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Behavioral economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537943/reinforcing-effectiveness-of-midazolam-ethanol-and-sucrose-behavioral-economic-comparison-of-a-mixture-relative-to-its-component-solutions
#1
E Andrew Townsend, Donna M Platt, James K Rowlett, Peter G Roma, Kevin B Freeman
Benzodiazepines (BZs) are relatively safe when administered alone. However, these drugs can produce severe side effects when coadministered with ethanol. Despite these adverse consequences, rates of concurrent BZ and ethanol misuse are increasing, and it is unclear whether this behavior is maintained by an enhanced reinforcing effect of the mixture. To address this issue, the current study compared the reinforcing effectiveness of sucrose solutions mixed with midazolam, ethanol, or both. Eight male rats were trained to orally self-administer solutions of either sucrose (S), sucrose+midazolam (SM), sucrose+ethanol (SE), or sucrose+midazolam+ethanol (SME)...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533568/leveraging-geotagged-twitter-data-to-examine-neighborhood-happiness-diet-and-physical-activity
#2
Quynh C Nguyen, Suraj Kath, Hsien-Wen Meng, Dapeng Li, Ken Robert Smith, James A VanDerslice, Ming Wen, Feifei Li
OBJECTIVES: Using publicly available, geotagged Twitter data, we created neighborhood indicators for happiness, food and physical activity for three large counties: Salt Lake, San Francisco and New York. METHODS: We utilize 2.8 million tweets collected between February-August 2015 in our analysis. Geo-coordinates of where tweets were sent allow us to spatially join them to 2010 census tract locations. We implemented quality control checks and tested associations between Twitter-derived variables and sociodemographic characteristics...
August 2016: Applied Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530430/subjective-social-status-life-course-ses-and-bmi-in-young-adulthood
#3
Matt Bradshaw, Blake Victor Kent, W Matthew Henderson, Anna Catherine Setar
OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with many aspects of health and well-being, including body mass index (BMI). Most research in this area has focused on objective indicators of SES such as education and income, but recent work suggests that subjective social status (SSS) is also important. This study contributes to a growing body of research on SSS and BMI. METHOD: Data from Waves I and IV the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a study of 14,780 individuals followed from adolescence to young adulthood, were analyzed...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529233/the-medicinal-rod-slave-health-and-redhibition-law-in-george-washington-cable-s-i-the-grandissimes-i
#4
Heather Chacón
The economic transactions and litigation necessary for slavery to function, coupled with the South's honor culture, meant skepticism and posturing frequently attended the buying and selling of enslaved people. This atmosphere provided opportunities for enslaved individuals familiar with the symbiotic ways their health and value intertwined to manipulate owners by feigning illness or adopting behaviors contrary to those of a "sound and sane" captive under Louisiana's redhibitory (slave warranty) law. Such actions offered a chance at preserving that which slavery denied its victims: proximity to family, a reduced chance of being sold, and an opportunity to exert agency within a strictly oppressive system...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528990/proteomics-survey-of-solanaceae-family-current-status-and-challenges-ahead
#5
Arindam Ghatak, Palak Chaturvedi, Puneet Paul, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Sun Tae Kim, Wolfram Weckwerth, Ravi Gupta
Solanaceae is one of the major economically important families of higher plants and has played a central role in human nutrition since the dawn of human civilization. Therefore, researchers have always been interested in understanding the complex behavior of Solanaceae members to identify key transcripts, proteins or metabolites, which are potentially associated with major traits. Proteomics studies have contributed significantly to understanding the physiology of Solanaceae members. A compilation of all the published reports showed that both gel-based (75%) and gel-free (25%) proteomic technologies have been utilized to establish the proteomes of different tissues, organs, and organelles under normal and adverse environmental conditions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526250/sleep-problems-in-the-first-year-of-elementary-school-the-role-of-sleep-hygiene-gender-and-socioeconomic-status
#6
Laura K Uebergang, Sarah J Arnup, Harriet Hiscock, Esther Care, Jon Quach
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the relationship between sleep hygiene practices and parent-reported child sleep problems in students in the first year of elementary school, (2) whether the relationship differed by (a) gender and (b) SES and (3) in a multivariate explanatory model. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a population-based sample. SETTING: Forty-five elementary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Families of children aged 4-6 years in the first year of elementary school in Melbourne, Australia...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524085/present-food-shopping-habits-in-the-spanish-adult-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
