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Behavioral economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732318/the-experimental-tobacco-marketplace-ii-substitutability-and-sex-effects-in-dual-electronic-cigarette-and-conventional-cigarette-users
#1
Amanda J Quisenberry, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental: Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. METHODS: The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant's usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content...
July 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729607/effective-methods-of-restraining-diffusion-in-terms-of-epidemic-dynamics
#2
Fei Xiong, Zhao-Yi Li
Removing influential nodes or shortcuts in a network restrains epidemic or information diffusion, but this method destroys the connectivity of the network and changes the topological structure. As an alternative, an additional field can be imposed in the network to affect node behaviors and slow down diffusion dynamics. However, little research has been performed systematically to analyze and compare these methods. This paper investigates epidemic dynamics and proposes the following four methods to restrain the diffusion process: blocking nodes, blocking edges, distracting node attention, and propagating opposite information...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728645/elevated-behavioral-economic-demand-for-alcohol-in-a-community-sample-of-heavy-drinking-smokers
#3
Michael Amlung, James MacKillop, Peter M Monti, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727022/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-genetics-and-breeding-for-intramuscular-fat-and-oleic-acid-content-in-pigs
#4
J Estany, R Ros-Freixedes, M Tor, R N Pena
The intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (OL) content have been favorably related to pork quality and human health. This influences the purchasing behavior of consumers and, therefore, also shifts the attention of breeding companies toward whether these traits are included into the breeding goal of the lines producing for high-valued markets. Because IMF and OL are unfavorably associated with lean content, a key economic trait, the real challenge for the industry is not simply to increase IMF and OL, but rather to come up with the right trade-off between them and lean content...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#5
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725939/escalated-cocaine-binges-in-rats-enduring-effects-of-social-defeat-stress-or-intra-vta-crf
#6
Michael Z Leonard, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
RATIONALE: Exposure to intermittent social defeat stress elicits corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) release into the VTA and induces long-term modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine activity in rats. These adaptations are associated with an intense cocaine-taking phenotype, which is prevented by CRF receptor antagonists. OBJECTIVE: The present studies examine whether infusion of CRF into the VTA is sufficient to escalate cocaine-taking behavior, in the absence of social defeat experience...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725542/self-reported-health-and-behavioral-factors-are-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-americans-aged-40-and-over
#7
Ying Liu, Ifeoma D Ozodiegwu, Jeffrey C Nickel, Kesheng Wang, Laura R Iwasaki
To determine whether behavioral factors differ among metabolic conditions and self-reported health, and to determine whether self-reported health is a valid predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 2997 individuals (≥ 40 years old) were selected from four biennial U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2014). A set of weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)Individuals with light physical activity are more likely to have MetS and report poor health than those with vigorous physical activity with OR = 3...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725295/team-reasoning-and-collective-intentionality
#8
Björn Petersson
Different versions of the idea that individualism about agency is the root of standard game theoretical puzzles have been defended by Regan 1980, Bacharach (Research in Economics 53: 117-147, 1999), Hurley (Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26: 264-265, 2003), Sugden (Philosophical Explorations 6(3):165-181, 2003), and Tuomela 2013, among others. While collectivistic game theorists like Michael Bacharach provide formal frameworks designed to avert some of the standard dilemmas, philosophers of collective action like Raimo Tuomela aim at substantive accounts of collective action that may explain how agents overcoming such social dilemmas would be motivated...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724678/collaboration-is-critical-working-together-to-optimize-health-in-our-communities
#9
Alisahah J Cole
Clinical care accounts for only 20% of health outcomes, with social determinants of health including environment, health behaviors, and economics accounting for the remaining 80%. Providers ought to address social determinants of health and, more and more are joining community partnerships to do so.
July 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724672/accountable-care-communities-moving-from-health-care-delivery-systems-to-systems-of-health
#10
Berkeley Yorkery
Research has shown that individuals' health outcomes often have more to do with the conditions in which they live, learn, work, and age than the medical care they receive. However, traditional health care is not designed to address the social, behavioral, and economic factors (eg, housing, transportation, access to healthy food, education, and health behaviors) that impact health outcomes. Accountable care communities are showing that it is possible to design systems that are successful at both addressing social and economic factors and improving population health...
