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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545386/evolutionary-radiations-in-the-species-rich-mountain-genus-saxifraga-l
#1
J Ebersbach, J Schnitzler, A Favre, A N Muellner-Riehl
BACKGROUND: A large number of taxa have undergone evolutionary radiations in mountainous areas, rendering alpine systems particularly suitable to study the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that have shaped diversification patterns in plants. The species-rich genus Saxifraga L. is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with high species numbers in the regions adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in particular the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas. Using a dataset of 297 taxa (representing at least 60% of extant Saxifraga species), we explored the variation of infrageneric diversification rates...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543189/rapid-radiations-of-both-kiwifruit-hybrid-lineages-and-their-parents-shed-light-on-a-two-layer-mode-of-species-diversification
#2
Yifei Liu, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Chi Song, Caihong Zhong, Xudong Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaohong Yao, Zupeng Wang, Shaohua Zeng, Ying Wang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Xinwei Li, Li Li, Chunyan Liu, Honour C McCann, Weiming He, Yan Niu, Min Chen, Liuwen Du, Junjie Gong, Paul M Datson, Elena Hilario, Hongwen Huang
Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540550/simultaneous-enhancement-of-sludge-dewaterability-and-removal-of-sludge-borne-heavy-metals-through-a-novel-oxidative-leaching-induced-by-nano-cao2
#3
Boran Wu, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
The production of sewage sludge with the presence of various contaminants has been a serious issue for the operation of wastewater treatment plants on both the economical and environmental sides. To minimize the sludge volume to be handled and limit the potential environmental risk, this study developed a novel oxidative leaching process for enhanced sewage sludge dewatering and simultaneous removal of heavy metals based on nano-CaO2. Response surface methodology determined the following optimal conditioning parameters in terms of capillary suction time reduction: 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536587/molecular-evidence-for-natural-hybridization-between-cotoneaster-dielsianus-and-c-glaucophyllus
#4
Mingwan Li, Sufang Chen, Renchao Zhou, Qiang Fan, Feifei Li, Wenbo Liao
Hybridization accompanied by polyploidization and apomixis has been demonstrated as a driving force in the evolution and speciation of many plants. A good example to study the evolutionary process of hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis is the genus Cotoneaster (Rosaceae), which includes approximately 150 species, most of which are polyploid apomicts. In this study, we investigated all Cotoneaster taxa distributed in a small region of Malipo, Yunnan, China. Based on the morphological characteristics, four Cotoneaster taxa were identified and sampled: C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#5
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528310/comparative-analysis-of-speciation-and-bioaccessibility-of-arsenic-in-rice-grains-and-complementary-medicines
#6
S Bolan, A Kunhikrishnan, S Chowdhury, B Seshadri, R Naidu, Y S Ok
In many countries, rice grains and complementary medicines are important sources of arsenic (As) consumption. The objective of this study was to compare the speciation and bioaccessibility of As in selected rice grains and complementary medicines. A number of rice grain samples, and a range of herbal and ayurvedic medicines were analyzed for total As, speciation of As using sequential fractionation and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques, and bioaccessibility of As using an in vitro extraction test...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514635/specialization-to-extremely-low-nutrient-soils-limits-the-nutritional-adaptability-of-plant-lineages
#7
G Anthony Verboom, William D Stock, Michael D Cramer
Specialization to extreme selective situations promotes the acquisition of traits whose coadaptive integration may compromise evolutionary flexibility and adaptability. We test this idea in the context of the foliar stoichiometry of plants native to the South African Cape. Whereas foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium, magnesium, and sodium showed strong phylogenetic signal, as did the foliar ratios of these nutrients to P, the same was not true of the corresponding soil values...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507139/long-read-sequencing-uncovers-the-adaptive-topography-of-a-carnivorous-plant-genome
#8
Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Victor A Albert
Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505484/arsenic-speciation-in-the-phloem-exudates-of-rice-and-its-role-in-arsenic-accumulation-in-rice-grains
