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Pediatric brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333742/parvalbumin-fast-spiking-interneurons-are-selectively-altered-by-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Joshua Nichols, George Reed Bjorklund, Jason Newbern, Trent Anderson
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Traditionally, ongoing neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity have thought to confer children with an advantage following TBI. However, recent findings indicate that the pediatric brain may be more sensitive to brain injury. Inhibitory interneurons are essential for proper cortical function and implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI, yet few studies have directly examined for TBI induced changes to interneurons themselves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329548/the-cost-of-a-pediatric-neurocritical-care-program-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Steven W Howard, Zidong Zhang, Paula Buchanan, Stephanie L Bernell, Christine Williams, Lindsey Pearson, Michael Huetsch, Jeff Gill, Jose A Pineda
BACKGROUND: Inpatient care for children with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is expensive, with inpatient charges averaging over $70,000 per case (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). This ranks sTBI in the top quartile of pediatric conditions with the greatest inpatient costs (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics...
January 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329164/a-systematic-review-of-risk-factors-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-after-pediatric-critical-illness
#3
Alicia G Kachmar, Sharon Y Irving, Cynthia A Connolly, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with cognitive impairment as assessed by neuropsychologic tests in neurotypical children after critical illness. DATA SOURCES: For this systematic review, we searched the Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and CINAHL databases from January 1960 to March 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Included were studies with subjects 3-18 years old at the time of post PICU follow-up evaluation and use of an objective standardized neuropsychologic test with at least one cognitive functioning dimension...
January 11, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325878/can-we-identify-futility-in-kids-an-evaluation-of-admission-parameters-predicting-100-mortality-in-1292-severely-injured-children
#4
Kyle J Kalkwarf, Shane D Jensen, Myron Allukian, Matthew T Harting, Charles S Cox, Erin E Fox, Charles E Wade, Bryan A Cotton
BACKGROUND: Objective parameters predicting futility of care in severely injured pediatric patients are lacking. While futility of care has been investigated in a limited number of studies in trauma patients, none of these studies achieves a 100% success rate in a large cohort of pediatric patients. The purpose of the current study was to identify extreme laboratory values that could be used to predict 100% mortality in severely injured children. STUDY DESIGN: Registry-based, historical cohort of all severely injured children (level 1 trauma, <16 years old), who were not dead on arrival, between January 2010 and December 2016 from a single level 1 trauma center...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324491/validation-of-a-second-generation-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitor-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Viviane G Nasr, Lisa T Bergersen, Hung-Mo Lin, Paul B Benni, Rachel S Bernier, Michelle E Anderson, Barry D Kussman
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technology to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and develop interventions to prevent and ameliorate hypoxic brain injury. Cerebral oximeters are calibrated and validated by comparison of the near-infrared spectroscopy-measured cerebral O2 saturation (SctO2) to a "field" or reference O2 saturation (REF CX) calculated as a weighted average from arterial and jugular bulb oxygen saturations. In this study, we calibrated and validated the second-generation, 5 wavelength, FORE-SIGHT Elite with the medium sensor (source-detector separation 12 and 40 mm) for measurement of SctO2 in children with congenital heart disease...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320485/non-invasive-ventilation-and-surfactant-treatment-as-primary-mode-of-respiratory-support-in-surfactant-deficient-newborn-piglets
#6
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Francesca Ricci, Federico Bianco, Fabrizio Salomone, Begoña Loureiro, Jon López de Heredia Y Goya
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), forms of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for respiratory support, are increasingly being chosen as the initial treatment for neonates with surfactant (SF) deficiency. Our objective was to compare NCPAP with NIPPV with or without SF administration as a primary mode of ventilation. METHODS: Twenty-four newborn piglets with SF-deficient lung injury produced by repetitive bronchoalveolar lavages were randomly assigned to NCPAP or NIPPV, with or without SF administration (InSurE method)...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320482/severe-retinopathy-of-prematurity-is-associated-with-reduced-cerebellar-and-brainstem-volumes-at-term-and-neurodevelopmental-deficits-at-two-years
#7
Femke J Drost, Kristin Keunen, Pim Moeskops, Nathalie H P Claessens, Femke van Kalken, Ivana Išgum, Elsbeth S M Voskuil-Kerkhof, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders, Jacqueline U M Termote
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), measures of brain morphology at term equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 infants with severe ROP (median gestational age (GA) 25.3 (range 24.6-25.9 weeks) were included in this retrospective case-control study. Each infant was matched to two extremely preterm control infants (n=36) by GA, birth weight, sex and brain injury. T2-weighted images were obtained on a 3T MRI at TEA...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306237/pediatric-emergency-care-applied-research-network-head-injuryprediction-rules-on-the-basis-of-cost-and-effectiveness
