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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633349/colchicine-application-significantly-affects-plant-performance-in-the-second-generation-of-synthetic-polyploids-and-its-effects-vary-between-populations
#1
Zuzana Münzbergová
Background and Aims: Understanding the direct consequences of polyploidization is necessary for assessing the evolutionary significance of this mode of speciation. Previous studies have not studied the degree of between-population variation that occurs due to these effects. Although it is assumed that the effects of the substances that create synthetic polyploids disappear in second-generation synthetic polyploids, this has not been tested. Methods: The direct consequences of polyploidization were assessed and separated from the effects of subsequent evolution in Vicia cracca , a naturally occurring species with diploid and autotetraploid cytotypes...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#2
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630293/a-null-model-for-microbial-diversification
#3
Timothy J Straub, Olga Zhaxybayeva
Whether prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) are naturally organized into phenotypically and genetically cohesive units comparable to animal or plant species remains contested, frustrating attempts to estimate how many such units there might be, or to identify the ecological roles they play. Analyses of gene sequences in various closely related prokaryotic groups reveal that sequence diversity is typically organized into distinct clusters, and processes such as periodic selection and extensive recombination are understood to be drivers of cluster formation ("speciation")...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609994/uncovering-the-hidden-biodiversity-of-natural-history-collections-insights-from-dna-barcoding-and-morphological-characters-of-the-neotropical-genus-i-orthocomotis-i-dognin-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#4
Józef Razowski, Volker Pelz, Sebastian Tarcz
We used a 227-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (DNA "barcode") in conjunction with morphological data to study specimens of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin, 1906, acquired from natural history collections. We examined over 20 species of Orthocomotis from 17 localities in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The analysis identified 32 haplotypes among the 62 specimens and found no haplotypes shared among species. The molecular study revealed not only the usefulness of short COI sequences in discriminating among Orthocomotis species but also showed distinctness of four clusters which correspond to those based on morphological (genitalia) characters...
April 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592558/duplication-and-loss-of-function-of-genes-encoding-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-c4-causes-hybrid-incompatibility-in-rice
#5
Giao Ngoc Nguyen, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Yuko Shigematsu, Miyako Watanabe, Yuta Miyazaki, Kazuyuki Doi, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Jianzhong Wu, Takashi Matsumoto, Hideshi Yasui, Atsushi Yoshimura
Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1) on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, Oryza nivara Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592249/ixora-rubiaceae-on-the-philippines-crossroad-or-cradle
#6
Cecilia I Banag, Arnaud Mouly, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Birgitta Bremer, Ulrich Meve, Guido W Grimm, Sigrid Liede-Schumann
BACKGROUND: The Philippine archipelago is globally one of the most important model island systems for studying evolutionary processes. However, most plant species on this archipelago have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. The main aim of this study is to unravel the evolutionary history and biogeographic relationships of the Philippine members of the pantropical genus Ixora. RESULTS: The complex plastid and nuclear divergence patterns in Philippine Ixora, documented using tree and network approaches, reveal a highly dynamic evolution in Ixora, involving several phases of radiation and recolonization...
June 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584725/genome-wide-analysis-suggests-high-level-of-microsynteny-and-purifying-selection-affect-the-evolution-of-ein3-eil-family-in-rosaceae
#7
Yunpeng Cao, Yahui Han, Dandan Meng, Dahui Li, Qing Jin, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (EIN3/EIL) proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), mei (Prunus mume), peach (Prunus persica) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca), respectively...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584443/annotation-of-gene-sequence-and-protein-structure-of-brinjal-eds1
#8
Soumya Sharma, Sarika Jaiswal, Sunil Archak
Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 (EDS1) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein, known to be a key regulator of plant basal defense and effector-triggered immunity. Sequence of a single copy brinjal EDS1 gene (SmEDS1) was mined from draft brinjal genome assembly. The extracted sequence was found to be incomplete and polished with the help of transcriptome sequence data. Full-length SmEDS1 gene is 4.5kb long having three exons that coded for 1.8kb mRNA. SmEDS1 protein is a 602 amino acid long protein consisting of Lipase3 and EP domain regions...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579999/development-of-chloroplast-and-nuclear-dna-markers-for-chinese-oaks-quercus-subgenus-quercus-and-assessment-of-their-utility-as-dna-barcodes
#9
Jia Yang, Lucía Vázquez, Xiaodan Chen, Huimin Li, Hao Zhang, Zhanlin Liu, Guifang Zhao
Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575574/impact-of-surface-charge-on-cerium-oxide-nanoparticle-uptake-and-translocation-by-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#10
Eleanor Spielman-Sun, Enzo Lombi, Erica Donner, Daryl Howard, Jason M Unrine, Gregory V Lowry
Nanoparticle (NP) physiochemical properties, including surface charge, affect cellular uptake, translocation, and tissue localization. To evaluate the influence of surface charge on NP uptake by plants, wheat seedlings were hydroponically exposed to 20 mg/L of ∼4 nm CeO2 NPs functionalized with positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dextran coatings. Fresh, hydrated roots and leaves were analyzed at various time points over 34 h using fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy to provide laterally resolved spatial distribution and speciation of Ce...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575081/peripatric-speciation-in-an-endemic-macaronesian-plant-after-recent-divergence-from-a-widespread-relative
#11
Francisco J Valtueña, Tomás Rodríguez-Riaño, Josefa López, Carlos Mayo, Ana Ortega-Olivencia