July 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722482/an-economic-evaluation-of-food-safety-education-interventions-estimates-and-critical-data-gaps
#11
Hua Zan, Maria Lambea, Joyce McDowell, Robert L Scharff
The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720018/structural-risk-and-limits-on-agency-among-exotic-dancers-hiv-risk-practices-in-the-exotic-dance-club
#12
Katherine H A Footer, Sahnah Lim, Merdith R Brantley, Susan G Sherman
This paper provides longitudinal examination of women's health and sexual risk trajectories in US exotic dance clubs, which represent an important commercial setting for the economic mainstreaming of sexual services and an important target for public health programmes. Between July 2014 and May 2015, two semi-structured interviews (at baseline and at three months) were conducted with 24 female exotic dancers who had recently started working in in Baltimore City, USA. Results from a constant comparative analysis point to the interrelationship between the structures of the club setting, including the social context, and women's agentic practices concerning their sexual health...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#13
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718221/multidimensional-assessment-of-quality-of-life-of-children-and-problems-of-parents-in-indian-society-after-pediatric-renal-transplant-beyond-the-conventional-thoughts
#14
Priyank Yadav, Sandeep Nunia, Ankur Bansal, Sanjoy K Sureka, Rahul Jena, Mohd Sualeh Ansari, Aneesh Srivastava
This study evaluated multidimensional QoL after renal transplant to find the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues after pediatric transplant. Sixty-two patients under the age of 18 at the time of assessment were asked to complete WHOQOL questionnaires. Assessment of behavioral, emotional status of child, problems of parents, and SEC of family were also performed. The beneficial effect of transplantation was observed across all domains of QoL (physical, psychological, social, environmental, and overall QoL)...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716487/student-acceptance-of-plain-milk-increases-significantly-2-years-after-flavored-milk-is-removed-from-school-cafeterias-an-observational-study
#15
Marlene B Schwartz, Kathryn E Henderson, Margaret Read, Talea Cornelius
BACKGROUND: Previous studies document decreases in lunchtime milk consumption immediately after flavored milk is removed. Less is known about longer-term effects. OBJECTIVE: Plain milk selection and consumption were measured the first year flavored milk was removed in a school district (2010 to 2011 [Time 1]) and 2 years later (2012 to 2013 [Time 2]). Four behavioral economic interventions to promote milk were tested in one school at Time 2. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal, observational study...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715795/recycling-and-social-technologies-for-sustainability-the-brazilian-experience-of%C3%A2-wastepickers-inclusion-in-selective-collection-programs
#16
Francisco de Paula Antunes Lima, Fabiana Goulart de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Alternatives are being developed for waste treatment all over the world. Solidary selective collection is a recognized social technology for taking millions of people out of absolute poverty. However, this technology raises crucial questions regarding its nature and development perspective. What can be said of the legitimacy of a social technology that is born from misery and maintains wastepickers in precarious work conditions? OBJECTIVE: This article approaches issues based on the analysis of the wastepickers' work process, highlighting the difficulties and interpersonal conflicts, the strong social bonds and creativity that reveal the potential of efficiency and solidarity of this social technology...
July 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711344/modeling-human-behavior-in-economics-and-social-science
#17
REVIEW
M Dolfin, L Leonida, N Outada
The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives...
June 29, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709414/effects-of-selected-socio-demographic-characteristics-on-nutrition-knowledge-and-eating-behavior-of-elementary-students-in-two-provinces-in-china
#18
Ling Qian, Fan Zhang, Ian M Newman, Duane F Shell, Weijing Du
BACKGROUND: National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. METHODS: Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used...
July 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708469/aqueous-two-phase-assisted-by-ultrasound-for-the-extraction-of-anthocyanins-from-lycium-ruthenicum-murr
#19
Benlin Qin, Xuecong Liu, Haiming Cui, Yue Ma, Zimin Wang, Jing Han
In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (UA-ATPE) method was employed for the extraction of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr(LRMAs). An ethanol/ammonium sulfate system was chosen for the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) due to its fine partitioning and recycling behaviors. Single-factor experiments were conducted to determine the optimized composition of the system, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the further optimization of the ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction...
July 14, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707140/disordered-gambling-prevalence-methodological-innovations-in-a-general-danish-population-survey
#20
Glenn W Harrison, Lasse J Jessen, Morten I Lau, Don Ross
We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total and marginal effects of risk-indicating factors...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
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