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Behavioral economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230267/the-economic-impact-of-space-weather-where-do-we-stand
#1
J P Eastwood, E Biffis, M A Hapgood, L Green, M M Bisi, R D Bentley, R Wicks, L-A McKinnell, M Gibbs, C Burnett
Space weather describes the way in which the Sun, and conditions in space more generally, impact human activity and technology both in space and on the ground. It is now well understood that space weather represents a significant threat to infrastructure resilience, and is a source of risk that is wide-ranging in its impact and the pathways by which this impact may occur. Although space weather is growing rapidly as a field, work rigorously assessing the overall economic cost of space weather appears to be in its infancy...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229539/appetite-self-regulation-environmental-and-policy-influences-on-eating-behaviors
#2
Marlene B Schwartz, David R Just, Jamie F Chriqui, Alice S Ammerman
OBJECTIVE: Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." METHODS: In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#3
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225450/behavioral-economic-incentives-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-medication
#4
Sebastian Linnemayr, Chad Stecher, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVE: Fixed incentives have been largely unsuccessful in improving adherence to antiretroviral medication. Therefore, we evaluate whether small incentives based on behavioral economic theory can increase adherence to antiretroviral medication among treatment-mature adults in Kampala, Uganda. DESIGN: A randomized control trial design tests whether providing small incentives based on either attending timely clinic visits (intervention group 1) or achieving high medication adherence (intervention group 2) can increase antiretroviral adherence...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224349/mapping-the-health-information-landscape-in-a-rural-culturally-diverse-region-implications-for-interventions-to-reduce-information-inequality
#5
A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222488/explaining-counterfeit-alcohol-purchases-in-russia
#6
Zoya Kotelnikova
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account...
February 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221842/consumer-response-to-gastrointestinal-illness-perceived-to-originate-from-food-service-facilities
#7
Erin S Garnett, Stephanie R Gretsch, Clair Null, Christine L Moe
Consumer responses to food product recalls have been documented, but there is little information on how consumers respond to illnesses or outbreaks associated with food service facilities. This study uses an on-line survey of 885 adults conducted in 2012 to determine how respondents changed their dining behavior following personal experiences with and secondhand reports of gastrointestinal illness believed to be associated with food service facilities. In response to personally experiencing gastrointestinal illness that they attributed to a food service facility, 90% of survey participants reported that they avoided the implicated facility for a time following the incident; almost one-half decided to never return to the facility they believed had made them ill...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221092/social-and-economic-ideologies-differentially-predict-prejudice-across-the-political-spectrum-but-social-issues-are-most-divisive
#8
Jarret T Crawford, Mark J Brandt, Yoel Inbar, John R Chambers, Matt Motyl
Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220516/risk-factors-for-suicide-and-suicidal-behavior-relevant-to-emergency-health-care-settings-a-systematic-review-of-post-2007-reviews
#9
Kirstie McClatchey, Jennifer Murray, Anne Rowat, Zoë Chouliara
Suicide is a global public health problem, and with recent economic and societal changes, there may be emerging risk factors unrecognized by health care professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to update existing suicide risk factor literature applicable to emergency health care settings. A total of 35 articles identified from PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Medline met the inclusion criteria. Results supported the significance of existing suicide risk factors and identified emerging risk factors. The review provides a high-quality update of risk factor literature that could be applied to emergency health care settings; however, further research is needed to confirm emerging risk factors...
February 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216110/the-current-global-state-of-key-lifestyle-characteristics-health-and-economic-implications
#10
REVIEW
Ross Arena, Amy McNeil, Michael Sagner, Andrew P Hills
The chronic disease crisis we currently face must be addressed in rapid fashion. Cardiovascular (CV) and pulmonary diseases, diabetes as well as several forms of cancer are leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Collectively, these conditions have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals, families and communities, placing an unsustainable burden on health systems. There is hope for the chronic disease crisis in that these conditions are largely preventable or can be delayed to much later in life through a timeless medicine, healthy living...