María Achón, María Serrano, Ángela García-González, Elena Alonso-Aperte, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521757/the-effect-of-food-insecurity-on-health-status-of-adolescents-in-ethiopia-longitudinal-study
#8
Mulusew G Jebena, David Lindstrom, Carl Lachat, Tefera Belachew, Patrick Kolsteren
BACKGROUND: The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents' health and wellbeing in Ethiopia. METHOD: We used data from the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth which began tracking a cohort of adolescents in 2005 to examine the social, behavioral and economic determinants of their health and well-being. A total of 1,919 sample were included in the main analyses...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514277/a-commitment-contract-to-achieve-virologic-suppression-in-poorly-adherent-patients-with-hiv-aids
#9
Marcella Alsan, John Beshears, Wendy S Armstrong, James J Choi, Brigitte C Madrian, Minh Ly T Nguyen, Carlos Del Rio, David Laibson, Vincent C Marconi
OBJECTIVE: Assess whether a commitment contract informed by behavioral economics leads to persistent virologic suppression among HIV-positive patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. DESIGN: Single-center pilot randomized clinical trial, plus a non-randomized control group. SETTING: Publicly-funded HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. INTERVENTION: The study involved three arms. (i) Participants in the provider visit incentive arm received $30 after attending each scheduled provider visit...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514026/gambling-with-life-masculinity-risk-and-danger-in-the-lives-of-unauthorized-migrant-roofers
#10
Sergio Chávez, Claire E Altman
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the occupational experiences of unauthorized immigrants employed in one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States: roofing. METHODS: We draw on 40 in-depth interviews with return migrants in Guanajuato, Mexico, to examine how the adoption of masculinity, dangerous working conditions, the labor market structure, and absence of legal status exacerbates injuries for unauthorized roofers. FINDINGS: Undocumented men return to Mexico injured with chronic pain, health complications, and trauma...
June 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513318/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-active-commuting-to-school-in-children
#11
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt
BACKGROUND: The role of neighborhood type in active commuting to school (ACS) has not been extensively studied in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between neighborhood built environment (walkability) and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with ACS among children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 310 Spanish children (aged 10-12 years; 51% male) was conducted in 2015. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512629/a-modified-behavior-risk-factor-surveillance-system-to-assess-diabetes-self-management-behaviors-and-diabetes-care-in-monterrey-mexico-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Marylyn Morris McEwen, Rogelio Andrès Elizondo-Pereo, Alice E Pasvogel, Irene Meester, Javier Vargas-Villarreal, Francisco González-Salazar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of death from worldwide non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of diabetes in the Mexico (MX)-United States border states exceeds the national rate in both countries. The economic burden of diabetes, due to decreased productivity, disability, and medical costs, is staggering and increases significantly when T2DM-related complications occur. The purpose of this study was to use a modified behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS) to describe the T2DM self-management behaviors, diabetes care, and health perception of a convenience sample of adults with T2DM in Monterrey, MX...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512400/exposure-to-hedione-increases-reciprocity-in-humans
#13
Sebastian Berger, Hanns Hatt, Axel Ockenfels
Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508921/latent-factor-structure-of-a-behavioral-economic-marijuana-demand-curve
#14
Elizabeth R Aston, Samantha G Farris, James MacKillop, Jane Metrik
RATIONALE: Drug demand, or relative value, can be assessed via analysis of behavioral economic purchase task performance. Five demand indices are typically obtained from drug purchase tasks. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to determine whether metrics of marijuana reinforcement from a marijuana purchase task (MPT) exhibit a latent factor structure that efficiently characterizes marijuana demand. METHODS: Participants were regular marijuana users (n = 99; 37...
