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Spermatogonia stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339164/nanos2-acts-as-an-intrinsic-regulator-of-gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-in-the-murine-testes
#1
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
In the male mouse embryos, the primordial germ cells colonize the developing testes at E11.5. These resident germ cells termed gonocytes are the predecessors of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and differentiating spermatogonia. Both of which are essential for male fertility where the former maintains the continuity of spermatogenesis and the latter generates pioneering waves of spermatozoa. Therefore the timely initiation of gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST) is an important process during which the cell fates of gonocytes might be segregated...
January 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338902/stage-specific-expression-of-ddx4-and-c-kit-at-different-developmental-stages-of-the-porcine-testis
#2
Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Woo-Tae Ha, Jae-Seok Woo, Hak-Jae Chung, Ji-Heon Lee, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis begins with spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are located in the basement membrane of the adult testes. Previous studies have described specific biomarkers for undifferentiated porcine spermatogonia or SSCs; however, these markers are not sufficient to understand spermatogenesis at different developmental stages. The objective of this study was characterize the expression of DEAD-Box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, also known as VASA) and tyrosine-protein kinase kit (c-kit), as potential markers of male germ cells in the porcine testis...
December 30, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a%C3%A2-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#3
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335366/the-paternal-age-at-conception-effect-on-offspring-telomere-length-mechanistic-comparative-and-adaptive-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Dan T A Eisenberg, Christopher W Kuzawa
Telomeres are repeating DNA found at the ends of chromosomes that, in the absence of restorative processes, shorten with cell replications and are implicated as a cause of senescence. It appears that sperm telomere length (TL) increases with age in humans, and as a result offspring of older fathers inherit longer telomeres. We review possible mechanisms underlying this paternal age at conception (PAC) effect on TL, including sperm telomere extension due to telomerase activity, age-dependent changes in the spermatogonial stem cell population (possibly driven by 'selfish' spermatogonia) and non-causal confounding...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326073/retinoic-acid-promotes-stem-cell-differentiation-and-embryonic-development-by-transcriptionally-activating-cftr
#5
Xiaofeng Li, Kin Lam Fok, Jinghui Guo, Yan Wang, Zhenqing Liu, Ziyi Chen, Chengdong Wang, Ye Chun Ruan, Sidney Siubun Yu, Hui Zhao, Ji Wu, Xiaohua Jiang, Hsiao Chang Chan
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes; however, the signaling mechanisms mediating the effect of RA are not fully understood. Here, we show that RA transcriptionally upregulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) by promoting the direct binding of its receptor RARα to Cftr promoter in mouse spermatogonia and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The RA/CFTR pathway is involved in the differentiation of spermatogonia and organogenesis during the embryo development of Xenopus laevis...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304256/dynamics-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-of-human-in-vitro-organized-testis-cells-from-testicular-sperm-extraction-biopsies
#6
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250763/transplantation-of-spermatogonial-stem-cells-suspension-into-rete-testis-of-azoospermia-mouse-model
#7
Arefeh Jafarian, Niknam Lakpour, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Sheida Salehkhou, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi
PURPOSE: The loss of spermatogonia following chemo-or radiotherapy leading to temporary or permanent infertility of the patient is a well known and unwanted side effect of many oncological therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, germ cells were isolated from 4 days old mouse testis cells. Busulfan treatment was used to the eliminate proliferating cells in the testis of recipient mice. The donor cells suspended in DMEM, were introduced into the rete testis of recipient mice via microinjection method...
