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Water fat imaging

Hadi Fayad, Holger Schmidt, Thomas Kuestner, Dimitris Visvikis
: Respiratory motion may reduce accuracy in fusion of functional and anatomical images using combined Positron emission tomography / Magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems. Methodologies for the correction of respiratory motion in PET acquisitions using such systems are mostly based on the use of respiratory synchronized MR acquisitions to derive motion fields. Existing approaches based on tagging acquisitions may introduce artifacts in the MR images, while motion model approaches require the acquisition of training datasets...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yuki Shinohara, Ayumi Kato, Eijiro Yamashita, Toshihide Ogawa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the detectability of arterial acute thrombus on R2* map by iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) IQ compared with T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction who underwent R2* map and T2*WI were reviewed. We performed visual assessment of each sequence regarding the visibility of susceptibility effect reflecting acute thrombus and quantitative evaluation of the thrombus on R2* map...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Hyungseok Jang, Alan B McMillan
PURPOSE: We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. METHODS: To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found...
October 3, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Valeria Ricotti, Matthew R B Evans, Christopher D J Sinclair, Jordan W Butler, Deborah A Ridout, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Ahmed Emira, Jasper M Morrow, Mary M Reilly, Michael G Hanna, Robert L Janiczek, Paul M Matthews, Tarek A Yousry, Francesco Muntoni, John S Thornton
OBJECTIVE: A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function...
2016: PloS One
Martina Goffredo, Kendra Mass, Elizabeth J Parks, David A Wagner, Emily Ann McClure, Joerg Graf, Mary Savoye, Bridget Pierpont, Gary Cline, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining the relationship of the gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids with obesity and fat partitioning and at testing potential differences in the ability of gut microbiota to ferment equal amounts of carbohydrates (CHO) between lean and obese youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the gut microbiota of 84 youth in whom body fat distribution was measured by fast-magnetic resonance imaging, de novo lipogenesis (DNL) quantitated using deuterated water, and the capability of gut flora to ferment CHO was assessed by (13)C-fructose treatment in vitro...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lena K L Oestreich, Ofer Pasternak, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Xue Gong, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Thomas J Whitford
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that delusions associated with schizophrenia arise from altered structural brain connectivity. The present study investigated whether structural changes in three major fasciculi that interconnect the limbic system - the cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus and fornix - are associated with delusions in chronic schizophrenia patients. METHODS: Free-water corrected Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate the association between delusions and both microstructural changes within these three fasciculi and extracellular changes in the surrounding free-water...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thomas Benkert, Li Feng, Daniel K Sodickson, Hersh Chandarana, Kai Tobias Block
PURPOSE: Conventional fat/water separation techniques require that patients hold breath during abdominal acquisitions, which often fails and limits the achievable spatial resolution and anatomic coverage. This work presents a novel approach for free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation. METHODS: Multiecho data are acquired using a motion-robust radial stack-of-stars three-dimensional GRE sequence with bipolar readout. To obtain fat/water maps, a model-based reconstruction is used that accounts for the off-resonant blurring of fat and integrates both compressed sensing and parallel imaging...
September 9, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Dian Liu, Helen L Parker, Jelena Curcic, Sebastian Kozerke, Andreas Steingoetter
BACKGROUND: Oil-in-water emulsions have recently become of interest to nutritional sciences because of their ability to influence gastrointestinal digestive processes and ultimately benefit human health. MRI offers the potential to noninvasively characterize the interaction between emulsified lipids and gastric secretion within the stomach. OBJECTIVES: We determined noninvasively how emulsion stability modulates volumes of fat and secretion, layering of fat, and the mixing of emulsified fat with secretion within the stomach...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Anette Karlsson, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Ulrika Åslund, Janne West, Thobias Romu, Örjan Smedby, Peter Zsigmond, Anneli Peolsson
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Findings of fat infiltration in cervical spine multifidus, as a sign of degenerative morphometric changes due to whiplash injury, need to be verified. Objectives To develop a method using water/fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate fat infiltration and cross-sectional area of multifidus muscle in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) compared to healthy controls. Methods Fat infiltration and cross-sectional area in the multifidus muscles spanning the C4 to C7 segmental levels were investigated by manual segmentation using water/fat-separated MRI in 31 participants with WAD and 31 controls, matched for age and sex...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Weiguo Li, Xifu Wang, Frank H Miller, Andrew C Larson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop a chemical shift magnetization transfer (CSMT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to provide accurate magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements in the presence of fat. METHODS: Numerical simulations were performed to compare MTR measurements at different echo times (TEs) for voxels with varying fat/water content. The CSMT approach was developed using water fraction estimates to correct for the impact of fat signal upon observed MTR measurements...
