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Maja Bech Juul, Pernille Hammershoej Jensen, Henriette Engberg, Sonja Wehberg, Andriette Dessau-Arp, Donika Haziri, Helene Bjoerg Kristensen, Joachim Baech, Lene Schurmann, Michael Roost Clausen, Rebecca Valentin, Lene Meldgaard Knudsen, Lars Munksgaard, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Henrik Frederiksen, Thomas Stauffer Larsen
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment strategy for the oldest patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial, as this group often is precluded from clinical trials, and population-based studies are limited. METHODS: All Danish DLBCL-patients ≥75 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were identified, using the Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO). Information regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, comorbidities and outcomes was retrieved from LYFO, the Danish National health registries and medical records...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jie Chen, Ling Kong, Xiaokai Sun, Jinhui Feng, Zhiwei Chen, Dawei Fan, Qin Wei
Rapidity and high sensitivity are the critical factors for the diagnoses of heart attacks and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is used as a gold standard marker for its diagnosis. To realize the accurate detection of cTnI, a novel ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor for cTnI determination was developed upon dual inhibition effect of Ag@Cu2 O core-shell submicron-particles(SPs) toward CdS sensitized the (001) facets of anatase titanium dioxide nanosheets (TiO2 /CdS). In this study, the TiO2 /CdS composite not only indicated stable and excellent photoelectric signal but also provided abundant functional group to immobilized cTnI antibodies (Ab1 )...
May 24, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Elvio D Amato, Adrian Covaci, Raewyn M Town, Jonas Hereijgers, Ben Bellekens, Valentina Giacometti, Tom Breugelmans, Maarten Weyn, Freddy Dardenne, Lieven Bervoets, Ronny Blust
Passive sampling with in situ devices offers several advantages over traditional sampling methods (i.e., discrete spot sampling), however, data interpretation from conventional passive samplers is hampered by difficulties in estimating the thickness of the diffusion layer at the sampler/medium interface (δ), often leading to inaccurate determinations of target analyte concentrations. In this study, the performance of a novel device combining active and passive sampling was investigated in the laboratory. The active-passive sampling (APS) device is comprised of a diffusion cell fitted with a pump and a flowmeter...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Randy J Kulesza, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Topi Rönkkö, Richard L Doty
There is growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). It is generally assumed that the pathology of these diseases arises only later in life and commonly begins within olfactory eloquent pathways prior to the onset of the classical clinical symptoms. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to high levels of air pollution results in AD- and PD-related pathology within the olfactory bulbs of children and relatively young adults ages 11 months to 40 years...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Yi Deng, Karen S Y Hung, Simon S Y Lui, William W H Chui, Joe C W Lee, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Henry K F Mak, Pak C Sham, Raymond C K Chan, Eric F C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain disconnectivity. However, whether disrupted integrity of white matter tracts in schizophrenia can potentially serve as individual discriminative biomarkers remains unclear. METHODS: A random forest algorithm was applied to tractography-based diffusion properties obtained from a cohort of 65 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 60 healthy individuals to investigate the machine-learning discriminative power of white matter disconnectivity...
June 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Unal Mutlu, Mohammad K Ikram, Gennady V Roshchupkin, Pieter W M Bonnemaijer, Johanna M Colijn, Johannes R Vingerling, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram, Caroline C W Klaver, Meike W Vernooij
Increasing evidence shows that thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), assessed on optical coherence tomography (OCT), are reflecting global brain atrophy. Yet, little is known on the relation of these layers with specific brain regions. Using voxel-based analysis, we aimed to unravel specific brain regions associated with these retinal layers. We included 2,235 persons (mean age: 67.3 years, 55% women) from the Rotterdam Study (2007-2012) who had gradable retinal OCT images and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including diffusion tensor (DT) imaging...