December 17, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241545/the-germline-linker-histone-dbigh1-and-the-translational-regulator-bam-form-a-repressor-loop-essential-for-male-germ-stem-cell-differentiation
#8
Albert Carbonell, Salvador Pérez-Montero, Paula Climent-Cantó, Oscar Reina, Fernando Azorín
Drosophila spermatogenesis constitutes a paradigmatic system to study maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of adult stem cell lineages. Each Drosophila testis contains 6-12 germ stem cells (GSCs) that divide asymmetrically to produce gonialblast cells that undergo four transit-amplifying (TA) spermatogonial divisions before entering spermatocyte differentiation. Mechanisms governing these crucial transitions are not fully understood. Here, we report the essential role of the germline linker histone dBigH1 during early spermatogenesis...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#9
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161703/expression-profile-of-notch3-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#10
Ryu Okada, Megumi Fujimagari, Eri Koya, Yoshikazu Hirose, Tomomi Sato, Yukio Nishina
Stable and sustainable spermatogenesis is supported by the strict regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), which are a rare population of undifferentiated spermatogonia. It has been revealed that some signaling factors regulate the self-renewal of SSC; however, the molecular mechanism of SSC maintenance is still not completely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved juxtacrine signaling that plays important roles in the cell fate determination of various tissue stem cells...
January 22, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156418/characterization-of-domestic-pig-spermatogenesis-using-spermatogonial-stem-cell-markers-in-the-early-months-of-life
#11
Julio Almunia, Kotono Nakamura, Mami Murakami, Shigeo Takashima, Masaki Takasu
In pigs, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, are classically defined as being present till up to 2 months of life. However, knowledge about this transition from gonocytes to undifferentiated spermatogonia in pigs is limited. In this study, we characterized pig SSCs in neonatal (n = 6), one-month-old (1-mo-old, n = 6), two-month-old (2-mo-old, n = 6), and adult testes (n = 6) anatomically, histologically, and immunohistologically. Anatomically, testicular circumference (TC) was measured at each development stage...
November 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113556/phospholipase-d-family-member-6-pld6-is-a-surface-marker-for-enrichment-of-undifferentiated-spermatogonia-in-the-pre-pubertal-boars
#12
Pengfei Zhang, Yuwei Qin, Yi Zheng, Wenxian Zeng
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have a functional ability to maintain self-renewal and sustain production of spermatozoa throughout the reproductive lifespan of a male. Studies on SSCs can thus better understandings of spermatogenesis and unravel the mechanisms for self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells. However, the rarity of SSCs in the testis and the lack of reliable surface markers obstruct the related study and further application of SSCs. This is especially the case in livestock animals...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109271/periodic-production-of-retinoic-acid-by-meiotic-and-somatic-cells-coordinates-four-transitions-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#13
Tsutomu Endo, Elizaveta Freinkman, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
Mammalian spermatogenesis is an elaborately organized differentiation process, starting with diploid spermatogonia, which include germ-line stem cells, and ending with haploid spermatozoa. The process involves four pivotal transitions occurring in physical proximity: spermatogonial differentiation, meiotic initiation, initiation of spermatid elongation, and release of spermatozoa. We report how the four transitions are coordinated in mice. Two premeiotic transitions, spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic initiation, were known to be coregulated by an extrinsic signal, retinoic acid (RA)...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046703/dose-dependent-effects-of-busulfan-on-dog-testes-in-preparation-for-spermatogonial-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Tai-Young Hur, Seung-Hoon Lee, Sun-A Ock, Hyuk Song, Hyun-Jung Park, Ran Lee, Si-Heung Sung, Hyunjhung Jhun, Won-Young Lee
Successful male germ cell transplantation requires depletion of the host germ cells to allow efficient colonization of the donor spermatogonial stem cells. Although a sterilizing drug, busulfan, is commonly used for the preparation of recipient models before transplantation, the optimal dose of this drug has not yet been defined in dogs. In this study, 1-year-old mongrel dogs were intravenously injected with three different concentrations of busulfan (10, 15, or 17.5 mg/kg). Four weeks after busulfan treatment, no fully matured spermatozoa were detected in any of the busulfan-treated groups...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040674/evaluation-of-apoptotic-and-autophagic-related-protein-expressions-before-and-after-ivm-of-fresh-slow-frozen-and-vitrified-pre-pubertal-mouse-testicular-tissue
#15
