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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805420/expanding-our-reach-increasing-the-role-of-psychologists-in-public-and-community-mental-health
#1
Erika R Carr, Rebecca Miller
Psychologists are currently underrepresented in community and public mental health settings, despite the advanced training and competencies that are salient for service in various unique and important functions in the public sector. This article will explore those functions including: transformation to recovery-oriented care, delivery of positive behavioral support, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based interventions, application of scholarly guided practice, emphasis on context, therapeutic relationship, and history in therapeutic interventions, provision of training, education, program development and evaluation, and development of leadership and leadership training in systems of care...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802592/gender-differences-in-sexual-behaviors-in-korean-adolescents
#2
Eunyoung Hong, Youngmi Kang
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793887/examining-the-relationship-between-the-food-environment-and-adult-diabetes-prevalence-by-county-economic-and-racial-composition-an-ecological-study
#3
Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, Lucia A Leone
BACKGROUND: Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. METHODS: An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, "Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?" If the answer was "yes" individuals were classified as having diabetes...
August 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793759/statistical-teleodynamics-toward-a-theory-of-emergence
#4
Venkat Venkatasubramanian
The central scientific challenge of the 21st century is developing a mathematical theory of emergence that can explain and predict phenomena such as consciousness and self-awareness. The most successful research program of the 20th century, reductionism, which goes from whole to parts, seems unable to address this challenge. This is because addressing this challenge inherently requires an opposite approach, going from parts to whole. In addition, reductionism, by the very nature of its enquiry, typically doesn't concern itself with teleology or purposeful behavior...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#5
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790946/economic-recession-affects-gambling-participation-but-not-problematic-gambling-results-from-a-population-based-follow-up-study
#6
Daniel T Olason, Tobias Hayer, Gerhard Meyer, Tim Brosowski
In October 2008, Iceland experienced the fastest and deepest financial crisis recorded in modern times when all three major banks went bankrupt in less than 2 weeks. The purpose of this follow-up study is to examine potential changes in participation in 12 different gambling types and in problem gambling before (time 1; year 2007) and after (time 2; year 2011) the economic collapse in 2008. The time between the first and second wave of data collection was 3.5 years. In total, 1,531 participants took part in the study, 688 males and 843 females...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790828/impact-of-help-seeking-behavior-and-partner-support-on-postpartum-depression-among-saudi-women
#7
Adel F Almutairi, Mahmoud Salam, Samiyah Alanazi, Manal Alweldawi, Najad Alsomali, Najla Alotaibi
BACKGROUND: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD), including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB) and partner support (PS) on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790500/personomics-and-precision-medicine
#8
Roy C Ziegelstein
The importance of knowing patients as individuals has been highlighted throughout the history of medicine. However, shorter visits, electronic documentation, reliance on technology, and increasing linguistic and cultural differences between patients and physicians create more challenges to effective communication than ever before. Perhaps more concerning is the greater emphasis on aspects of care considered more precisely measurable and quantifiable, the sum of which is sometimes felt to represent the patient better than knowledge of the patient himself...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783734/let-the-sunshine-in-the-effects-of-luminance-on-economic-preferences-choice-consistency-and-dominance-violations
#9
Paul W Glimcher, Agnieszka Tymula
Weather, in particular the intensity and duration of sunshine (luminance), has been shown to significantly affect financial markets. Yet, because of the complexity of market interactions we do not know how human behavior is affected by luminance in a way that could inform theoretical choice models. In this paper, we use data from a field study using an incentive-compatible, decision task conducted daily over a period of two years and from the US Earth System Research Laboratory luminance sensor to investigate the impact of luminance on risk preferences, ambiguity preferences, choice consistency and dominance violations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781375/the-agricultural-origins-of-time-preference
#10
Oded Galor, Ömer Özak
This research explores the origins of observed differences in time preference across countries and regions. Exploiting a natural experiment associated with the expansion of suitable crops for cultivation in the course of the Columbian Exchange, the research establishes that pre-industrial agro-climatic characteristics that were conducive to higher return to agricultural investment, triggered selection, adaptation and learning processes that generated a persistent positive effect on the prevalence of long-term orientation in the contemporary era...
