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Tristan Barrett, Mary McLean, Andrew N Priest, Edward M Lawrence, Andrew J Patterson, Brendan C Koo, Ilse Patterson, Anne Y Warren, Andrew Doble, Vincent J Gnanapragasam, Christof Kastner, Ferdia A Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) compared to standard MRI for prostate cancer assessment in a re-biopsy population. METHODS: Thirty-patients were imaged at 3 T including DKI (Kapp and Dapp) with b-values 150/450/800/1150/1500 s/mm2 and MTI performed with and without MT saturation. Patients underwent transperineal biopsy based on prospectively defined MRI targets. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses assessed the parameters and Wilcoxon-signed ranked test assessed relationships between metrics...
December 8, 2017: European Radiology
Jing Zhong, Peng Shi, Yunbin Chen, Rongfang Huang, Youping Xiao, Xiang Zheng, Dechun Zheng, Li Peng
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-related parameters and pathological measures using human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenografts in a nude mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six BALB/c-nu nude mice were divided into two groups that were injected with two different nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (CNE1 and CNE2). DK magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on a 3...
December 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ryusuke Irie, Koji Kamagata, Aurelien Kerever, Ryo Ueda, Suguru Yokosawa, Yosuke Otake, Hisaaki Ochi, Hidekazu Yoshizawa, Ayato Hayashi, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Hitoshi Okazawa, Kohske Takahashi, Kanako Sato, Masaaki Hori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) enables sensitive measurement of tissue microstructure by quantifying the non-Gaussian diffusion of water. Although DKI is widely applied in many situations, histological correlation with DKI analysis is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between DKI metrics and neurite density measured using confocal microscopy of a cleared mouse brain. METHODS: One thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein 16 mouse was deeply anesthetized and perfusion fixation was performed...
December 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Anna Falk Delgado, Markus Nilsson, Danielle van Westen, Alberto Falk Delgado
Purpose To assess the diagnostic test accuracy and sources of heterogeneity for the discriminative potential of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to differentiate low-grade glioma (LGG) (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II) from high-grade glioma (HGG) (WHO grade III or IV). Materials and Methods The Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, and the Web of Science Core Collection were systematically searched by two librarians. Retrieved hits were screened for inclusion and were evaluated with the revised tool for quality assessment for diagnostic accuracy studies (commonly known as QUADAS-2) by two researchers...
December 4, 2017: Radiology
Aliou Amadou Dia, Masatoshi Hori, Hiromitsu Onishi, Makoto Sakane, Takashi Ota, Takahiro Tsuboyama, Mitsuaki Tatsumi, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Noriyuki Tomiyama
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver reliability and value of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the assessment of uterine tumors compared with those of conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent. Fifty-eight women (mean age: 55.0 ± 13.6 years; range: 30-89 years) with suspected malignant uterine tumors underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging using DKI and DWI...
2017: PloS One
Daisuke Yoshimaru, Toshiaki Miyati, Yuichi Suzuki, Yuhki Hamada, Nozomi Mogi, Ayumu Funaki, Ayumi Tabata, Atsuko Masunaga, Masahiko Shimada, Maki Tobari, Takayoshi Nishino
PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) analysis with the breath-hold technique to assess the stage or classify hepatic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n=67) suspected of having a disease of the hepatobiliary system examined by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging unit were enrolled in this study. To evaluate hepatic fibrosis, mean kurtosis, Mean apparent diffusion (MD) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between groups with varying fibrosis; F0-F1, F2-F3, and F4...
November 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Xi-Xun Qi, Da-Fa Shi, Si-Xie Ren, Su-Ya Zhang, Long Li, Qing-Chang Li, Li-Ming Guan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) maps in the evaluation of glioma grading. METHODS: A total of 39 glioma patients who underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were classified into low-grade (13 cases) and high-grade (26 cases) glioma groups. Parametric DKI maps were derived, and histogram metrics between low- and high-grade gliomas were analysed. The optimum diagnostic thresholds of the parameters, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were achieved using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
November 16, 2017: European Radiology
Chi Xu, Haiwen Peng, Rui Li, Wei Chai, Xiang Li, Jun Fu, Kan Liu, Baozhan Yu, Chengqi Jia, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND: Deep knee infection (DKI), consisting of sepsis arthritis (SA) and chronic low-grade infection (CLGI), is a rare but catastrophic adverse event that can result from intra-articular (IA) injections. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for DKI and describe the clinical characteristics of DKI in patients who received IA injections. METHODS: Fifty patients with IA injection-induced DKI who underwent surgical treatment between January 2010 and May 2016 served as cases and were matched with non-infected controls who received IA injections in a proportion of 1:5 based on age, gender, and date of admission...
October 20, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Stefanie J Hectors, Sahar Semaan, Christopher Song, Sara Lewis, George K Haines, Ashutosh Tewari, Ardeshir R Rastinehad, Bachir Taouli
Purpose To correlate quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters derived from conventional monoexponential DWI, stretched exponential DWI, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with quantitative histopathologic tumor tissue composition in prostate cancer in a preliminary hypothesis-generating study. Materials and Methods This retrospective institutional review board-approved study included 24 patients with prostate cancer (mean age, 63 years) who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including high-b-value DWI and DTI at 3...