August 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Giulio Siracusano, Aurelio La Corte, Carmelo Milazzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Giovanni Finocchio, Michele Gaeta
PURPOSE: Investigation of the feasibility of the R2(⁎) mapping techniques by using latest theoretical models corrected for confounding factors and optimized for signal to noise ratio. THEORY AND METHODS: The improvement of the performance of state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry algorithms is challenging because of a non-negligible bias and still unresolved numerical instabilities. Here, R2(⁎) mapping reconstructions, including complex fitting with multi-spectral fat-correction by using single-decay and double-decay formulation, are deeply studied in order to investigate and identify optimal configuration parameters and minimize the occurrence of numerical artifacts...
August 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato
The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions...
August 27, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
H Morikawa, K Mano, H Horinaka, T Matsunaka, Y Matsumoto, T Ida, Y Kawaguchi, K Wada, N Kawada
Steatosis is a critical feature of liver disease and is considered to play a pivotal role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as being a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic method for assessment of liver steatosis. It is well known that ultrasonic velocity depends on materials and temperature. For example, the ultrasonic velocity in water is 1530m/s at 37°C and 1534m/s at 39°C, while that in fat is 1412m/s at 37°C and 1402m/s at 39°C...
December 2016: Ultrasonics
Utku Dolen, Justin B Cohen, Bo Overschmidt, Marissa M Tenenbaum, Terence M Myckatyn
BACKGROUND: Tissue liquefaction technology (TLT) delivers warmed saline from the liposuction cannula tip at low pressure pulses to disaggregate adipocytes. This technology differs significantly from that used in other liposuction devices including water jet-assisted liposuction. Here we introduce our early experience with this technology in the setting of fat transfer for revision breast reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 136 consecutive patients who underwent fat harvest with TLT and subsequent transfer into 237 breast reconstructions was conducted at a single institution...
August 11, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Fabian Gilbert, Dirk Böhm, Lars Eden, Jonas Schmalzl, Rainer H Meffert, Herbert Köstler, Andreas M Weng, Dirk Ziegler
BACKGROUND: The Goutallier Classification is a semi quantitative classification system to determine the amount of fatty degeneration in rotator cuff muscles. Although initially proposed for axial computer tomography scans it is currently applied to magnet-resonance-imaging-scans. The role for its clinical use is controversial, as the reliability of the classification has been shown to be inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the semi quantitative MRI-based Goutallier Classification applied by 5 different raters to experimental MR spectroscopic quantitative fat measurement in order to determine the correlation between this classification system and the true extent of fatty degeneration shown by spectroscopy...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
A V Kalinovich, C L Mattsson, M R Youssef, N Petrovic, M Ost, V P Skulachev, I G Shabalina
BACKGROUND: A membrane-penetrating cation, dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP), facilitates the recycling of fatty acids in the artificial lipid membrane and mitochondria. C12TPP can dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential and may affect total energy expenditure and body weight in animals and humans. METHODS: We investigated the metabolic effects of C12TPP in isolated brown-fat mitochondria, brown adipocyte cultures and mice in vivo. Experimental approaches included the measurement of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, Western blotting, magnetic resonance imaging and bomb calorimetry...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
D Lambert, P-Y Marie, P Lacolley, A Benetos, L Joly
OBJECTIVE: Aging led to the development of a proinflammatory phenotype and organ dysfunction. In situations of metabolic syndrome, it is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness and blood pressure.The main objective of this project is to establish a link between inflammation and arterial aging in a situation of metabolic syndrome in arterial and heart levels. DESIGN AND METHOD: The animal model chosen was a murine model developing metabolic syndrome. Mice received during a year, a high fat diet or a control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sergios Gatidis, Hansjörg Graf, Jakob Weiß, Alto Stemmer, Berthold Kiefer, Konstantin Nikolaou, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Petros Martirosian
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare available techniques reducing artifacts in echo planar imaging (EPI)-based diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DWI) of the neck at 3 Tesla caused by B0-field inhomogeneities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cylindrical fat-water phantom was equipped with a Maxwell coil allowing for additional linear B0-field variations in z-direction. The effect of increasing strength of this superimposed gradient on image quality was observed using a standard single-shot EPI-based DWI sequence (sEPI), a zoomed single-shot EPI sequence (zEPI), a readout-segmented EPI sequence (rsEPI), and an sEPI sequence with integrated dynamic shimming (intEPI) on a 3-Tesla system...
August 8, 2016: Magma
Jun Shen, Thomas Baum, Christian Cordes, Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Hendrik Kooijman, Ernst J Rummeny, Hans Hauner, Bjoern H Menze, Dimitrios C Karampinos
PURPOSE: To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method...
September 2016: European Journal of Radiology
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