June 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Young Ki Lee, Kyeong Hye Park, Se Hee Park, Kwang Joon Kim, Dong Yeob Shin, Kee Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Eun Jig Lee
BACKGROUND: Diffuse lymphocytic infiltration (DLI) is frequently found with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), so there has been long interest in how it affects the characteristics of PTC. This purpose of this study was to define the association between DLI and PTC aggressiveness according to thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and B-type Raf (BRAF)V600E mutation positivity. METHODS: There were 1879 patients with PTC who underwent surgery and were enrolled in this study...
June 22, 2018: Head & Neck
Gilles Adam, Marine Ferrier, Sofia Patsoura, Raluca Gramada, Zuzana Meluchova, Vanessa Cazzola, Jean Darcourt, Christophe Cognard, Alain Viguier, Fabrice Bonneville
Acute ischaemic stroke represents the most common cause of new sudden neurological deficit, but other diseases mimicking stroke happen in about one-third of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best technique to identify those 'stroke mimics'. In this article, we propose a diagnostic approach of those stroke mimics on MRI according to an algorithm based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which can be abnormal or normal, followed by the results of other common additional MRI sequences, such as T2 with gradient recalled echo weighted imaging (T2-GRE) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)...
June 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Raffaele Pastore, Marco Uttieri, Giuseppe Bianco, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalá, Maria Grazia Mazzocchi
Suspensions of small planktonic copepods represent a special category in the realm of active matter, as their size falls within the range of colloids, while their motion is so complex that it cannot be rationalized according to basic models of self-propelled particles. Indeed, the wide range of individual variability and swimming patterns resemble the behaviour of much larger animals. By analysing hundreds of three-dimensional trajectories of the planktonic copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, we investigate the possibility of detecting how the motion of this species is affected by different external conditions, such as the presence of food and the effect of gravity...
June 25, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Li Liang, Yun Deng, Ran Li, Jia Li
Considering the highly complex flow structure of saltwater lakes during freshwater supplementation, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate suspended sediment transport in saltwater lakes. The model was validated using measurements of the salinity and sediment concentration during a pumping test at Yamdrok Lake. The simulation results were in quantitative agreement with the measured data. The observed and simulated results also indicated that the wind stress and vertical salinity gradient have a significant influence on salinity and sediment transport in a saltwater lake...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marjolein Verly, Robin Gerrits, Charlotte Sleurs, Lieven Lagae, Stefan Sunaert, Inge Zink, Nathalie Rommel
This study aims to detect the neural substrate underlying the language impairment in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Deterministic DTI tractography was performed in a group of right-handed children with DLD (N = 17; mean age 10;07 ± 2;01 years) and a typically developing control group matched for age, gender and handedness (N = 22; mean age 11;00 ± 1;11 years) to bilaterally identify the superior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fascicle, anterior lateral segment and posterior lateral segment (also called dorsal language network) and the middle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, extreme capsule fiber system and uncinate fascicle (also called ventral language network)...