November 8, 2017: Radiology
Jian-Xin Lin, Ning Du, Peng Li, Majid Kazemian, Tesfay Gebregiorgis, Rosanne Spolski, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is essential for the development and maintenance of natural killer (NK) cells. IL-15 activates STAT5 proteins, which can form dimers or tetramers. We previously found that NK cell numbers are decreased in Stat5a-Stat5b tetramer-deficient double knockin (DKI) mice, but the mechanism was not investigated. Here we show that STAT5 dimers are sufficient for NK cell development, whereas STAT5 tetramers mediate NK cell maturation and the expression of maturation-associated genes. Unlike the defective proliferation of Stat5 DKI CD8(+) T cells, Stat5 DKI NK cells have normal proliferation to IL-15 but are susceptible to death upon cytokine withdrawal, with lower Bcl2 and increased active caspases...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Panying Wang, Deepa Thapa, Guangyao Wu, Qunqi Sun, Hongbing Cai, Fei Tuo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the diffusion and kurtosis features of cervical cancer (CC) and study the feasibility of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) based on the non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted model to differentiate the stage and grade of CC. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with pathologically confirmed CC were enrolled. MRI examinations including DKI (with 5b values 200, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000smm(-2) were performed before any treatment. The apparent coefficient (Dapp) and the apparent kurtosis value (Kapp) were derived from the non-gaussian diffusion model, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from the Gaussian model...
November 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
John Del Gaizo, Neda Mofrad, Jens H Jensen, David Clark, Russell Glenn, Joseph Helpern, Leonardo Bonilha
BACKGROUND: It is common for patients diagnosed with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to have extrahippocampal damage. However, it is unclear whether microstructural extrahippocampal abnormalities are consistent enough to enable classification using diffusion MRI imaging. Therefore, we implemented a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to predict TLE from three different imaging modalities: mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). While MD and FA can be calculated from traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MK requires diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
Yanfen Cui, Xiaotang Yang, Xiaosong Du, Zhizheng Zhuo, Lei Xin, Xintao Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential relationships between diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-derived parameters using whole-tumour volume histogram analysis and clinicopathological prognostic factors in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 79 consecutive patients who underwent MRI examination with rectal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. Parameters D, K and conventional ADC were measured using whole-tumour volume histogram analysis...
October 23, 2017: European Radiology
Ruo-Fan Sheng, Li Yang, Kai-Pu Jin, He-Qing Wang, Hao Liu, Yuan Ji, Cai-Xia Fu, Meng-Su Zeng
BACKGROUND: To investigate the diagnostic value of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing liver regeneration after associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) compared with portal vein ligation (PVL). METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into the ALPPS, PVL, and control groups. DKI and DWI were performed before and 7 days after surgery. Corrected apparent diffusion (D), kurtosis (K) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and compared, radiologic-pathologic correlations were evaluated...
October 15, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Gang Wu, Meng-Meng Li, Feng Chen, Shao-Ming Lin, Kai Yang, Ying-Man Zhao, Xiao-Lei Zhu, Wei-Yuan Huang, Jian-Jun Li
In this prospective study, we analyzed diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters to predict the early response to radiotherapy in 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. All patients underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DKI before and after radiotherapy. The patients were divided into response (RG; no residual tumors; 16/23 patients) and no-response (NRG; residual tumors; 7/23 patients) groups, based on MRI and biopsy results 3 months after radiotherapy. The maximum diameter of tumors in RG and NRG patients were similar prior to radiotherapy (p=0...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Fen Xing, Ning Tu, Tong San Koh, Guangyao Wu
PURPOSE: To explore the value of Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the differential diagnosis of meningioma. METHODS: For this study, we retrospectively enrolled 35 patients of cerebral meningioma with DKI which included axial diffusion coefficient (AD), radial diffusion coefficient (RD), mean diffusion coefficient (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK) and mean kurtosis (MK). All of these metrics were normalized according to contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWMc)...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Johann-Martin Hempel, Jens Schittenhelm, Cornelia Brendle, Benjamin Bender, Georg Bier, Marco Skardelly, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Salvador Castaneda Vega, Ulrike Ernemann, Uwe Klose
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) maps for in vivo assessment of the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO) integrated glioma grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with histopathologically-confirmed glioma who provided written informed consent were retrospectively assessed between 01/2014 and 03/2017 from a prospective trial approved by the local institutional review board...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Tina L Amyes, John P Richard
A simple and convenient method is described to determine primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects (1°DKIEs) on reactions where the hydron incorporated into the reaction product is derived from solvent water. The 1°DKIE may be obtained by (1)H NMR analyses as the ratio of the yields of H- and D-labeled products from a reaction in 50:50 (v/v) HOH/DOD. The procedures for these (1)H NMR analyses are reviewed. This product deuterium isotope effect (PDIE) is defined as 1/ϕEL for fractionation of hydrons between solvent and the transition state for the reaction examined...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
Huanhuan Liu, Wenbin Shen, Caiyuan Zhang, Yanfen Cui, Jinning Li, Tingting Zhang, Weibo Chen, Dengbin Wang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in aggravating invasiveness and metastatic behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identification of EMT is important for structuring treatment strategy, but has not yet been studied by using noninvasive imaging modality. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced diffusion weighted model that could reflect tissue microstructural changes in vivo. In this study, EMT was induced in CRC cells (HCT116) by overexpressing Snail1 gene. We aimed to investigate the value of DKI in identifying EMT in CRC and decipher the correlations between DKI-derived parameters and EMT biomarker E-cadherin and cell proliferative index Ki-67 expression...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pashtun Shahim, Laurena Holleran, Joong H Kim, David L Brody
We assessed the test-retest reliability of high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Diffusion MRI was acquired using a Siemens 3 Tesla Prisma scanner with 80 mT/m gradients and a 32-channel head coil from each of 3 concussive traumatic brain injury (cTBI) patients and 4 controls twice 0 to 24 days apart. Coefficients of variation (CoV) for DTI parameters were calculated in each DTI Studio parcellated white matter tract at 1.25 mm and 1.75 mm isotropic voxel resolution, as well as DKI parameters at 1...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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