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Behavioral economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088059/infrared-analysis-of-clay-bricks-incorporated-with-spent-shea-waste-from-the-shea-butter-industry
#1
A N Adazabra, G Viruthagiri, N Shanmugam
The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086934/electroacupuncture-plus-moxibustion-therapy-for-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Mikyung Kim, Eun-Ji Choi, Sung-Phil Kim, Jung-Eun Kim, Hyo-Ju Park, Ae-Ran Kim, Bok-Nam Seo, O-Jin Kwon, Jung Hyo Cho, Sun-Yong Chung, Joo-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders and has a significant societal economic burden. Antidepressants and cognitive behavioral therapy are two primary interventions for the standardized treatment of MDD. However, their weaknesses, such as a low response rate, a high risk of adverse events from medication, and the high cost of cognitive behavioral therapy, have resulted in a need for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)...
January 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#3
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079460/development-of-a-version-of-the-self-ordered-pointing-task-a-working-memory-task-for-brazilian-preschoolers
#4
Isabela Sallum, Fernanda Gomes da Mata, Nathália Falcone Cheib, Charles W Mathias, Débora Marques Miranda, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz
OBJECTIVE: Working memory is a fundamental cognitive function and is predictive of outcomes and achievement in a wide range of domains from an early age. The focus of this study was to develop a computerized Brazilian version of the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) for preschoolers and to provide initial normative and validation data for this task. METHODS: The sample of the present study was composed of 248 children aged 3 (n = 41), 4 (n = 88) and 5 (n = 119) years from 13 private and public schools in Belo Horizonte...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078576/feeding-problems-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-and-without-autism-a-comparative-study
#5
Prahbhjot Malhi, Lolam Venkatesh, Bhavneet Bharti, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent reported feeding difficulties and nutritional adequacy of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to an age and socio-economically matched group of typically developing children. METHODS: The scores on Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), three-day food records, anthropometric measures and adequacy of micro- and macro- nutrients were compared for 63 children diagnosed with ASD and 50 typically developing children enrolled from the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital from North India...
January 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078495/economic-context-and-hiv-vulnerability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-in-urban-slums-in-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis-based-on-scarcity-theory
#6
Larissa Jennings, Muthoni Mathai, Sebastian Linnemayr, Antonio Trujillo, Margaret Mak'anyengo, Brooke E E Montgomery, Deanna L Kerrigan
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology...
January 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077716/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#7
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077214/intervention-effectiveness-of-the-incredible-years-new-insights-into-sociodemographic-and-intervention-based-moderators
#8
Joyce Weeland, Rabia R Chhangur, Danielle van der Giessen, Walter Matthys, Bram Orobio de Castro, Geertjan Overbeek
We tested the effectiveness of the preventive behavioral parent training (BPT) program, The Incredible Years (IY), and the independent effects of previously suggested sociodemographic and intervention-based moderator variables (i.e., initial severity of externalizing problem behavior, child gender, social economic status, family composition, and number of sessions parents attended), in a large-scale randomized controlled trial. Questionnaire and observation data from 387 parents and children ages 4-8 years (Mage= 6...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076248/prediabetes-screening-and-treatment-in-diabetes-prevention-the-impact-of-physician-attitudes
#9
Arch G Mainous, Rebecca J Tanner, Christopher B Scuderi, Maribeth Porter, Peter J Carek
PURPOSE: Detection and treatment of prediabetes is an effective strategy in diabetes prevention. However, most patients with prediabetes are not identified. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between attitudes toward prediabetes as a clinical construct and screening/treatment behaviors for diabetes prevention among US family physicians. METHODS: An electronic survey of a national sample of academic family physicians (n 1248) was conducted in 2016. Attitude toward prediabetes was calculated using a summated scale assessing agreement with statements regarding prediabetes as a clinical construct...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071033/an-analysis-of-the-meal-pattern-at-the-nutrient-level-in-polish-women
#10
Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marcin Mardas, Wojciech Warchoł, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: Before the 1990's, access to a variety of foods in Eastern Europe was limited, which could have influenced the currently analyzed dietary behaviors pertaining to overweight and obesity development. The aim of this study was to describe the daily profile of meal patterns in Polish women aged 50-70 at the nutrient level. METHODS: The anthropometrical parameters of four-hundred and fifty Polish women aged 50-70 were assessed. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and validated questionnaires regarding socio-demographic-economic status and meal frequency were applied...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070475/patterns-and-determinants-of-mammography-screening-in-lebanese-women
#11
Nadia Elias, Ibrahim R Bou-Orm, Salim M Adib
