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Pediatric brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142631/mortality-and-epidemiology-in-256-cases-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-korean-neuro-trauma-data-bank-system-kntdbs-2010-2014
#1
Hee-Won Jeong, Seung-Won Choi, Jin-Young Youm, Jeong-Wook Lim, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Shi-Hun Song
Objective: Among pediatric injury, brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. To improve outcomes, many developed countries built neurotrauma databank (NTDB) system but there was not established nationwide coverage NTDB until 2009 and there have been few studies on pediatric traumatic head injury (THI) patients in Korea. Therefore, we analyzed epidemiology and outcome from the big data of pediatric THI. Methods: We collected data on pediatric patients from 23 university hospitals including 9 regional trauma centers from 2010 to 2014 and analyzed their clinical factors (sex, age, initial Glasgow coma scale, cause and mechanism of head injury, presence of surgery)...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131920/congenital-hyperinsulinism
#2
Elena Minakova, Alison Chu
Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare disorder that commonly presents in the immediate postnatal period as persistent hypoglycemia. The condition is frequently resistant to medical therapies, and the genetic mutations implicated in the disorder can be predictive of response to therapy. Evaluation of hypoglycemia in the illustrative case presented in this article led to genetic testing identifying recessive mutations in the potassium channel subunits of the beta-islet pancreatic cells. Potassium channel defects are often refractory to medical therapies, so near-total pancreatectomy is usually indicated; however, genetic mutations leading to metabolic dysregulation within the beta-islet pancreatic cells are usually responsive to medical therapy...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122642/evaluation-of-the-roche%C3%A2-elecsys-and-the-diasorin%C3%A2-liaison-s100-kits-in-the-management-of-mild-head-injury-in-the-emergency-room
#3
Quentin Delefortrie, François Lejeune, Benjamin Kerzmann, Raphaël Levy, Jean-François Adam, Thierry Sottiaux, Alexandre Grimmelprez, Patrick Vankerkhoven, Said Hachimi-Idrissi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this single-center prospective study is to compare two commercially available S100ß kits (the Roche® Elecsys and the Diasorin® Liaison S100 kits) in terms of analytical and clinical performances in a population admitted in the emergency room for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 110 patients were enrolled from September 2014 to May 2015. Blood sample draws were performed within 3h after head trauma and the study population was split into pediatric and adult subpopulations (>18years of age)...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#4
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104998/ankle-passive-and-active-movement-training-in-children-with-acute-brain-injury-using-a-wearable-robot
#5
Kai Chen, Bo Xiong, Yupeng Ren, Assaf Dvorkin, Deboah Gaebler-Spira, Charles Sisung, Li-Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a wearable robotic device in guiding isometric torque generation and passive-active movement training for ankle motor recovery in children with acute brain injury. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Ten inpatient children with acute brain injury being treated in a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN: Daily robot-guided ankle passive-active movement therapy for 15 sessions, including isometric torque generation under real-time feedback, stretch-ing, and active movement training with motivating games using a wearable ankle rehabilitation robot...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097272/use-of-mental-health-services-by-adolescents-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-a
#6
Andrea R S Huebner, Amy Cassedy, Tanya M Brown, H Gerry Taylor, Terry Stancin, Michael W Kirkwood, Shari L Wade
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are common after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many patients in need of mental health services do not receive them, but studies have not consistently used prospective and objective methods or followed samples for more than 1 year. OBJECTIVE: To examine adolescents' use of mental health services after TBI. DESIGN: Secondary analysis from multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Five level 1 US trauma centers...
