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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345963/accumulation-and-speciation-of-cd-in-avicennia-marina-tissues
#1
Li Jian, Yan Chongling, Du Daolin, Lu Haoliang, Liu Jingchun
Avicennia marina is a high Cd tolerant species in the mangrove wetlands. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to research the accumulation and chemical form distribution of Cd in the tissues of A. marina under different concentration and time of Cd stress. It was found that the concentrations of Cd in plant tissues followed the order of root> stem>leaf. The data suggested that root activity decreased, Cd accumulation ability weakened in roots and the Translocation Factor increased in stems and leaves with the increase of stress time...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345104/biology-and-toxicology-of-tellurium-explored-by-speciation-analysis
#2
Yasumitsu Ogra
Tellurium (Te) is widely used in industry because it has unique physicochemical properties. Although Te is a non-essential element in animals and plants, it is expected to be metabolized to organometallic compounds having a carbon-Te bond in living organisms exposed to inorganic Te compounds. Thus, the speciation and identification of tellurometabolites are expected to contribute to the depiction of the metabolic chart of Te. Speciation by elemental mass spectrometry and identification by molecular mass spectrometry coupled with separation techniques have significantly contributed to the discovery of tellurometabolites in animals and plants...
March 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343393/selenium-bioaccessibility-and-speciation-in-selenium-enriched-lettuce-investigation-of-the-selenocompounds-liberated-after-in-vitro-simulated-human-digestion-using-two-dimensional-hplc-icp-ms
#3
Emanueli DO Nascimento DA Silva, Federica Aureli, Marilena D'Amato, Andrea Raggi, Solange Cadore, Francesco Cubadda
The evaluation of selenium-enriched vegetables as potential dietary sources of selenium, an essential element for humans, requires an assessment of the plant accumulation ability as well as of the bioaccessibility and speciation of the accumulated selenium, which influence its biological effects in humans. Lettuce hydroponically grown at three selenite (SeVI)/selenate (SeIV) amendment levels was characterized accordingly. Selenium accumulation in lettuce leaves was greatest with Se(VI) amendment, whereas bioaccessibility was 70% on average in both cases...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334706/repetitive-dna-a-versatile-tool-for-karyotyping-in-festuca-pratensis-huds
#4
Anna Křivánková, David Kopecký, Štěpán Stočes, Jaroslav Doležel, Eva Hřibová
FISH is a useful method to identify individual chromosomes in a karyotype and to discover their structural changes accompanying genome evolution and speciation. DNA probes for FISH should be chromosome specific and/or exhibit specific patterns of distribution along each chromosome. Such probes are not available in many plants including meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), an important forage grass species. In the present study, various DNA repeats identified in Illumina shotgun sequences specific to chromosome 4F of F...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334206/polyploid-species-rely-on-vegetative-reproduction-more-than-diploids-a-re-examination-of-the-old-hypothesis
#5
Tomáš Herben, Jan Suda, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: Polyploidy is arguably the single most important genetic mechanism in plant speciation and diversification. It has been repeatedly suggested that polyploids show higher vegetative reproduction than diploids (to by-pass low fertility after the polyploidization), but there are no rigorous tests of it. Methods: Data were analysed by phylogenetic regressions of clonal growth parameters, and vegetative reproduction in culture on the ploidy status of a large set of species (approx...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314620/selenium-speciation-in-seleniferous-agricultural-soils-under-different-cropping-systems-using-sequential-extraction-and-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#6
Hai-Bo Qin, Jian-Ming Zhu, Zhi-Qing Lin, Wen-Po Xu, De-Can Tan, Li-Rong Zheng, Yoshio Takahashi
Selenium (Se) speciation in soil is critically important for understanding the solubility, mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of Se in the environment. In this study, Se fractionation and chemical speciation in agricultural soils from seleniferous areas were investigated using the elaborate sequential extraction and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The speciation results quantified by XANES technique generally agreed with those obtained by sequential extraction, and the combination of both approaches can reliably characterize Se speciation in soils...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306172/genetic-divergence-with-ongoing-gene-flow-is-maintained-by-the-use-of-different-hosts-in-phytophagous-ladybird-beetles-genus-henosepilachna
#7
Kei W Matsubayashi, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Norio Kobayashi, Satoko Yamasaki, Masakazu Kuwajima, Haruo Katakura
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow-a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284188/the-peach-v2-0-release-high-resolution-linkage-mapping-and-deep-resequencing-improve-chromosome-scale-assembly-and-contiguity
#8
Ignazio Verde, Jerry Jenkins, Luca Dondini, Sabrina Micali, Giulia Pagliarani, Elisa Vendramin, Roberta Paris, Valeria Aramini, Laura Gazza, Laura Rossini, Daniele Bassi, Michela Troggio, Shengqiang Shu, Jane Grimwood, Stefano Tartarini, Maria Teresa Dettori, Jeremy Schmutz
BACKGROUND: The availability of the peach genome sequence has fostered relevant research in peach and related Prunus species enabling the identification of genes underlying important horticultural traits as well as the development of advanced tools for genetic and genomic analyses. The first release of the peach genome (Peach v1.0) represented a high-quality WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) chromosome-scale assembly with high contiguity (contig L50 214.2 kb), large portions of mapped sequences (96%) and high base accuracy (99...
