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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822237/beyond-genomics-targeting-the-epigenome-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Kühnl, David Cunningham, Ian Chau
After decades of intense research on genetic alterations in cancer and successful implementation of genetically-based targeted therapies, the field of cancer epigenetics is only beginning to be fully recognized. The discovery of frequent mutations in genes modifying the epigenome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has highlighted the outstanding role of epigenetic deregulation in this disease. Identification of epigenetically-driven DLBCL subgroups and development of novel epigenetic drugs have rapidly advanced...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821978/assessment-of-paraspinal-neurogenic-tumors-with-diffusion-weighted-mr-imaging
#2
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Germeen Albair Ashmalla
PURPOSE: To assess paraspinal neurogenic tumors with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was done upon 34 patients with paraspinal neurogenic tumors that underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The ADC values of the mediastinal neurogenic tumors were calculated and correlated with biopsy results. RESULTS: The ADC of benign paraspinal neurogenic tumors (1.5 ± 0.28 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly higher (P = 0...
August 18, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821748/anxiety-related-experience-dependent-white-matter-structural-differences-in-adolescence-a-monozygotic-twin-difference-approach
#3
Nagesh Adluru, Zhan Luo, Carol A Van Hulle, Andrew J Schoen, Richard J Davidson, Andrew L Alexander, H Hill Goldsmith
Anxiety is linked to deficits in structural and functional connectivity between limbic structures and pre-frontal cortices. We employed a monozygotic (MZ) twin difference design to examine the relationship between structural characteristics of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and anxiety symptoms in a sample of N = 100 monozygotic (genetically identical), adolescent twins. The MZ difference design allowed us focus on environmental factors that vary within twin pairs while controlling for genetic and environmental factors shared by twin pairs...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821687/mri-substrates-of-sustained-attention-system-and-cognitive-impairment-in-pediatric-ms-patients
#4
Ermelinda De Meo, Lucia Moiola, Angelo Ghezzi, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Ruggero Capra, Maria Pia Amato, Elisabetta Pagani, Agnese Fiorino, Lorena Pippolo, Maria C Pera, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To explore the structural and functional integrity of the sustained attention system in patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients with pediatric MS and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Patients with >3 abnormal tests at neuropsychological evaluation were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Sustained attention system activity was studied with fMRI during the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821670/rodent-medial-frontal-control-of-temporal-processing-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#5
Eric B Emmons, Benjamin J De Corte, Youngcho Kim, Krystal L Parker, Matthew S Matell, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Although frontostriatal circuits are critical for the temporal control of action, how time is encoded in frontostriatal circuits is unknown. We recorded from frontal and striatal neurons while rats engaged in interval timing, an elementary cognitive function that engages both areas. We report four main results. First, 'ramping' activity-a monotonic change in neuronal firing rate across time-is observed throughout frontostriatal ensembles. Second, frontostriatal activity scales across multiple intervals. Third, striatal ramping neurons are correlated with activity of the medial frontal cortex...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821657/fronto-parietal-structural-connectivity-in-childhood-predicts-development-of-functional-connectivity-and-reasoning-ability-a-large-scale-longitudinal-investigation
#6
Carter Wendelken, Emilio Ferrer, Simona Ghetti, Stephen Bailey, Laurie Cutting, Silvia A Bunge
Prior research points to a positive concurrent relationship between reasoning ability and both fronto-parietal structural connectivity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (e.g. Tamnes et al., 2010), and fronto-parietal functional connectivity, as measured by fMRI (e.g. Cocchi et al., 2014). Further, recent research demonstrates a link between reasoning ability and functional connectivity of two brain regions in particular: rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (Wendelken et al...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#7
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821587/drift-induced-selection-between-male-and-female-heterogamety
#8
Carl Veller, Pavitra Muralidhar, George W A Constable, Martin A Nowak
Evolutionary transitions between male and female heterogamety are common in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Theoretical studies of these transitions have found that, when all genotypes are equally fit, continuous paths of intermediate equilibria link the two sex chromosome systems. This observation has led to a belief that neutral evolution along these paths can drive transitions, and that arbitrarily small fitness differences among sex chromosome genotypes can determine the system to which evolution leads...