February 16, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215885/robotic-milking-feeding-strategies-and-economic-returns
#11
Alex Bach, Victor Cabrera
Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214491/relationship-between-patient-reported-symptoms-limitations-in-daily-activities-and-psychological-impact-in-varicose-veins
#12
Rajiv Mallick, Brajesh Kumar Lal, Claire Daugherty
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patient-reported symptoms, functional limitations, and psychological impact of varicose veins (VVs) vs pathophysiologic mechanism, incorporating demographic and behavioral factors. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis from two clinical studies (Efficacy and Safety Study of Polidocanol Injectable Foam for the Treatment of Saphenofemoral Junction Incompetence [VANISH-1] and Polidocanol Endovenous Microfoam Versus Vehicle for the Treatment of Saphenofemoral Junction Incompetence [VANISH-2]) in patients with VVs (superficial venous reflux only)...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210233/the-gender-pay-gap-can-behavioral-economics-provide-useful-insights
#13
Renata M Heilman, Petko Kusev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205567/opposing-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-human-vigor
#14
Benjamin Griffiths, Ulrik R Beierholm
The vigor with which humans and animals engage in a task is often a determinant of the likelihood of the task's success. An influential theoretical model suggests that the speed and rate at which responses are made should depend on the availability of rewards and punishments. While vigor facilitates the gathering of rewards in a bountiful environment, there is an incentive to slow down when punishments are forthcoming so as to decrease the rate of punishments, in conflict with the urge to perform fast to escape punishment...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203215/understanding-risky-behavior-the-influence-of-cognitive-emotional-and-hormonal-factors-on-decision-making-under-risk
#15
REVIEW
Petko Kusev, Harry Purser, Renata Heilman, Alex J Cooke, Paul Van Schaik, Victoria Baranova, Rose Martin, Peter Ayton
Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behavior and its underlying psychological factors, as well as to critically examine current regulations on financial behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203061/herding-a-new-phenomenon-affecting-medical-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-care-lessons-learned-from-discutir-ms
#16
Gustavo Saposnik, Jorge Maurino, Angel P Sempere, Christian C Ruff, Philippe N Tobler
PURPOSE: Herding is a phenomenon by which individuals follow the behavior of others rather than deciding independently on the basis of their own private information. A herding-like phenomenon can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS) when a neurologist follows a therapeutic recommendation by a colleague even though it is not supported by best practice clinical guidelines. Limited information is currently available on the role of herding in medical care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (and its associated factors) of herding in the management of MS...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198998/physical-activity-counseling-in-primary-care-insights-from-public-health-and-behavioral-economics
#17
REVIEW
Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, Jeffrey Drope, David L Katz, Alpa V Patel, Melissa Maitin-Shepard, On Amir, Amir Grinstein
Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this overwhelming evidence, many individuals do not meet the recommended amount of physical activity required to achieve maximum health benefits. Because primary care physicians' advice is highly regarded, clinicians have the unique opportunity to play an important role in enabling patients to modify their behavior at the point of care with the goal of guiding patients to adopt and maintain an active lifestyle...
February 15, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197862/influences-of-economic-social-and-cultural-marginalization-on-the-association-between-alcohol-use-and-sexual-risk-among-formerly-incarcerated-latino-men
#18
Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Omar Martínez, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Jeffrey Draine, Karin Eyrich Garg, Ethan Levine, Alexandra Ripkin
Formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) have been significantly impacted by the HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse epidemics in the United States. In this analysis, we examine the role of social, economic and cultural marginalization in the likelihood of alcohol-related sexual risk taking behavior among FILM. We recruited a non-random sample of FILM, ages 18-49 (n = 259). We performed logistic regression modeling to test four hypotheses examining the direct and moderating effects of socio-cultural factors. Drinking before sex was strongly associated with high likelihood of condomless intercourse (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197330/the-relationship-between-smoking-and-unhealthy-weight-control-behaviors-among-korean-adolescents-the-tenth-korea-youth-risk-behavior-web-based-survey-2014
#19
Won Yong Sim, Young Gyu Cho, Jae Heon Kang, Hyun Ah Park, Kyoung Woo Kim, Yang Im Hur, Koh Eun Shin, Gyeong Ran Byeon
BACKGROUND: Adolescent smoking is positively related to weight control attempts, especially by unhealthy methods. The co-occurrence of smoking and unhealthy weight control behaviors may cause serious health problems in adolescents. This study examined the relationship of smoking with unhealthy weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 31,090 students of grades 7 to 12, who had tried to reduce or maintain their weight during the 30 days prior to The Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 2014...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197116/trait-anxiety-and-economic-risk-avoidance-are-not-necessarily-associated-evidence-from-the-framing-effect
#20
Ruolei Gu, Runguo Wu, Lucas S Broster, Yang Jiang, Rui Xu, Qiwei Yang, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people's risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description (i.e., frame) of options...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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