March 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278094/citric-acid-preacidification-enhanced-electrokinetic-remediation-for-removal-chromium-from-chromium-residue-contaminated-soil
#9
Fansheng Meng, Hao Xue, Yeyao Wang, Binghui Zheng, Juling Wang
Electrokinetic experiments were conducted on chromium residue contaminated soils collected from a chemical plant in China. Acidification-electrokinetic remediation technology was proposed in order to solve the problem of removing inefficient with ordinary electrokinetic. In present study, the effects of acidification time, concentrations of citric acid on removal of chromium from soils were studied by changing the acidification pretreatment conditions, and then speciation analysis of chromium was also conducted to study the regularity of Cr in different forms...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277624/plant-phylogeny-as-a-window-on-the-evolution-of-hyperdiversity-in-the-tropical-rainforest-biome
#10
REVIEW
Wolf L Eiserhardt, Thomas L P Couvreur, William J Baker
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. References SUMMARY: Tropical rainforest (TRF) is the most species-rich terrestrial biome on Earth, harbouring just under half of the world's plant species in c. 7% of the land surface. Phylogenetic trees provide important insights into mechanisms underpinning TRF hyperdiversity that are complementary to those obtained from the fossil record. Phylogenetic studies of TRF plant diversity have mainly focused on whether this biome is an evolutionary 'cradle' or 'museum', emphasizing speciation and extinction rates...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274200/spatial-turnover-in-host-plant-availability-drives-host-associated-divergence-in-a-south-african-leafhopper-cephalelus-uncinatus
#11
Willem J Augustyn, Bruce Anderson, Jeroen F van der Merwe, Allan G Ellis
BACKGROUND: The evolution of reproductive isolation between herbivorous insect populations is often initiated by shifts to novel host-plants, a process that underlies some of the best examples of ecological speciation. However, it is not well understood why host-shifts occur. Arguably the most common hypothesis is that host-shifts occur in response to competition, while a less frequently invoked hypothesis is that herbivores adapt locally to geographic differences in potential host-plant communities...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257464/integrative-taxonomy-of-root-knot-nematodes-reveals-multiple-independent-origins-of-mitotic-parthenogenesis
#12
Toon Janssen, Gerrit Karssen, Olivera Topalović, Danny Coyne, Wim Bert
During sampling of several Coffea arabica plantations in Tanzania severe root galling, caused by a root-knot nematode was observed. From pure cultures, morphology and morphometrics of juveniles and females matched perfectly with Meloidogyne africana, whereas morphology of the males matched identically with those of Meloidogyne decalineata. Based on their Cox1 sequence, however, the recovered juveniles, females and males were confirmed to belong to the same species, creating a taxonomic conundrum. Adding further to this puzzle, re-examination of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254036/metal-distribution-characteristic-of-mswi-bottom-ash-in-view-of-metal-recovery
#13
Yi Xia, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang
Bottom ash is the major by-product of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), and is often reused as an engineering material, such as road-base aggregate. However, some metals (especially aluminum) in bottom ash can react with water and generate gas that could cause expansion and failure of products containing the ash; these metals must be removed before the ash is utilized. The size distribution and the chemical speciation of metals in the bottom ash from two Chinese MSWI plants were examined in this study, and the recovery potential of metals from the ash was evaluated...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249191/inoculating-chlamydospores-of-trichoderma-asperellum-sm-12f1-changes-arsenic-availability-and-enzyme-activity-in-soils-and-improves-water-spinach-growth
#14
Shiming Su, Xibai Zeng, Lingyu Bai, Paul N Williams, Yanan Wang, Lili Zhang, Cuixia Wu