#8
Fatma Dilek Gökharman, Sonay Aydın, Erdem Fatihoğlu, Pınar Nercis Koşar
Background/aim: Head injuries are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Noncontrast enhanced cranial CT is the method of choice to detect possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concerns about ionizing radiation exposure make the evaluation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rules in predicting clinically important TBI and to determine the amount of medical resource waste and unnecessary radiation exposure...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299377/memory-and-the-hippocampal-formation-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Dana DeMaster, Chad Johnson, Jenifer Juranek, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
Introduction: Previous research indicates disruption of learning and memory in children who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: This research evaluates the impact of pediatric TBI on volumetric differences along the long axis of the hippocampus, a region of the brain that is critical for explicit memory. Methods: Structural brain data and behavioral measures were collected 6 weeks following TBI or extracranial injury (EI), in children aged 8-15 years and from a group of age matched typically developing controls (TDC)...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288413/anatomical-and-functional-outcomes-following-vitrectomy-for-dense-vitreous-hemorrhage-related-to-terson-syndrome-in-children
#10
Isil Sayman Muslubas, Murat Karacorlu, Mumin Hocaoglu, Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Serra Arf
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess anatomical and functional outcomes of vitrectomy in pediatric cases of Terson syndrome. METHODS: A total of 11 eyes of seven children diagnosed with Terson syndrome secondary to traumatic brain injury and 17 eyes of 12 children diagnosed with Terson syndrome secondary to nontraumatic brain hemorrhage who had 20-gauge or 23-gauge pars plana or pars plicata vitrectomy were included in this retrospective study. The primary outcome was the change in visual acuity from the preoperative examination to postoperative final follow-up...
December 29, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277588/sport-related-traumatic-brain-injury-with-and-without-helmets-in-children
#11
Angela Bandte, Friederike-Sophie Fritzsche, Pedram Emami, Getrud Kammler, Klaus Püschel, Kara Krajewski
BACKGROUND: Soccer, bicycling and horseback riding are sports most commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Germany. The latter are commonly practiced with helmets and data on helmet use and usefulness vary widely. METHODS: After ethics approval, retrospective analysis was performed for patients ages 5-17 from 01/2009- 08/2014 based on the diagnosis TBI using the electronic patient file for both university hospital locations. Descriptive data analysis, multi- and univariate logistic regression were employed to calculate the odds ratio...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249074/prognostic-factors-of-acute-neurological-outcomes-in-infants-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Shunsuke Amagasa, Satoshi Tsuji, Hikoro Matsui, Satoko Uematsu, Takashi Moriya, Kosaku Kinoshita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to clarify risk factors for poor neurological outcomes and distinctive characteristics in infants with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: The study retrospectively reviewed data of 166 infants with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage from three tertiary institutions in Japan between 2002 and 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify clinical symptoms, vital signs, physical findings, and computed tomography findings associated with poor neurological outcomes at discharge from the intensive care unit...
December 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244842/intensive-care-treatments-associated-with-favorable-discharge-outcomes-in-argentine-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-for-the-south-american-guideline-adherence-group
#13
Monica S Vavilala, Silvia B Lujan, Qian Qiu, Michael J Bell, Nicolás M Ballarini, Nahuel Guadagnoli, María Alejandra Depetris, Gabriela A Faguaga, Gloria M Baggio, Leonardo O Busso, Mirta E García, Osvaldo R González Carrillo, Paula L Medici, Silvia S Sáenz, Elida E Vanella, Carly K Farr, Gustavo J Petroni
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the critical care management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low middle income countries. We aimed to identify indicators of intensive care unit (ICU) treatments associated with favorable outcomes in Argentine children with severe TBI. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from patients previously enrolled in a prospective seven center study of children with severe TBI who were admitted to an ICU in one of the seven study centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241696/serious-concomitant-injuries-in-pediatric-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Keita Shibahashi, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Yoshihiro Okura, Hidenori Hoda, Yuichi Hamabe
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death among children. Although several studies have reported the negative effects of concomitant injuries on mortality in adults with TBI, their effect on pediatric patients remains unclear. Our objective was to describe the effect of serious concomitant injuries on outcomes, in pediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: We identified pediatric patients (<18 years) with severe TBI, between 2004 and 2015, through the Japan Trauma Data Bank...