August 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821206/contemporary-survival-endpoints-an-international-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-registry-study
#9
Tabitha Cooney, Adam Lane, Ute Bartels, Eric Bouffet, Stewart Goldman, Sarah E S Leary, Nicholas K Foreman, Roger J Packer, Alberto Broniscer, Jane E Minturn, Chie-Schin Shih, Murali Chintagumpala, Tim Hassall, Nicholas G Gottardo, Hetal Dholaria, Lindsey Hoffman, Brooklyn Chaney, Joshua Baugh, Renee Doughman, James L Leach, Blaise V Jones, Maryam Fouladi, Katherine E Warren, Michelle Monje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821154/design-and-characterization-of-a-biocompatible-physical-hydrogel-based-on-scleroglucan-for-topical-drug-delivery
#10
Patrizia Paolicelli, Gabriele Varani, Settimio Pacelli, Elisa Ogliani, Martina Nardoni, Stefania Petralito, Alessandra Adrover, Maria Antonietta Casadei
Physical hydrogels of a high-carboxymethylated derivative of scleroglucan (Scl-CM300) were investigated as potential systems for topical drug delivery using three different therapeutic molecules (fluconazole, diclofenac and betamethasone). Rheological tests were carried out on drug-loaded hydrogels along with in-vitro release studies in a vertical Franz cell, in order to investigate if and how different drugs may influence the rheological and release properties of Scl-CM300 hydrogels. Experimental results and theoretical modeling highlighted that, in the absence of drug/polymer interactions (as for fluconazole and betamethasone) Scl-CM300 matrices offer negligible resistance to drug diffusion and a Fickian transport model can be adopted to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient in the swollen hydrogel...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821125/a-chitin-film-containing-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-with-a-chitin-binding-domain-as-wound-dressings
#11
Yu Wang, Chuan Fu, Zhenxu Wu, Li Chen, Xuesi Chen, Yen Wei, Peibiao Zhang
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can stimulate wound healing. However, consistent delivery of bFGF has many disadvantages. To decrease their instability and diffusible, we introduced chitin-binding domain (ChtBD) into bFGF. Two expression plasimids were constructed. The first one (named bFGF) contained bFGF (154 amino acids), the second (named ChtBD-bFGF) contained bFGF and the ChtBD (54 amino acids). ChtBD was derived from chitinase A1 (ChiA1) of Bacillus circulans WL-12. The recombinant protein ChtBD-bFGF had the same biological activity as bFGF in promoting fibroblast proliferation...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821115/rheology-and-bioactivity-of-high-molecular-weight-dextrans-synthesised-by-lactic-acid-bacteria
#12
Kenza Zarour, Mª Goretti Llamas, Alicia Prieto, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, María Teresa Dueñas, Pilar Fernández de Palencia, Rosa Aznar, Mebrouk Kihal, Paloma López
Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering detection analysis demonstrated that the dextrans have molecular masses between 1.74×10(8)Da and 4.41×10(8)Da. Rheological analysis of aqueous solutions of the polymer revealed that all had a pseudoplastic behaviour under shear conditions and a random, and flexible, coil structure...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821108/modified-bacterial-cellulose-based-self-healable-polyeloctrolyte-film-for-wound-dressing-application
#13
Moumita Khamrai, Sovan Lal Banerjee, Patit P Kundu
In this investigation, we prepare a self-healable polyelectrolyte film via crosslinking the cationically charged chitosan (Cts) with anionically modified bacterial cellulose (BC), which is a green source of nano-filler. This polyelectrolyte film is able to show dynamic self-healing activity at physiological pH condition via adapting ionic interaction, a state of non-covalent bond. BC was prepared using Glucanoacetobacter xylinus (MTCC7795) bacteria and after that its surface was modified with anionic poly(acrylic acid) using "grafting from" technique...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821083/vapor-sensing-with-color-tunable-multilayered-coatings-of-cellulose-nanocrystals
#14
Yu Zhao, Guizhi Gao, Dagang Liu, Donglin Tian, Yinyan Zhu, Yu Chang
Colloidal cellulose nanocrystals were LBL deposited to form firmly-stacked optical coatings in which the nanorods regulated their head-to-tail association and aligned in the axial-centrifuged direction. The periodically transition from blue to orange of reflected colors was tunable via deposition layer adjustment. While the sensing coating was exposed to vapors of NH3(.)H2O, H2O, HCl and HAc, respectively, the color variation in the response process was irreversible at room temperature and highly dependent on vapor diffusion and chemical interface interaction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821072/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-oxygen-diffusion-through-surface-functionalized-nanocellulose-films
#15