#9
Wenling Ye, Jingjing Zhang, Ting Fan, Hongjuan Lu, Haiyan Chen, Xuede Li, Rimao Hua
Arsenic (As) speciation in the phloem sap of rice plants and its role in As accumulation in rice grains remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we tested As chemical species in the phloem exudates of rice treated with arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. As(V) was the main species (58%) in the phloem exudates of As(V)-exposed rice, whereas As(III) predominated (69%) in As(III)-exposed rice. A large proportion of As(V) (41-45%) was observed in the phloem exudates when rice was treated with methylated As species...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502098/-fix-me-another-marguerite-species-delimitation-in-a-group-of-intensively-hybridising-lineages-of-ox-eye-daisies-leucanthemum-mill-compositae-anthemideae
#10
Florian Wagner, Sabine Härtl, Robert Vogt, Christoph Oberprieler
Delineating species boundaries in the framework of the multi-species coalescent (MSC) proves to be a reliable, objective, and reproducible method in an increasing number of studies. However, the underlying model assumes the lack of gene flow after speciation; an assumption which may be frequently violated in plant evolution. The present study evaluates the robustness of currently available species delimitation methods implemented in beast (BFD, BFD*, and dissect) in the closely-knit ox-eye daisy group around Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472922/phenotypic-disparity-in-iberian-short-horned-grasshoppers-acrididae-the-role-of-ecology-and-phylogeny
#11
Vicente García-Navas, Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
BACKGROUND: The combination of model-based comparative techniques, disparity analyses and ecomorphological correlations constitutes a powerful method to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape morphological variation and speciation processes. In this study, we used a time-calibrated phylogeny of 70 Iberian species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae) to test for patterns of morphological disparity in relation to their ecology and phylogenetic history. Specifically, we examined the role of substrate type and level of ecological specialization in driving different aspects of morphological evolution (locomotory traits, chemosensitive organs and cranial morphology) in this recent radiation...
May 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460235/first-charosphere-view-towards-the-transport-and-transformation-of-cd-with-addition-of-manure-derived-biochar
#12
Lu Wang, Jun Meng, Zhangtao Li, Xingmei Liu, Fang Xia, Jianming Xu
The specific area between biochar and soil surfaces is termed the "charosphere", which is analogous to the rhizosphere between plant roots and soil. Physicochemical properties of charosphere soil differ from natural soil. A double-layer mesh bag experiment was conducted to separate the charosphere soil (>2 mm) from biochar (derived from manure pyrolyzed at 300, 500, 700 °C) and the bulk soil. A 95-day experiment determined the availability, total concentration and speciation of Cd in charosphere soil and the total and available Cd in biochar...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458249/mercury-speciation-in-pinus-nigra-barks-from-monte-amiata-italy-an-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-study
#13
Laura Chiarantini, Valentina Rimondi, Fabrizio Bardelli, Marco Benvenuti, Claudia Cosio, Pilario Costagliola, Francesco Di Benedetto, Pierfranco Lattanzi, Géraldine Sarret
This study determined, by means of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, the speciation of mercury (Hg) in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from Monte Amiata, that were previously shown to contain exceptionally high (up to some mg kg(-1)) Hg contents because of the proximity to the former Hg mines and roasting plants. Linear fit combination (LCF) analysis of the experimental spectra compared to a large set of reference compounds showed that all spectra can be fitted by only four species: β-HgS (metacinnabar), Hg-cysteine, Hg bound to tannic acid, and Hg(0)...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458109/sulfur-flows-and-biosolids-processing-using-material-flux-analysis-mfa-principles-at-wastewater-treatment-plants
#14
R M Fisher, J P Alvarez-Gaitan, R M Stuetz, S J Moore
High flows of sulfur through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may cause noxious gaseous emissions, corrosion of infrastructure, inhibit wastewater microbial communities, or contribute to acid rain if the biosolids or biogas is combusted. Yet, sulfur is an important agricultural nutrient and the direct application of biosolids to soils enables its beneficial re-use. Flows of sulfur throughout the biosolids processing of six WWTPs were investigated to identify how they were affected by biosolids processing configurations...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450872/comparative-analysis-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-methylomes
