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Pediatric dystonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419660/acute-masseter-dystonia-in-a-pediatric-patient-receiving-aripiprazole-and-methylphenidate-following-induction-of-general-anesthesia
#1
Michelle LeRiger, Jasper Williams, Greta Duncan-Wiebe, Mohanad Shukry
An 11-year-old male receiving aripiprazole, methylphenidate, and clonidine developed acute masseter dystonia inhibiting tracheal intubation after induction of general anesthesia with propofol and rocuronium. Following emergence, he had trismus and jaw discomfort. Psychiatry consultation suspected an acute dystonic reaction, so diphenhydramine was administered intravenously which resolved symptoms. We suspect chronic aripiprazole and methylphenidate usage combined with propofol administration in the short-term absence of methylphenidate made this patient susceptible to dystonic reactions...
April 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353527/baclofen-pumps-uses-and-complications
#2
Seth M Woolf, Carl R Baum
Intrathecal baclofen therapy, given via an implanted pump in the abdominal wall either as a continuous infusion or bolus dosing, has been used for more than 25 years to treat the spasticity and dystonia associated with various brain and spinal cord conditions. Pediatric clinicians occasionally encounter baclofen pumps, and in the pediatric setting, significant morbidity can arise from their use. This article presents the background, mechanism of action, uses, and complications of intrathecal baclofen therapy and discusses various management strategies should complications occur...
April 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247116/considerations-in-deep-brain-stimulation-dbs-for-pediatric-secondary-dystonia
#3
Deki Tsering, Laura Tochen, Bennett Lavenstein, Srijaya K Reddy, Yael Granader, Robert F Keating, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of effective long-term medication treatment for secondary dystonias. In situations where significantly impairing secondary dystonias fail to respond to typical enteral medications and intrathecal (or even intraventricular) baclofen, consideration should be given to the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While Level I evidence and long-term follow-up clearly demonstrate the efficacy of DBS for primary dystonia, the evidence for secondary dystonia remains mixed and unclear...
April 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169979/acute-focal-dystonia-after-a-single-dose-of-oral-cetirizine-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#4
Indar Kumar Sharawat, Lesa Dawman
Common cold is an acute illness affecting pediatric population in particular. The use of antihistamines is a common practice, with cetirizine being a frequently used drug with a good safety profile. However, adverse events due to the use of antihistamines have been rarely reported, such as drug-induced dystonia with the use of cetirizine. In our present case, dystonia due to the intake of cetirizine was observed, which the patient responded well to the use of benzodiazapines, namely, clonazepam. We report this case to highlight the occurrence of this adverse event with the use of cetirizine...
February 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139490/management-of-tongue-and-lip-laceration-due-to-dystonia-in-a-1-year-old-infant
#5
J P Beena
This case report describes the management of tongue and lip lacerations due to dystonia in a 1-year-old infant. A splint was given to raise the bite and prevent repeated trauma and aid in healing of the oral tissue. This paper highlights the importance of pediatric dentist's role in improving quality of patient care in an intensive care unit.
January 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057843/diphenhydramine-for-acute-extrapyramidal-symptoms-after-propofol-administration
#6
James Sherer, Tomas Salazar, Kevin B Schesing, Shannon McPartland, Jeffrey Kornitzer
Extrapyramidal symptoms are an uncommon but well-recognized side effect after the administration of general anesthesia in patients without a significant neurologic history. Several case reports implicate propofol as the likely causative agent producing these symptoms, which include ballismus, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and opisthotonus. Currently, there is no clear consensus on first-line treatment of these symptoms. In each of the published cases, anticholinergic medications and benzodiazepines were central to initial management, although the speed and extent of symptom resolution were variable...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045840/acute-dystonia-versus-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-without-fever-in-an-eight-year-old-child
#7
Rita Sridaran, Chadd E Nesbit
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of the use of certain medications. It is being seen more often in the pediatric population because of the increasing use of both typical and atypical antipsychotics in children. Rapid recognition of NMS is important to emergency physicians because timely treatment can be life saving. Acute dystonia is also a well-known and more common adverse effect of certain types of antipsychotics, more commonly seen with the typical antipsychotics versus the atypical antipsychotics...