L Dumont, F Chalmel, A Oblette, B Berby, A Rives, V Duchesne, C Rondanino, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Do freezing and in vitro culture procedures enhance the expression of proteins involved in apoptotic or autophagic pathways in murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: IVM strongly modified apoptosis- and autophagy-related relative protein levels in mice testicular tissue whereas the impact of cryopreservation procedures was minimal at the end of the culture. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro spermatogenesis remains a challenging technical issue as it imposes to find a very close balance between survival and death of germ cell natural precursors (i...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037932/retinoic-acid-deficiency-leads-to-an-increase-in-spermatogonial-stem-number-in-the-neonatal-mouse-testis-but-excess-retinoic-acid-results-in-no-change
#16
Kellie S Agrimson, Melissa J Oatley, Debra Mitchell, Jon M Oatley, Michael D Griswold, Cathryn A Hogarth
The onset of spermatogenesis occurs in response to retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A. However, whether RA plays any role during establishment of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) pool is unknown. Because designation of the SSC population and the onset of RA signaling in the testis that induces differentiation have similar timing, this study asked whether RA influenced SSC establishment. Whole mount immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis using the Id4-eGfp transgenic reporter mouse line revealed an enrichment for ID4-EGFP+ cells within the testis following inhibition of RA synthesis by WIN 18,446 treatment...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024760/rna-processing-in-the-male-germline-mechanisms-and-implications-for-fertility
#17
REVIEW
Julien M D Legrand, Robin M Hobbs
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a tightly coordinated process that gives rise to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilising an ovum during sexual reproduction. A population of stem and progenitor cells known as undifferentiated spermatogonia enables continual spermatogenesis throughout life. A complex transcriptional network that balances self-renewal of spermatogonia with their timely differentiation in order to maintain constant fertility regulates this process. Importantly, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, necessitated by the profound genetic and morphological changes that occur during meiosis and sperm maturation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987646/molecular-cloning-and-expression-of-octamer-binding-transcription-factor-oct4-in-the-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#18
Yonghua Jiang, Kunhuang Han, Shihai Chen, Mingyi Cai, Yilei Wang, Ziping Zhang
Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a crucial pluripotent transcription factor in controlling pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), early embryonic development, and gonadal germ cells. To understand the roles of Oct4 in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (Lc-Oct4), the full-length cDNA of Oct4 was cloned and analyzed. Lc-Oct4 includes a 104-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 567-bp 3' UTR and a 1431-bp coding region encoding a protein of 476 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass (Mm) of 52...
October 4, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985528/chromatin-and-single-cell-rna-seq-profiling-reveal-dynamic-signaling-and-metabolic-transitions-during-human-spermatogonial-stem-cell-development
#19
Jingtao Guo, Edward J Grow, Chongil Yi, Hana Mlcochova, Geoffrey J Maher, Cecilia Lindskog, Patrick J Murphy, Candice L Wike, Douglas T Carrell, Anne Goriely, James M Hotaling, Bradley R Cairns
Human adult spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) must balance self-renewal and differentiation. To understand how this is achieved, we profiled DNA methylation and open chromatin (ATAC-seq) in SSEA4+ hSSCs, analyzed bulk and single-cell RNA transcriptomes (RNA-seq) in SSEA4+ hSSCs and differentiating c-KIT+ spermatogonia, and performed validation studies via immunofluorescence. First, DNA hypomethylation at embryonic developmental genes supports their epigenetic "poising" in hSSCs for future/embryonic expression, while core pluripotency genes (OCT4 and NANOG) were transcriptionally and epigenetically repressed...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982932/ezh2-deletion-promotes-spermatogonial-differentiation-and-apoptosis
#20
Cheng Jin, Yan Zhang, Zhi-Peng Wang, Xiu-Xia Wang, Tie-Cheng Sun, Xiao-Yu Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Jin-Mei Cheng, Jian Li, Su-Ren Chen, Shou-Long Deng, Yi-Xun Liu
Spermatogenesis is crucial for male fertility and is therefore tightly controlled by a variety of epigenetic regulators. However, the function of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in spermatogenesis and the molecular mechanisms underlying its activity remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that deleting EZH2 promoted spermatogonial differentiation and apoptosis. EZH2 is expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round and elongated spermatids from stage 9 to 11 but not in leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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