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Behavioral economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163728/results-of-a-quality-improvement-project-aimed-at-eliminating-healthcare-waste-by-changing-medical-resident-test-ordering-behavior
#1
Sushilkumar Satish Gupta, Radhika Voleti, Vimbai Nyemba, Selma Demir, Olaoluwatomi Lamikanra, Nomsa Musemwa, Angela Saverimuthu, Kamaldeen Agoro, Robert D Kalter, Peter Homel, Melvyn Hecht, Lawrence B Wolf, Edward K Chapnick, Michael G Kantrowitz, Stephan L Kamholz
Background: In light of rising healthcare costs and evidence of inefficient use of medical resources, there is growing interest in reducing healthcare waste by clinicians. Unwarranted lab tests may lead to further tests, prolonged hospital stays, unnecessary referrals and procedures, patient discomfort, and iatrogenic anemia, resulting in significant economic and clinical effects. Blood tests are essential in guiding medical decisions, but they are also associated with significant financial and clinical costs...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163414/control-of-antimicrobial-resistance-requires-an-ethical-approach
#2
REVIEW
Ben Parsonage, Philip K Hagglund, Lloyd Keogh, Nick Wheelhouse, Richard E Brown, Stephanie J Dancer
Ethical behavior encompasses actions that benefit both self and society. This means that tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) becomes an ethical obligation, because the prospect of declining anti-infectives affects everyone. Without preventive action, loss of drugs that have saved lives over the past century, will condemn ourselves, people we know, and people we don't know, to unacceptable risk of untreatable infection. Policies aimed at extending antimicrobial life should be considered within an ethical framework, in order to balance the choice, range, and quality of drugs against stewardship activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163357/a-journey-through-the-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-system-of-fish
#3
REVIEW
José A Muñoz-Cueto, José A Paullada-Salmerón, María Aliaga-Guerrero, Mairi E Cowan, Ishwar S Parhar, Takayoshi Ubuka
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162432/renal-damage-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-metsx-disorders-implicated
#4
REVIEW
Trujillo Joyce, Chirino Yolanda Irasema, Martínez-Tagüeña Natalia, Pedraza-Chaverri Jose
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and has become a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease. The complex linkage between metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease is under research and the factors involved beyond the biological pathogenesis include demographic, sociological and psychological factors that are related to the metabolic syndrome prevalence. The social context of disease causation is as relevant to today's clinical scientist and practitioner as biomarker-directed risk stratification and therapy...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161252/choose-rate-or-squeeze-comparison-of-economic-value-functions-elicited-by-different-behavioral-tasks
#5
Alizée Lopez-Persem, Lionel Rigoux, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Jean Daunizeau, Mathias Pessiglione
A standard view in neuroeconomics is that to make a choice, an agent first assigns subjective values to available options, and then compares them to select the best. In choice tasks, these cardinal values are typically inferred from the preference expressed by subjects between options presented in pairs. Alternatively, cardinal values can be directly elicited by asking subjects to place a cursor on an analog scale (rating task) or to exert a force on a power grip (effort task). These tasks can vary in many respects: they can notably be more or less costly and consequential...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159231/techno-economic-data-for-a-multi-model-approach-to-decarbonisation-of-the-irish-private-car-sector
#6
Eamonn Mulholland, Fionn Rogan, Brian P Ó Gallachóir
These data and analyses support the research article "From technology pathways to policy roadmaps to enabling measures - A multi-model approach" Mulholland et al. (2017) [1]. This article uses 3 models - an optimization model of the Irish energy system (Irish TIMES), a simulation model of the Irish private transport sector (CarSTOCK), and a market share algorithm used to provide a behavior rich representation into the multi-modelling process. Each of these models are linked to provide a technology pathway, policy roadmap, and finally identify the enabling measures of the private transport sector in a low-carbon Ireland moving toward 2050...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157589/overweight-and-obesity-add-to-behavioral-problems-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#7
Sarah N Biggs, Knarik Tamanyan, Lisa M Walter, Aidan J Weichard, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Rosemary S C Horne
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether overweight and obesity increased the detrimental effects of pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) on cognition, behavior, mood, and quality of life. METHODS: Children and adolescents (8-16 years) with clinically diagnosed SDB were categorized into two groups: healthy weight (Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score <1.04, N = 11) and overweight/obese (BMI z-score ≥ 1.04, N = 10). Age-matched healthy weight, non-snoring controls (N = 25) were recruited from the community...