June 22, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Soheila Molaei, Sama Babaei, Mostafa Salehi, Mahdi Jalili
Diffusion of information in complex networks largely depends on the network structure. Recent studies have mainly addressed information diffusion in homogeneous networks where there is only a single type of nodes and edges. However, some real-world networks consist of heterogeneous types of nodes and edges. In this manuscript, we model information diffusion in heterogeneous information networks, and use interactions of different meta-paths to predict the diffusion process. A meta-path is a path between nodes across different layers of a heterogeneous network...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paloma Arenas-Guerrero, Ángel V Delgado, Kevin J Donovan, Kenneth Scott, Tommaso Bellini, Francesco Mantegazza, María L Jiménez
The in situ determination of the size distribution of dispersed non-spherical nanoparticles is an essential characterization tool for the investigation and use of colloidal suspensions. In this work, we test a size characterization method based on the measurement of the transient behaviour of the birefringence induced in the dispersions by pulsed electric fields. The specific shape of such relaxations depends on the distribution of the rotational diffusion coefficient of the suspended particles. We analyse the measured transient birefringence with three approaches: the stretched-exponential, Watson-Jennings, and multi-exponential methods...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zdeněk Lajbner, Reuven Pnini, M Florencia Camus, Jonathan Miller, Damian K Dowling
Mitochondria are essential organelles, found within eukaryotic cells, which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has traditionally been used in population genetic and biogeographic studies as a maternally-inherited and evolutionary-neutral genetic marker. However, it is now clear that polymorphisms within the mtDNA sequence are routinely non-neutral, and furthermore several studies have suggested that such mtDNA polymorphisms are also sensitive to thermal selection. These observations led to the formulation of the "mitochondrial climatic adaptation" hypothesis, for which all published evidence to date is correlational...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Madalena S Kozachuk, Tsun-Kong Sham, Ronald R Martin, Andrew J Nelson, Ian Coulthard, John P McElhone
A daguerreotype image, the first commercialized photographic process, is composed of silver-mercury, and often silver-mercury-gold amalgam particles on the surface of a silver-coated copper plate. Specular and diffuse reflectance of light from these image particles produces the range of gray tones that typify these 19th century images. By mapping the mercury distribution with rapid-scanning, synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging, full portraits, which to the naked eye are obscured entirely by extensive corrosion, can be retrieved in a non-invasive, non-contact, and non-destructive manner...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaicheng Zhu, Federico M Lauro, Haibin Su
In meromictic lakes, the water column is stratified into distinguishable steady layers with different physico-chemical properties. The bottom portion, known as monimolimnion, has been studied for the functional stratification of microbial populations. Recent experiments have reported the profiles of bacterial and nutrient spatial distributions, but quantitative understanding is invoked to unravel the underlying mechanism of maintaining the discrete spatial organization. Here a reaction-diffusion model is developed to highlight the spatial pattern coupled with the light-driven metabolism of bacteria, which is resilient to a wide range of dynamical correlation between bacterial and nutrient species at the molecular level...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew R Findlay, Matthew B Harms, Alan Pestronk, Conrad C Weihl
Mutations in MYH2 that encodes myosin heavy chain IIa cause both dominant and recessively inherited myopathies. Patients with dominantly inherited MYH2 missense mutations present with ophthalmoplegia and progressive proximal limb weakness. Muscle biopsy reveals rimmed vacuoles and inclusions, prompting this entity to initially be described as hereditary inclusion body myopathy 3. In contrast, patients with recessive MYH2 mutations have early onset, non-progressive, diffuse weakness and ophthalmoplegia. Muscle biopsy reveals near or complete absence of type 2A fibers with no vacuole or inclusion pathology...
May 21, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
John M Burke, Andrei Shustov, James Essell, Dipti Patel-Donnelly, Jay Yang, Robert Chen, Wei Ye, Wen Shi, Sarit Assouline, Jeff Sharman
BACKGROUND: Entospletinib (GS-9973) is an oral, selective inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase. Entospletinib monotherapy was evaluated in a multicenter, phase II study of subjects with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 43 patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The participants received 800 mg of the original, monomesylate formulation of entospletinib twice daily as a starting dose; the doses could be reduced because of toxicity throughout the study...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Lorenzo Falchi, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Ira Jacobs, Pilar Nava-Parada
Combination regimens with anti-CD20 agents might improve the outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies; however, the available comparative clinical evidence is limited. The present review assessed the reported evidence on the efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies combined with chemotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), using a rapid evidence assessment approach...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Christopher G Watson, Christian Stopp, David Wypij, David C Bellinger, Jane W Newburger, Michael J Rivkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare white matter microstructure in children and adolescents with single ventricle who underwent the Fontan procedure with healthy controls, and to explore the association of white matter injury with cognitive performance as well as patient and medical factors. STUDY DESIGN: Fontan (n = 102) and control subjects (n = 47) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at ages 10-19 years. Mean DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity) were calculated for 33 fiber tracts from standard white matter atlases...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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