The Macaronesian Scrophularia lowei is hypothesized to have arisen from the widespread S. arguta on the basis of several phylogenetic studies of the genus, but sampling has been limited. Although these two annual species are morphologically distinct, the origin of S. lowei is unclear because genetic studies focused on this Macaronesian species are lacking. We studied 5 S. lowei and 25 S. arguta populations to determine the relationship of both species and to infer the geographical origin of S. lowei. The timing of S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552505/non-nodulated-bacterial-leaf-symbiosis-promotes-the-evolutionary-success-of-its-host-plants-in-the-coffee-family-rubiaceae
#12
Brecht Verstraete, Steven Janssens, Nina Rønsted
Every plant species on Earth interacts in some way or another with microorganisms and it is well known that certain forms of symbiosis between different organisms can drive evolution. Within some clades of Rubiaceae (coffee family), a specific plant-bacteria interaction exists in which non-pathological endophytes are present in the leaves of their hosts. It is hypothesized that the bacterial endophytes, either alone or by interacting with the host, provide chemical protection against herbivory or pathogens by producing toxic or otherwise advantageous secondary metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551741/soil-calcium-significantly-promotes-uptake-of-inorganic-arsenic-by-garland-chrysanthemum-chrysanthemuml-coronarium-fertilized-with-chicken-manure-bearing-roxarsone-and-its-metabolites
#13
Lixian Yao, Lianxi Huang, Cuihua Bai, Zhaohuan He, Changmin Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, occurs as itself and its metabolites in animal manure that is commonly land used as fertilizer. Soil property impacts arsenic (As) speciation and bioavailability. Fourteen soils across China were used to conduct culture experiments to investigate As uptake by garland chrysanthemum (ChrysanthemumL coronarium), with the soils fertilized with chicken manure bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results show As(III) was the sole As form in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) occurred in roots...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545386/evolutionary-radiations-in-the-species-rich-mountain-genus-saxifraga-l
#14
J Ebersbach, J Schnitzler, A Favre, A N Muellner-Riehl
BACKGROUND: A large number of taxa have undergone evolutionary radiations in mountainous areas, rendering alpine systems particularly suitable to study the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that have shaped diversification patterns in plants. The species-rich genus Saxifraga L. is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with high species numbers in the regions adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in particular the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas. Using a dataset of 297 taxa (representing at least 60% of extant Saxifraga species), we explored the variation of infrageneric diversification rates...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543189/rapid-radiations-of-both-kiwifruit-hybrid-lineages-and-their-parents-shed-light-on-a-two-layer-mode-of-species-diversification
#15
Yifei Liu, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Chi Song, Caihong Zhong, Xudong Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaohong Yao, Zupeng Wang, Shaohua Zeng, Ying Wang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Xinwei Li, Li Li, Chunyan Liu, Honour C McCann, Weiming He, Yan Niu, Min Chen, Liuwen Du, Junjie Gong, Paul M Datson, Elena Hilario, Hongwen Huang
Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540550/simultaneous-enhancement-of-sludge-dewaterability-and-removal-of-sludge-borne-heavy-metals-through-a-novel-oxidative-leaching-induced-by-nano-cao2
#16
Boran Wu, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
The production of sewage sludge with the presence of various contaminants has been a serious issue for the operation of wastewater treatment plants on both the economical and environmental sides. To minimize the sludge volume to be handled and limit the potential environmental risk, this study developed a novel oxidative leaching process for enhanced sewage sludge dewatering and simultaneous removal of heavy metals based on nano-CaO2. Response surface methodology determined the following optimal conditioning parameters in terms of capillary suction time reduction: 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536587/molecular-evidence-for-natural-hybridization-between-cotoneaster-dielsianus-and-c-glaucophyllus
#17
Mingwan Li, Sufang Chen, Renchao Zhou, Qiang Fan, Feifei Li, Wenbo Liao
Hybridization accompanied by polyploidization and apomixis has been demonstrated as a driving force in the evolution and speciation of many plants. A good example to study the evolutionary process of hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis is the genus Cotoneaster (Rosaceae), which includes approximately 150 species, most of which are polyploid apomicts. In this study, we investigated all Cotoneaster taxa distributed in a small region of Malipo, Yunnan, China. Based on the morphological characteristics, four Cotoneaster taxa were identified and sampled: C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#18
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528310/comparative-analysis-of-speciation-and-bioaccessibility-of-arsenic-in-rice-grains-and-complementary-medicines
#19
S Bolan, A Kunhikrishnan, S Chowdhury, B Seshadri, R Naidu, Y S Ok
In many countries, rice grains and complementary medicines are important sources of arsenic (As) consumption. The objective of this study was to compare the speciation and bioaccessibility of As in selected rice grains and complementary medicines. A number of rice grain samples, and a range of herbal and ayurvedic medicines were analyzed for total As, speciation of As using sequential fractionation and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques, and bioaccessibility of As using an in vitro extraction test...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514635/specialization-to-extremely-low-nutrient-soils-limits-the-nutritional-adaptability-of-plant-lineages
#20
G Anthony Verboom, William D Stock, Michael D Cramer
Specialization to extreme selective situations promotes the acquisition of traits whose coadaptive integration may compromise evolutionary flexibility and adaptability. We test this idea in the context of the foliar stoichiometry of plants native to the South African Cape. Whereas foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium, magnesium, and sodium showed strong phylogenetic signal, as did the foliar ratios of these nutrients to P, the same was not true of the corresponding soil values...
June 2017: American Naturalist
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