation-of-mtor-pathway-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-a-cmt-mouse-model
#20
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Lei Chen, Kimberly M Shontz, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) has well-recognized effects on peripheral nerve and Schwann cells, promoting axonal regeneration and associated myelination. In this study, we assessed the effects of AAV.NT-3 gene therapy on the oxidative state of the neurogenic muscle from the TremblerJ (Tr J ) mice at 16 weeks post-gene injection and found that the muscle fiber size increase was associated with a change in the oxidative state of muscle fibers towards normalization of the fiber type ratio seen in the wild type. NT-3-induced fiber size increase was most prominent for the fast twitch glycolytic fiber population...
April 2018: Gene Therapy
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