December 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234572/resection-of-a-pediatric-thalamic-juvenile-pilocytic-astrocytoma-with-whole-brain-tractography
#15
Howard L Weiner, Dimitris G Placantonakis
The resection of deep-seated brain tumors has been associated with morbidity due to injury to critical neural structures during the approach. Recent technological advancements in navigation and stereotaxy, surgical planning, brain tractography and minimal-access brain ports present the opportunity to overcome such limitations. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient with a left thalamic/midbrain juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA). The tumor displaced the corticospinal fibers posteriorly and resulted in hemiparesis...
October 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230595/an-optimized-technique-of-endoscopic-third-ventriculocisternostomy-etv-for-children-with-occlusive-hydrocephalus
#16
Albert Akramovich Sufianov, Ekkehard M Kasper, Rinat Albertovich Sufianov
In this article, we present an optimized minimally invasive technique of ETV for children with occlusive hydrocephalus. The study comprises of 64 consecutive pediatric cases (34 boys and 30 girls aged from 1 month to 5 years) of occlusive hydrocephalus from various etiologies, which were treated with a modified technique of ETV. Mean clinical follow-up period after ETV was 24.2 ± 3.8 months. Application of the new technique made it possible to significantly reduce the length of the soft tissue incision for access, and the use of upgraded instruments allowed to perform a twist drill hole in the skull to less than half a usual size...
December 11, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230542/secondary-intracranial-hypertension-pseudotumor-cerebri-presenting-as-post-traumatic-headache-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-series
#17
Tonia Sabo, Charlene Supnet, Sushmita Purkayastha
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema peaks 36-72 h after moderate traumatic brain injury but thought to be uncommon after mild traumatic brain injury. Post-traumatic headache can develop 48-72 h post-injury, perhaps reflecting the developing cerebral edema. Pseudotumor cerebri can result from various causes, including cerebral edema, and is characterized by increased intracranial pressure, headache, visual, and other common symptoms. Our objective was to report a phenotypically identifiable post-traumatic headache subtype...
December 11, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229283/pediatric-bicycle-helmet-legislation-and-crash-related-traumatic-brain-injury-in-illinois-1999-2009
#18
Chelsea Williams, Raquel Weston, Joe Feinglass, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Bicycling is one of the most popular forms of play and exercise for children in the US. However, over 200,000 children per year are injured in bicycle crashes, and an estimated 22,000 pediatric bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur annually. Bicycle helmets are known to decrease the risk of head injury, but efficacy and magnitude of the effect of helmet legislation have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of children aged <18, who presented after a bicycle crash in Illinois from 1999 to 2009...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211056/krebs-cycle-metabolites-and-preferential-succinate-oxidation-following-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Prateek V Sahni, Jimmy Zhang, Sergey Sosunov, Alexander Galkin, Zoya Niatsetskaya, Anatoly Starkov, Paul S Brookes, Vadim S Ten
BackgroundReverse electron transport (RET) driven by the oxidation of succinate has been proposed as the mechanism of accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in post-ischemic mitochondria. However, it remains unclear whether upon reperfusion, mitochondria preferentially oxidase succinate.MethodsNeonatal mice were subjected to Rice-Vannucci model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI) followed by assessment of Krebs cycle metabolites, mitochondrial substrate preference, and H2O2 generation rate in the ischemic brain...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210926/hospital-readmissions-after-pediatric-trauma
#20
Aline B Maddux, Peter E DeWitt, Peter M Mourani, Tellen D Bennett
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate, etiology, and timing of unplanned and planned hospital readmissions and to identify risk factors for unplanned readmission in children who survive a hospitalization for trauma. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of a probabilistically linked dataset from the National Trauma Data Bank and the Pediatric Health Information System database, 2007-2012. SETTING: Twenty-nine U.S. children's hospitals...
November 28, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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