January 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042592/paroxysmal-nonepileptic-events-in-glut1-deficiency
#8
Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Christin Eltze, Nicole Heussinger
View Supplementary Video Movement disorders are a major feature of Glut1 deficiency. As recently identified in adults with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia, similar events were reported in pediatric Glut1 deficiency. In a case series, parent videos of regular motor state and paroxysmal events were requested from children with Glut1 deficiency on clinical follow-up. A questionnaire was sent out to 60 families. Videos of nonparoxysmal/paroxysmal states in 3 children illustrated the ataxic-dystonic, choreatiform, and dyskinetic-dystonic nature of paroxysmal events...
November 2016: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736263/adverse-events-associated-with-pediatric-exposures-to-dextromethorphan
#9
Ian M Paul, Kate M Reynolds, Ralph E Kauffman, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Robert B Palmer, Randy I Burnham, Jody L Green
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children <12 years old from a surveillance program of OTC cough/cold medication exposures. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of oral exposures to dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014...
January 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693334/historical-developments-in-children-s-deep-brain-stimulation
#10
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Philippe Coubes
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous by the underlying pathobiology and clinical presentation, childhood onset dystonia is most frequently progressive, with related disability and limitations in functions of daily living. Consequently, there is an obvious need for efficient symptomatic therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following lesional surgery to basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a more conservative and adjustable intervention to and validated for internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), highly efficient in treating isolated "primary" dystonia and associated symptoms such as subcortical myoclonus...
January 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606018/dystonia-an-unusual-presentation-in-pediatric-moyamoya-disease-imaging-findings-of-a-case
#11
Suresh Kumar, Sudhir Sharma, Anupam Jhobta, Ram Gopal Sood
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by idiopathic occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries and the development of characteristic leptomeningeal collateral vessels along anterior or posterior circulation. We present an unusual case of MMD presenting with generalized dystonia as the predominant manifestation.
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567612/long-term-results-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-cohort-of-eight-children-with-isolated-dystonia
#12
P Krause, K Lauritsch, A Lipp, A Horn, B Weschke, A Kupsch, K L Kiening, G-H Schneider, A A Kühn
Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with severe isolated dystonia. However, clinical evidence for the long-term use of DBS in children is limited and controlled trials have not yet been conducted. Here, we provide the long-term results of up to 13 years of pallidal DBS in eight pediatric patients with generalized idiopathic or hereditary isolated dystonia (five males, mean age at surgery 12.5 ± 3.5 years), as assessed by retrospective video rating. Video rating was performed at three time points: pre-operative, 1-year short-term follow-up (1y-FU) and long-term last FU (LT-FU, up to 13 years)...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567276/cerebral-plasticity-windows-of-opportunity-in-the-developing-brain
#13
REVIEW
Fatima Yousif Ismail, Ali Fatemi, Michael V Johnston
BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity refers to the inherently dynamic biological capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to undergo maturation, change structurally and functionally in response to experience and to adapt following injury. This malleability is achieved by modulating subsets of genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that influence the dynamics of synaptic connections and neural circuitry formation culminating in gain or loss of behavior or function. Neuroplasticity in the healthy developing brain exhibits a heterochronus cortex-specific developmental profile and is heightened during "critical and sensitive periods" of pre and postnatal brain development that enable the construction and consolidation of experience-dependent structural and functional brain connections...
January 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395403/aripiprazole-and-acute-extrapyramidal-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Chiara Bernagie, Marina Danckaerts, Martien Wampers, Marc De Hert
BACKGROUND: Both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have approved aripiprazole for use in adolescents for specific indications. Given the assumed favorable side-effect profile of aripiprazole, its use in children and adolescents has increased for both official and off-label indications (anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders). However, several cases of children and adolescents with new-onset extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) after commencing treatment with aripiprazole have been reported, and a more systematic appraisal of this possible risk is lacking...