May 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508736/out-of-harm-s-way-secure-versus-insecure-disorganized-attachment-predicts-less-adolescent-risk-taking-related-to-childhood-poverty
#15
Brianna C Delker, Rosemary E Bernstein, Heidemarie K Laurent
Although some risk taking in adolescence is normative, evidence suggests that adolescents raised in conditions of socioeconomic disadvantage are disproportionately burdened with risk taking and its negative consequences. Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we investigated quality of the early caregiving environment as a potential prospective buffer against the long-term association between childhood poverty and adolescent risk taking. Multicategorical moderation model results indicated that if raised in poverty across age 1-54 months (average family income to needs ratio ≤ 1...
May 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507541/the-importance-of-bacterial-culture-to-food-microbiology-in-the-age-of-genomics
#16
REVIEW
Alexander Gill
Culture-based and genomics methods provide different insights into the nature and behavior of bacteria. Maximizing the usefulness of both approaches requires recognizing their limitations and employing them appropriately. Genomic analysis excels at identifying bacteria and establishing the relatedness of isolates. Culture-based methods remain necessary for detection and enumeration, to determine viability, and to validate phenotype predictions made on the bias of genomic analysis. The purpose of this short paper is to discuss the application of culture-based analysis and genomics to the questions food microbiologists routinely need to ask regarding bacteria to ensure the safety of food and its economic production and distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507154/information-socialtaxis-and-efficient-collective-behavior-emerging-in-groups-of-information-seeking-agents
#17
Ehud D Karpas, Adi Shklarsh, Elad Schneidman
Individual behavior, in biology, economics, and computer science, is often described in terms of balancing exploration and exploitation. Foraging has been a canonical setting for studying reward seeking and information gathering, from bacteria to humans, mostly focusing on individual behavior. Inspired by the gradient-climbing nature of chemotaxis, the infotaxis algorithm showed that locally maximizing the expected information gain leads to efficient and ethological individual foraging. In nature, as well as in theoretical settings, conspecifics can be a valuable source of information about the environment...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507009/a-systematic-examination-of-the-association-between-parental-and-child-obesity-across-countries
#18
REVIEW
Youfa Wang, Jungwon Min, Jacob Khuri, Miao Li
Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Parents can have an important influence on their children's health behaviors and weight status. Many studies have examined the association between parental and childhood weight status. However, much heterogeneity between studies exists, and the parent-child (P-C) association in obesity has varied. The purpose of this systematic examination and meta-analysis was to examine the strength and variation of the P-C association in obesity and to identify factors (e.g...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505483/the-effects-of-ingested-aqueous-aluminum-on-floral-fidelity-and-foraging-strategy-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#19
Ana M Chicas-Mosier, Bree A Cooper, Alexander M Melendez, Melina Pérez, Devrim Oskay, Charles I Abramson
Pollinator decline is of international concern because of the economic services these organisms provide. Commonly cited sources of decline are toxicants, habitat fragmentation, and parasites. Toxicant exposure can occur through uptake and distribution from plant tissues and resources such as pollen and nectar. Metals such as aluminum can be distributed to pollinators and other herbivores through this route especially in acidified or mined areas. A free-flying artificial flower patch apparatus was used to understand how two concentrations of aluminum (2mg/L and 20mg/L) may affect the learning, orientation, and foraging behaviors of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505282/survival-and-locomotory-behavior-of-earwigs-after-exposure-to-reduced-risk-insecticides
#20
Catarina D Freitas, Lessando M Gontijo, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Mateus Chediak
The conservation of natural enemies is an important tactic to promote biological control of arthropod pests. The earwig Doru luteipes (Sccuder) is the most important predator of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in corn fields. One way of conserving these predators in the field is by using only selective insecticides when the pest population reaches the economic threshold. Some recent insecticides such as azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron have been claimed to pose reduced risk for natural enemies...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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