The associations of ever using and/or repeating a mammography test with psychosocial and socio-demographic factors were surveyed in 2014 among Lebanese women ≥ 40. A sample of 2400 women was selected across Lebanon. Variables with significant bivariate associations with various types of behaviors were entered in multivariate analysis. Of the total, 105 women (4·4%) had never heard of mammography as a tool for early breast cancer detection. Among the remaining 2295, 45% had ever used it, of whom 10% had obtained it for the first time within the 12 months preceding the survey...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068110/maternal-scaffolding-in-a-disadvantaged-global-context-the-influence-of-working-memory-and-cognitive-capacities
#12
Jelena Obradović, Ximena A Portilla, Nicole Tirado-Strayer, Saima Siyal, Muneera A Rasheed, Aisha K Yousafzai
The current study focuses on maternal cognitive capacities as determinants of parenting in a highly disadvantaged global context, where children's experiences at home are often the 1st and only opportunity for learning and intellectual growth. In a large sample of 1,291 biological mothers of preschool-aged children in rural Pakistan, we examined the unique association of maternal working memory skills (independent of related cognitive capacities) with cognitively stimulating parenting behaviors. Path analysis revealed that directly assessed working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence independently predicted greater levels of observed maternal scaffolding behaviors...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065168/functional-outcomes-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-disorders-current-disorder-most-important-but-psychiatric-history-matters-as-well
#13
J Ormel, A M Oerlemans, D Raven, O M Laceulle, C A Hartman, R Veenstra, F C Verhulst, W Vollebergh, J G M Rosmalen, S A Reijneveld, A J Oldehinkel
BACKGROUND: Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. METHOD: We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%)...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064526/understanding-social-norms-and-violence-in-childhood-theoretical-underpinnings-and-strategies-for-intervention
#14
P S Lilleston, L Goldmann, R K Verma, J McCleary-Sills
Violence in childhood is a widespread human rights violation that crosses cultural, social and economic lines. Social norms, the shared perceptions about others that exist within social groups, are a critical driver that can either prevent or perpetuate violence in childhood. This review defines injunctive and descriptive social norms and lays out a conceptual framework for the relationship between social norms and violence in childhood, including the forces shaping social norms, the mechanisms through which these norms influence violence in childhood (e...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061840/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-an-empowerment-program-for-self-care-in-type-2-diabetes-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Daniel Nogueira Cortez, Maísa Mara Lopes Macedo, Débora Aparecida Silva Souza, Jéssica Caroline Dos Santos, Gesana Sousa Afonso, Ilka Afonso Reis, Heloísa de Carvalho Torres
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing substantially worldwide, leading to serious economic effects, complications and deaths. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an empowerment program providing support for psychosocial, behavioral, and clinical aspects of diabetes to help Brazilian users of public health services obtain metabolic control of this condition. METHODS: In this cluster randomized trial, participants aged 30-80 diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from ten Brazilian public health units in 2014 and 2015...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060960/proximal-association-of-land-management-preferences-evidence-from-family-forest-owners
#16
Francisco X Aguilar, Zhen Cai, Brett Butler
Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual's own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060013/behavioral-economic-incentives-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretrovirals-early-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#17
Sebastian Linnemayr, Chad Stecher, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVE: Fixed incentives have been largely unsuccessful in improving adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Therefore we evaluate whether small incentives based on behavioral economic theory can increase adherence to ARV medication among treatment-mature adults in Kampala, Uganda. DESIGN: A randomized control trial design tests whether providing small incentives based on either attending timely clinic visits (intervention group 1) or achieving high medication adherence (intervention group 2) can increase ARV adherence...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058240/factors-influencing-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-iranian-mothers-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#18
Mohsen Saffari, Amir H Pakpour, Hui Chen
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052841/preventing-depression-in-adults-with-subthreshold-depression-health-economic-evaluation-alongside-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-intervention
#19
Claudia Buntrock, Matthias Berking, Filip Smit, Dirk Lehr, Stephanie Nobis, Heleen Riper, Pim Cuijpers, David Ebert
BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052840/complaint-directed-mini-interventions-for-depressive-complaints-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-unguided-web-based-self-help-interventions
#20
Suzanne Lokman, Stephanie S Leone, Marion Sommers-Spijkerman, Agnes van der Poel, Filip Smit, Brigitte Boon
BACKGROUND: Prevention of depression is important due to the substantial burden of disease associated with it. To this end, we developed a novel, brief, and low-threshold Web-based self-help approach for depressive complaints called complaint-directed mini-interventions (CDMIs). These CDMIs focus on highly prevalent complaints that are demonstrably associated with depression and have a substantial economic impact: stress, sleep problems, and worry. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based self-help CDMIs in a sample of adults with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms compared to a wait-list control group...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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