Maria Soledad Peresin, Kari Kammiovirta, Harri Heikkinen, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Jari Vartiainen, Harri Setälä, Monika Österberg, Tekla Tammelin
A concept for direct surface modification on self-standing films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is demonstrated using an aminosilane group in cellulose compatible solvent (dimethyl acetamide, DMA). The chemically modified structure efficiently prevents the oxygen molecules from interacting with the nanocellulose film in the presence of water molecules. Oxygen permeability values lower than 1mLmmm(-2)day(-1)atm(-1) were achieved at extremely high levels of relative humidity (RH95%). The aminosilane reaction is compared to conventional hydrophobization reaction using hexamethyldisilazane...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821065/physicochemical-and-powder-characteristics-of-various-citrus-pectins-and-their-application-for-oral-pharmaceutical-tablets
#16
Parichat Chomto, Jurairat Nunthanid
The physicochemical and powder properties of citrus pectins varying in molecular weight and degree of esterification (DE) were characterized. All the pectins were flake particles with average sizes of around 84-107μm in diameter. They were amorphous solids and classified as being from slightly to moderately hygroscopic. Pomelo pectin possessed passable to poor flowability while the others were classified as having fair flowability. Heckel's analysis indicated that all pectins underwent plastic deformation under compression...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821046/water-sorption-in-microfibrillated-cellulose-mfc-the-effect-of-temperature-and-pretreatment
#17
Çağlar Meriçer, Matteo Minelli, Marco Giacinti Baschetti, Tom Lindström
Water sorption behavior of two different microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films, produced by delamination of cellulose pulp after different pretreatment methods, is examined at various temperatures (16-65°C) and up to 70% RH. The effect of drying temperature of MFC films on the water uptake is also investigated. The obtained solubility isotherms showed the typical downward curvature at moderate RH, while no upturn is observed at higher RH; the uptakes are in line with characteristic values for cellulose fibers...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821029/effect-of-gum-arabic-modified-alginate-on-physicochemical-properties-release-kinetics-and-storage-stability-of-liquid-core-hydrogel-beads
#18
Fu-Hsuan Tsai, Yutaka Kitamura, Mito Kokawa
Different weight ratios of alginate/gum arabic (GA) solutions were prepared to serve as the wall material of liquid-core hydrogel beads (LHB) that were formulated to protect the total phenolic compounds (TP) of radish by-product juice from degradation during storage and release in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The diameter of LHB ranged from 4.63 to 5.66mm with a sphericity lower than 0.05. LHB formulated with 25% GA (AGB0.25) exhibited the highest hardness (26.63N), and those formulated with 50% GA (AGB0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820980/isotope-fractionation-in-phase-transfer-processes-under-thermodynamic-and-kinetic-control-implications-for-diffusive-fractionation-in-aqueous-solution
#19
Frank-Dieter Kopinke, Anett Georgi, Ulf Roland
Diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution was investigated by means of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas partitioning experiments under kinetic control. The two-film model was used to describe phase-transfer kinetics. It assumes the diffusion of solutes across a stagnant water boundary layer as the rate-controlling step. For all investigated solutes (benzene-D0 and -D6, toluene-D0, -D5, and -D8, cyclohexane-D0 and -D12), there was no significant observable fractionation effect between nondeuterated and perdeuterated isotopologues, resulting in a ratio of diffusion coefficients Dlight: Dheavy=1...
August 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820941/a-photoactivatable-probe-for-super-resolution-imaging-of-enzymatic-activity-in-live-cells
#20
Elias A Halabi, Zacharias Thiel, Nils Trapp, Dorothea Pinotsi, Pablo Rivera-Fuentes
A dual-activatable, fluorogenic probe was developed to sense esterase activity with single-molecule resolution. Without enzymatic pre-activation, the diazoindanone-based probe has an electron poor core and, upon irradiation, undergoes Wolff rearrangement to give a ring-expanded xanthene core that is non-emissive. If the probe is pre-activated by carboxylesterases, the tricyclic core becomes electron-rich and the photoinduced Wolff rearrangement produces a highly emissive rhodol dye. Live-cell and solution studies confirmed the selectivity of the probe and revealed that the photoactivated dye does not diffuse away from the original location of activation because the intermediate ketene forms a covalent bond with surrounding macromolecules...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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