October 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776838/assessing-variations-in-developmental-outcomes-among-teenage-offspring-of-teen-mothers-maternal-life-course-correlates
#11
Jungeun Olivia Lee, Lewayne D Gilchrist, Blair A Beadnell, Mary Jane Lohr, Chaoyue Yuan, Lacey A Hartigan, Diane M Morrison
This study investigated potential heterogeneity in development among offspring (age 17) of teen mothers and maternal life course as correlates of variation. Using latent class analysis, subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified. Maternal standing in two life course realms (i.e., socioeconomic and domestic) was considered as a potential explanation for heterogeneity in offspring's development. Offspring reported on measures assessing their psychological, academic, and behavioral development. Teen mothers reported on measures of life course realms...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776767/applying-behavioral-economics-to-psoriasis-treatment-interventions-to-improve-patient-adherence-to-biologics
#12
Daniel J Lewis, Leah A Cardwell, Steven R Feldman
Zschocke et al(1) identified factors associated with adherence to biologics for psoriasis. The physician-patient relationship influences adherence considerably.(1) Specific interventions may increase adherence to biologics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 3, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774838/tablets-of-multi-unit-pellet-system-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#13
REVIEW
Tongkai Chen, Jian Li, Ting Chen, Changquan Calvin Sun, Ying Zheng
The tablet of multi-unit pellet system (TMUPS), using coated pellets, for controlled release of drugs is an effective therapeutic alternative to conventional immediate-release dosage forms. The main advantages of TMUPS include a) ease of swallowing and b) divisible without compromising the drug release characteristics of the individual units. TMUPS can be prepared more economically than pellet-filled capsules because of the much higher production rate of tableting process. In spite of the superiorities of TMUPS, its adoption has been challenged by manufacturing problems, such as compromised integrity of coated pellets and poor content uniformity...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773147/recent-developments-in-organophosphorus-flame-retardants-containing-p-c-bond-and-their-applications
#14
REVIEW
Sophie Wendels, Thiebault Chavez, Martin Bonnet, Khalifah A Salmeia, Sabyasachi Gaan
Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant...
July 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771496/an-analytical-solution-for-two-dimensional-vacuum-preloading-combined-with-electro-osmosis-consolidation-using-ekg-electrodes
#15
Yang Shen, Chenchen Qiu, Yande Li, Wen Shi, Xiaoxi Rui
China is a country with vast territory, but economic development and population growth have reduced the usable land resources in recent years. Therefore, reclamation by pumping and filling is carried out in eastern coastal regions of China in order to meet the needs of urbanization. However, large areas of reclaimed land need rapid drainage consolidation treatment. Based on past researches on how to improve the treatment efficiency of soft clay using vacuum preloading combined with electro-osmosis, a two-dimensional drainage plane model was proposed according to the Terzaghi and Esrig consolidation theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770010/a-qualitative-study-to-explore-the-perception-and-behavior-of-patients-towards-diabetes-management-with-physical-disability
#16
Syed Wasif Gillani, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Mohi Iqbal Mohammad Abdul, Sherif Y Saad
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine self-monitoring practices, awareness to dietary modifications and barriers to medication adherence among physically disabled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: Interview sessions were conducted at diabetes clinic-Penang general hospital. The invited participants represented three major ethnic groups of Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indians). An open-ended approach was used to elicit answers from participants. Interview questions were related to participant's perception towards self-monitoring blood glucose practices, Awareness towards diet management, behaviour to diabetes medication and cues of action...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769846/behavioral-priming-2-0-enter-a-dynamical-systems-perspective
#17
Dario Krpan
On a daily basis, people are exposed to numerous stimuli, ranging from colors and smells to sounds and words, that could potentially activate different cognitive constructs and influence their actions. This type of influence on human behavior is referred to as priming. Roughly two decades ago, behavioral priming was hailed as one of the core forces that shape automatic behavior. However, failures to replicate some of the representative findings in this domain soon followed, which posed the following question: "How robust are behavioral priming effects, and to what extent are they actually important in shaping people's actions?" To shed a new light on this question, I revisit behavioral priming through the prism of a dynamical systems perspective (DSP)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766191/promoting-afterschool-quality-and-positive-youth-development-cluster-randomized-trial-of-the-pax-good-behavior-game
#18
Emilie Phillips Smith, D Wayne Osgood, Yoonkyung Oh, Linda C Caldwell
This randomized trial tested a strategy originally developed for school settings, the Pax Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), in the new context of afterschool programs. We examined this approach in afterschool since 70% of all juvenile crime occurs between the hours of 3-6 pm, making afterschool an important setting for prevention and promotion. Dual-career and working families need monitoring and supervision for their children in quality settings that are safe and appropriately structured. While substantial work has identified important features of afterschool programs, increasing attention is being given to how to foster quality...
August 1, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766079/lawful-sinners-reproductive-governance-and-moral-agency-around-abortion-in-mexico
#19
Elyse Ona Singer
The Catholic Hierarchy unequivocally bans abortion, defining it as a mortal sin. In Mexico City, where the Catholic Church wields considerable political and popular power, abortion was recently decriminalized in a historic vote. Of the roughly 170,000 abortions that have been carried out in Mexico City's new public sector abortion program to date, more than 60% were among self-reported Catholic women. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, including interviews with 34 Catholic patients, this article examines how Catholic women in Mexico City grapple with abortion decisions that contravene Church teachings in the context of recent abortion reform...
August 1, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764679/economic-evaluation-of-stepped-care-versus-usual-care-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-older-adults-with-vision-impairment-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Judith E Bosmans, Hannie C Comijs, Ruth M A van Nispen
BACKGROUND: A stepped-care program was found effective in preventing depressive and anxiety disorders in older adults with vision impairment. However, before a decision can be made about implementation, the cost-effectiveness of this program should be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of stepped-care versus usual care within low vision rehabilitation. METHODS: An economic evaluation from a societal perspective was performed alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial...
August 1, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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