#15
Ivan Erill, Marina Puigvert, Ludovic Legrand, Rodrigo Guarischi-Sousa, Céline Vandecasteele, João C Setubal, Stephane Genin, Alice Guidot, Marc Valls
Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil-borne plant pathogen with broad geographical distribution and the ability to cause wilt disease in many agriculturally important crops. Genome sequencing of multiple R. solanacearum strains has identified both unique and shared genetic traits influencing their evolution and ability to colonize plant hosts. Previous research has shown that DNA methylation can drive speciation and modulate virulence in bacteria, but the impact of epigenetic modifications on the diversification and pathogenesis of R...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446920/two-highly-similar-poplar-paleo-subgenomes-suggest-an-autotetraploid-ancestor-of-salicaceae-plants
#16
Yinzhe Liu, Jinpeng Wang, Weina Ge, Zhenyi Wang, Yuxian Li, Nanshan Yang, Sangrong Sun, Liwei Zhang, Xiyin Wang
As a model plant to study perennial trees in the Salicaceae family, the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome was sequenced, revealing recurrent paleo-polyploidizations during its evolution. A comparative and hierarchical alignment of its genome to a well-selected reference genome would help us better understand poplar's genome structure and gene family evolution. Here, by adopting the relatively simpler grape (Vitis vinifera) genome as reference, and by inferring both intra- and inter-genomic gene collinearity, we produced a united alignment of these two genomes and hierarchically distinguished the layers of paralogous and orthologous genes, as related to recursive polyploidizations and speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445036/silver-nanoparticles-and-wheat-roots-a-complex-interplay
#17
Ana E Pradas Del Real, Vladimir Vidal, Marie Carrière, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Géraldine Sarret
Agricultural soils are major sinks of silver nanoparticles in the environment, and crops are directly exposed to these emerging contaminants. A clear picture of their chemical transformations, uptake and transport mechanisms, and phytotoxic impacts is still lacking. In this work, wheat plants were exposed to pristine metallic (Ag-NPs) and sulfidized (Ag2S-NPs) silver nanoparticles and ionic Ag. Data on Ag distribution and speciation, phytotoxicity markers, and gene expression were studied. A multi-technique and multi-scale approach was applied, combining innovating tools at both the laboratory and synchrotron...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444332/mitochondrial-recombination-and-introgression-during-speciation-by-hybridization
#18
Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Mathieu Henault, Guillaume Charron, Lou Nielly-Thibault, Yves Terrat, Heather L Fiumera, B Jesse Shapiro, Christian R Landry
Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following inter-species hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria bi-parentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444136/asymmetrical-natural-hybridization-varies-among-hybrid-swarms-between-two-diploid-rhododendron-species
#19
Li-Jun Yan, Kevin S Burgess, Richard Milne, Chao-Nan Fu, De-Zhu Li, Lian-Ming Gao
Background and Aims: The extent to which hybridization leads to gene flow between plant species depends on the structure of hybrid populations. However, if this varies between locations, species barriers might prove permeable in some locations but not in others. To assess possible variation in hybrid population structure, the magnitude and direction of natural hybridization between two Chinese endemic species, Rhododendron spiciferum and Rhododendron spinuliferum , were evaluated. Methods: Thirteen nuclear microsatellite markers were employed to characterize 566 individuals collected from 15 non-allopatric populations and nine allopatric parental populations...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441933/identification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
John W Riggs, Philip C Cavales, Sonia M Chapiro, Judy Callis
BACKGROUND: Fructose is an abundant sugar in plants as it is a breakdown product of both major sucrose-cleaving enzymes. To enter metabolism, fructose is phosphorylated by a fructokinase (FRK). Known FRKs are members of a diverse family of carbohydrate/purine kinases known as the phosphofructokinase B (pfkB) family. The complete complement of active fructokinases has not been reported for any plant species. RESULTS: Protein sequence analysis of the 22 Arabidopsis thaliana pfkB members identified eight highly related predicted proteins, including one with previously demonstrated FRK activity...
April 26, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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