November 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157251/slender-women-and-overweight-men-gender-differences-in-the-educational-gradient-in-body-weight-in-south-korea
#8
Yeonjin Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been observed in the educational inequalities in weight status. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Survey (N = 17,947) conducted in 2008-2012 conditional quantile regression models were estimated to assess the associations between education and body weight distribution...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154127/lateral-orbitofrontal-inactivation-dissociates-devaluation-sensitive-behavior-and-economic-choice
#9
Matthew P H Gardner, Jessica S Conroy, Michael H Shaham, Clay V Styer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) supports model-based behavior in rats and primates, but whether the OFC is necessary for economic choice is less clear...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153459/-intrafamilial-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-present-data-and-treatment-prospects
#10
E Bousquet, N Franc, C Ha, D Purper-Ouakil
Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics...
November 16, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#11
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151802/individual-and-household-factors-associated-with-incidences-of-village-malaria-in-xepon-district-savannakhet-province-lao-pdr
#12
Nouhak Inthavong, Daisuke Nonaka, Sengchanh Kounnavong, Moritoshi Iwagami, Souraxay Phommala, Jun Kobayashi, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano
Background: In the Lao PDR, the incidence of malaria greatly differs among villages even within a subdistrict, and the reasons for this difference are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify differences in villagers' behavior and the household environment between villages with high incidences and those with low incidences of malaria in a rural district of the Lao PDR. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Xepon district, Savannakhet province...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151473/prevalence-of-dizziness-and-associated-factors-in-south-korea-a-cross-sectional-survey-from-2010-to-2012
#13
Jiwon Chang, Soon Young Hwang, Su Kyoung Park, Jin Hwan Kim, Hyung-Jong Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
BACKGROUND: Dizziness is one of the most common complaints in medicine and a frequent symptom among older people. Dizziness has a considerable impact on life quality and is associated with high economic costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dizziness in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors. METHODS: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150210/a-behavioral-economics-approach-to-the-failed-hpv-vaccination-program-in-japan
#14
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Tadashi Kimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148355/vertical-integration-of-hospitals-and-physicians-economic-theory-and-empirical-evidence-on-spending-and-quality
#15
Brady Post, Tom Buchmueller, Andrew M Ryan
Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support...
August 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147630/sulforaphane-from-broccoli-reduces-symptoms-of-autism-a-follow-up-case-series-from-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#16
Rhoda Lynch, Eileen L Diggins, Susan L Connors, Andrew W Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Hua Liu, Paul Talalay, Jed W Fahey
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children, is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted or repetitive behaviors, and varies widely with respect to its causes and presentations. There are no validated pharmacologic treatments for the core symptoms of ASD. The social, medical, and economic burdens of ASD on families and caregivers are profound. We recently showed in a small clinical trial that sulforaphane (SF) from broccoli sprouts could significantly reduce the behavioral symptoms of ASD...
2017: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145746/clinical-efficacy-and-economic-evaluation-of-online-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Elayne Ahern, Stephen Kinsella, Maria Semkovska
Leading cause of disability worldwide, depression is the most prevalent mental disorder with growing societal costs. As mental health services demand often outweighs provision, accessible treatment options are needed. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the clinical efficacy and economic evidence for the use of online cognitive behavioral therapy (oCBT), as an accessible treatment solution for depression. Areas covered: Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials published between 2006 and 2016...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#18
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144222/child-language-and-parenting-antecedents-and-externalizing-outcomes-of-emotion-regulation-pathways-across-early-childhood-a-person-centered-approach
#19
Jason José Bendezú, Pamela M Cole, Patricia Z Tan, Laura Marie Armstrong, Elizabeth B Reitz, Rachel M Wolf
Decreases in children's anger reactivity because of the onset of their autonomous use of strategies characterizes the prevailing model of the development of emotion regulation in early childhood (Kopp, 1989). There is, however, limited evidence of the varied pathways that mark this development and their proposed antecedents and consequences. This study used a person-centered approach to identify such pathways, antecedents, and outcomes. A sample of 120 children from economically strained rural and semirural households were observed while waiting to open a gift at ages 24, 36, and 48 months...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143237/john-henryism-gender-and-self-reported-health-among-roma-gypsies-in-serbia
#20
Jelena Čvorović, Sherman A James
We describe how self-reported health (SRH) varies with gender and John Henryism (a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping to overcome adversity) in a low income sample of Serbian Roma. Data were collected in 2016 in several Roma settlements around Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of 90 men and 112 women. In addition to John Henryism (JH), measured by a Serbian version of the John Henryism Scale, demographic data and data on SRH and family relationships dynamics were collected...
November 15, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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