October 30, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089196/immediate-effect-of-a-functional-wrist-orthosis-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-or-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Michelle Jackman, Iona Novak, Natasha Lannin, Claire Galea
STUDY DESIGN: Two-group randomized controlled trial. INTRODUCTION: Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084196/multi-modality-neuromonitoring-in-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-monitoring-pediatric-tbi
#8
REVIEW
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Joseph Donnelly, Peter Smielewski, Shruti Agarwal, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson
Each year, the annual hospitalization rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children in the US are 57.7 per 100 K less than 5 years of age and 23.1 per 100 K in the 5-14 year age group. Despite this, little is known about the pathophysiology of TBI in children and how to manage it most effectively. Historically, TBI management has been guided by clinical examination. This has been assisted progressively by clinical imaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and finally software that can calculate optimal brain physiology...
October 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084038/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#9
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuroimaging findings post ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of nonneonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain magnetic resonance imaging after ECMO between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (interquartile range 3-170 months) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
November 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084034/risk-factors-for-prolonged-symptoms-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pediatric-sports-concussion-clinic-cohort
#10
Shayne D Fehr, Lindsay D Nelson, Kyle R Scharer, Elizabeth A Traudt, Joshua M Veenstra, Sergey S Tarima, Xue-Cheng Liu, Kevin D Walter
OBJECTIVE: To examine predictors of prolonged symptom duration from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a pediatric sports medicine specialty clinic cohort as these predictors may be distinct in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Outpatient specialty clinic. PATIENTS: Charts of 549 patients (age range: 10-18 years) with concussions were reviewed in an outpatient clinic that predominantly managed sports-related injuries (77...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079783/nanog-driven-cell-reprogramming-and-self-renewal-maintenance-in-ptch1-granule-cell-precursors-after-radiation-injury
#11
Barbara Tanno, Simona Leonardi, Gabriele Babini, Paola Giardullo, Ilaria De Stefano, Emanuela Pasquali, Anna Saran, Mariateresa Mancuso
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor, comprising four distinct molecular variants, one of which characterized by activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway, driving 25-30% of sporadic MB. SHH-dependent MBs arise from granule cell precursors (GCPs), are fatal in 40-70% of cases and radioresistance strongly contributes to poor prognosis and tumor recurrence. Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1 (+/-)) mice, carrying a germ-line heterozygous inactivating mutation in the Ptch1 gene, the Shh receptor and negative regulator of the pathway, are uniquely susceptible to MB development after radiation damage in neonatal cerebellum...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074134/severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-children-does-the-type-of-trauma-center-matter
#12
James M Bardes, Elizabeth Benjamin, Agustin Alvarez Escalante, Jinglan Wu, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death among injured children. Depending on geographic location, and trauma resources, pediatric patients may be treated at pediatric (PTC), adult (ATC), or mixed trauma centers (MTC). The effect of the type of trauma center on outcomes in severe TBI is not known. METHODS: NTDB study (2007-2014), level 1 trauma centers, patients ≤14years with severe isolated TBI (head AIS≥3 and extracranial AIS≤2)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071378/comparison-of-pecarn-and-catch-clinical-decision-rules-in-children-with-minor-blunt-head-trauma
#13
Ö Bozan, G Aksel, H A Kahraman, Ö Giritli, S E Eroğlu
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Computerized brain tomography (CBT) imaging plays a key role in the management of patients with head trauma, and there is an indication for CBT in moderate and severe injuries. However, it is difficult to determine an indication for CBT in patients with minor head trauma. The primary aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the most commonly used clinical decision rules: the guidelines of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), and those of the Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury (CATCH)...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069074/non-invasive-monitoring-of-brain-edema-after-hypoxia-in-newborn-piglets
#14
Shadi N Malaeb, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jane McGowan, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Development of cerebral edema after brain injury carries a high risk for brain damage and death. The present study tests the ability of a non-invasive cerebral edema monitoring system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with water as the chromophore of interest to detect brain edema following hypoxia. METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to hypoxia for 1 h, and then returned to normal oxygen levels for 4 h. A NIRS sensor was placed on the animal's head at baseline, and changes in light attenuation were converted to changes in H2O...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066002/pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-at-mbarara-regional-referral-hospital-uganda