September 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375173/pedidbs-the-pediatric-international-deep-brain-stimulation-registry-project
#15
Warren Marks, Laurie Bailey, Terence D Sanger
BACKGROUND: Interactive neuromodulation represents the evolving frontier in surgical treatment of a variety of disorders involving the sensory organs and nervous system. Building on the advances of pioneering neurologists and neurosurgeons, progress has been made since the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Microelectrode recording has greatly aided our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of movement disorders and the effects of electrical stimulation. The introduction of image - guided systems to provide targeted, controlled neuro-stimulation to specific brain areas is an emerging technique for implantation and may have special appeal for pediatric patients...
January 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341610/comparison-between-an-ascenda-and-a-silicone-catheter-in-intrathecal-baclofen-therapy-in-pediatric-patients-analysis-of-complications
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Francesco Motta, Clara Eleonora Antonello
OBJECTIVE In this single-center study the authors investigated the complications occurring before and after the introduction of the new Ascenda intrathecal catheter (Medtronic Inc.) in pediatric patients treated with intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) for spasticity and/or dystonia. METHODS This was a retrospective review of 508 children who had received ITB, 416 with silicone catheters in the 13 years between September 1998 and September 2011 and 92 with Ascenda catheters in the 3 years between September 2011 and August 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292112/biallelic-mutations-of-vac14-in-pediatric-onset-neurological-disease
#17
Guy M Lenk, Krystyna Szymanska, Grazyna Debska-Vielhaber, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Anna Walczak, Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Stefan Vielhaber, Kerstin Hallmann, Piotr Stawinski, Sonja Buehring, David A Hsu, Wolfram S Kunz, Miriam H Meisler, Rafal Ploski
In the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, the lipid kinase PIKFYVE and the phosphatase FIG4 are bound to the dimeric scaffold protein VAC14, which is composed of multiple heat-repeat domains. Mutations of FIG4 result in the inherited disorders Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, Yunis-Varón syndrome, and polymicrogyria with seizures. We here describe inherited variants of VAC14 in two unrelated children with sudden onset of a progressive neurological disorder and regression of developmental milestones. Both children developed impaired movement with dystonia, became nonambulatory and nonverbal, and exhibited striatal abnormalities on MRI...
July 7, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186707/cetirizine-and-albendazole-induced-dystonia-in-a-child
#18
Özge Yılmaz-Topa, Nilden Tuygun, Halise Akça, Emine Polat, Can Demir Karacan
Drug-induced dystonic reactions are a common presentation to the Pediatric Emergency Department frequently with antiemetics, antidepressants, dopamineblocking agents and antipyschotics. We report a case of generalized form of dystonia after taking albendazole and cetirizine. There is only one case with albendazole induced and two cases with cetirizine induced dystonia in the literature.
July 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173384/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-adolescents-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Ulrich Palm, Felix M Segmiller, Ann Natascha Epple, Franz-Joseph Freisleder, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Frank Padberg
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method that has shown promising results in various neuropsychiatric disorders in adults. This review addresses the therapeutic use of tDCS in children and adolescents including safety, ethical, and legal considerations. There are several studies addressing the dosage of tDCS in children and adolescents by computational modeling of electric fields in the pediatric brain. Results suggest halving the amperage used in adults to obtain the same peak electric fields, however, there are some studies reporting on the safe application of tDCS with standard adult parameters in children (2 mA; 20-30 min)...
October 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111573/clinical-genetic-and-radiological-features-of-extrapyramidal-movement-disorders-in-mitochondrial-disease
#20
Mika H Martikainen, Yi Shiau Ng, Gráinne S Gorman, Charlotte L Alston, Emma L Blakely, Andrew M Schaefer, Patrick F Chinnery, David J Burn, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull
IMPORTANCE: Extrapyramidal movement disorders associated with mitochondrial disease are difficult to treat and can lead to considerable disability. Moreover, potential new treatment trials on the horizon highlight the importance of genotype-phenotype associations and deep phenotyping of the movement disorders related to mitochondrial disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotype, genetic etiology, and investigation of extrapyramidal movement disorders in a large and well-defined mitochondrial disease cohort...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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