Arsenic (As)-contaminated agricultural soils threaten crop yields and pose a human health risk. Augmentation of exogenous microorganisms exhibiting plant-growth promoting and As speciation changing shows potential to improve crop growth and change soil As availability. Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 exhibiting both traits was developed into chlamydospores to improve its persistence in contaminated soils. After inoculation, As availability and enzyme activity in two types of soils and the growth as well as As uptake of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244441/effects-of-organic-ligands-on-pb-absorption-and-speciation-changes-in-arabidopsis-as-determined-by%C3%A2-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-near-edge-structure-analysis
#15
Ya Ting Shen, Yu Fang Song
Pb can pass through the food chain via plants and threaten human health, which has attracted widespread attention. Changes in Pb speciation affect its bioavailability in soils and water. However, whether organic ligands can change the uptake and mobility of Pb in plants and increase or decrease Pb bioavailability remains uncertain. To reveal the roles of organic and inorganic Pb in Pb metabolism in plants, the localization and speciation changes of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in organic and inorganic Pb were characterized by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242174/effect-of-various-types-of-thermochemical-processing-of-sewage-sludges-on-phosphorus-speciation-solubility-and-fertilization-performance
#16
Daniel Steckenmesser, Christian Vogel, Christian Adam, Diedrich Steffens
Sewage sludge has one of the highest phosphorus (P) recovery potentials of all waste materials. Therefore, P-recycling from sewage sludge could contribute to closing the P-cycle. Recently, various thermal processes for P-recovery have been developed, but there is still a demand for information on the effect of different process parameters (e.g. additives and temperature) on P-speciation and especially on the fertilization performance. In the present study, two common methods (low-temperature conversion at 400-500°C and thermochemical treatment at 950°C) were investigated and combined to produce highly bioavailable P-fertilizers from two different types of sewage sludge based on chemical phosphorus precipitation (Chem-P) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (Bio-P)...
February 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235745/spatial-imaging-and-speciation-of-cu-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-roots-using-synchrotron-based-x-ray-microfluorescence-and-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#17
Lingli Lu, Ruohan Xie, Ting Liu, Haixing Wang, Dandi Hou, Yonghua Du, Zhenli He, Xiaoe Yang, Hui Sun, Shengke Tian
Knowledge of elemental localization and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of Cu accumulation so as to facilitate the development of strategies to inhibit Cu accumulation in rice grain grown in contaminated soils. Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the distribution patterns and speciation of Cu in rice roots treated with 50 μM Cu for 7 days. A clear preferential localization of Cu in the meristematic zone was observed in root tips as compared with the elongation zone...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222176/correction-a-complete-fossil-calibrated-phylogeny-of-seed-plant-families-as-a-tool-for-comparative-analyses-testing-the-time-for-speciation-hypothesis
#18
Liam W Harris, T Jonathan Davies
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162907.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219973/sulfoquinovose-in-the-biosphere-occurrence-metabolism-and-functions
#19
REVIEW
Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Spencer J Williams
The sulfonated carbohydrate sulfoquinovose (SQ) is produced in quantities estimated at some 10 billion tonnes annually and is thus a major participant in the global sulfur biocycle. SQ is produced by most photosynthetic organisms and incorporated into the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as within some archaea for incorporation into glycoprotein N-glycans. SQDG is found mainly within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, where it appears to be important for membrane structure and function and for optimal activity of photosynthetic protein complexes...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216663/the-importance-of-pollen-chemistry-in-evolutionary-host-shifts-of-bees
#20
Maryse Vanderplanck, Nicolas J Vereecken, Laurent Grumiau, Fabiana Esposito, Georges Lognay, Ruddy Wattiez, Denis Michez
Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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