#15
Jihad Abdelgadir, Maria Punchak, Emily R Smith, Aaron Tarnasky, Alex Muhindo, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: In Uganda, TBI constitute the majority of neurosurgical admissions and deaths specially in the pediatric population. This study aims to determine the factors associated with poor outcome among pediatric TBI cases at a major referral hospital in western Uganda. METHODS: This study was conducted at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in western Uganda. All pediatric neurosurgical cases between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. In-hospital mortality and discharge GCS were the main outcomes of interest...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065962/disordered-consciousness-or-disordered-wakefulness-the-importance-of-prolonged-polysomnography-for-the-diagnosis-drug-therapy-and-rehabilitation-of-an-unresponsive-patient-with-brain-injury
#16
Francesca Formica, Marco Pozzi, Paolo Avantaggiato, Erika Molteni, Filippo Arrigoni, Flavio Giordano, Emilio Clementi, Sandra Strazzer
Disorders of consciousness may follow brain injury, due to impairments of wakefulness and/or awareness. Polysomnography can identify elements that may be ascribed to impairments of specific neuroanatomical areas. Recognizing which impairments affect each patient is crucial for diagnosis, prognosis, and to select an appropriate therapy. We present a pediatric case of insufficient wakefulness in a patient with severe disability following a pilocytic astrocytoma. Polysomnography was crucial for diagnosis, as it detected a well-structured pattern with daytime sleep initiations in the REM sleep phase...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058467/utility-of-matrix-reasoning-as-an-embedded-performance-validity-indicator-in-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Zachary W Sussman, Robin L Peterson, Amy K Connery, David A Baker, Michael W Kirkwood
The present study examined the utility of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II) Matrix Reasoning (MR) subtest in detecting suspect effort among a pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) sample. The sample consisted of 526 clinically referred patients aged 8-16 years. Sixteen percent of participants failed the Medical Symptom Validity Test, which was used to categorize the sample into adequate and suspect effort groups. No background or injury-related variables differentiated the two groups...
October 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057682/improving-diagnosis-of-childhood-arterial-ischaemic-stroke
#18
Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Franz E Babl
At least half of childhood stroke survivors suffer long-term impairments. Rapid identification of stroke is essential to minimize the extent of injury by restoring perfusion to viable brain. Improving diagnosis of childhood stroke requires correct identification of stroke by prehospital and emergency physicians, rapid performance of appropriate neuroimaging to confirm infarction, and targeted investigations to determine underlying causes, which guide treatment decisions to reduce recurrence risk. Areas covered: This review will summarize the barriers to rapid stroke diagnosis in pre-hospital and emergency department settings, describe recent progress in understanding of the spectrum, presenting clinical features and differential diagnosis of childhood stroke, discuss clinical stroke recognition tools which improve diagnostic accuracy, and their application to children...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053702/the-effects-of-adding-prophylactic-phenobarbital-to-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-the-term-equivalent-hypoxic-ischemic-rat
#19
Sushma Krishna, Alexandra Hutton, Eric Aronowitz, Holly Moore, Susan J Vannucci
BackgroundHypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available intervention, but neuroprotection is incomplete and variable. Seizures are common in infants with HIE undergoing TH and may worsen outcome. Phenobarbital is sometimes added, although use of prophylactic phenobarbital is controversial in the neonate. We hypothesize that prophylactic phenobarbital (PB) will not reduce, and may enhance, the neuroprotective effects of TH on brain injury and motor outcomes in the postnatal-day 10 (P10) hypoxic-ischemic (HI) rat...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042874/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-is-increased-in-pediatric-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#20
Dian Pratamastuti, Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Darto Saharso
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was expressed in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) that causes neuronal damage in children. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the pediatric neurology ward of Soetomo Hospital. Cases of AES with ages ranging from 1 month to 12 years were included. Cases that were categorized as simple and complex febrile seizures constituted the non-AES group. Blood was collected for the measurement of NSE within 24 hours of hemodynamic stabilization...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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