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Plant speciation

David H Hembry, David M Althoff
Brood pollination mutualisms-interactions in which specialized insects are both the pollinators (as adults) and seed predators (as larvae) of their host plants-have been influential study systems for coevolutionary biology. These mutualisms include those between figs and fig wasps, yuccas and yucca moths, leafflowers and leafflower moths, globeflowers and globeflower flies, Silene plants and Hadena and Perizoma moths, saxifrages and Greya moths, and senita cacti and senita moths. The high reciprocal diversity and species-specificity of some of these mutualisms have been cited as evidence that coevolution between plants and pollinators drives their mutual diversification...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Botany
He Wang, Yongfeng Jia
The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. Adsorption (ADS) and coprecipitation (CPT) on amorphous metal hydroxides are important processes, controlling the fates of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. This work studied the bioavailability of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb adsorbed on and/or coprecipitated with amorphous iron and iron/aluminum mixed hydroxides to the wetland plant Phragmites australis. After a 13-day treatment, there was an apparent uptake of the heavy metals by the plant, and the amount of metal bioaccumulation was measurably different for different association forms (ADS vs...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
K D Fowler-Finn, D C Cruz, R L Rodríguez
Many animals exhibit social plasticity-changes in phenotype or behavior in response to experience with conspecifics-that change how evolutionary processes like sexual selection play out. Here, we asked whether social plasticity arising from variation in local population density in male advertisement signals and female mate preferences influences the form of sexual selection. We manipulated local density and determined whether this changed how the distribution of male signals overlapped with female preferences-i...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Billie A Gould, Yani Chen, David B Lowry
The early stages of speciation are often characterized by the formation of partially reproductively isolated ecotypes, which evolve as a byproduct of divergent selective forces that are endemic to different habitats. Identifying the genomic regions, genes, and ultimately functional polymorphisms that are involved in the processes of ecotype formation is inherently challenging, as there are likely to be many different loci involved in the process. To localize candidate regions of the genome contributing to ecotype formation, we conducted whole genome pooled-sequencing (pool-seq) with 47 coastal perennial and 50 inland annual populations of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus...
October 16, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Wanlong Li, Ghana S Challa, Huilan Zhu, Wenjie Wei
Chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) play important roles in karyotype diversity and speciation. While many CR breakpoints have been characterized at the sequence level in yeast, insects and primates, little is known about the structure of evolutionary CR breakpoints in plant genomes, which are much more dynamic in genome size and sequence organization. Here, we report identification of breakpoints of a translocation between chromosome arms 4L and 5L of Triticeae, which is fixed in several species including diploid wheat and rye, by comparative mapping and comparative analysis of the draft genome and chromosome survey sequences of the Triticeae species...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Aysha Masood Khan, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
James F Smith, John L Clark, Marisol Amaya-Márquez, Oscar H Marín-Gómez
Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nicolas Chazot, Keith R Willmott, Fabien L Condamine, Donna Lisa de-Silva, André V L Freitas, Gerardo Lamas, Hélène Morlon, Carlos E Giraldo, Chris D Jiggins, Mathieu Joron, James Mallet, Sandra Uribe, Marianne Elias
Understanding why species richness peaks along the Andes is a fundamental question in the study of Neotropical biodiversity. Several biogeographic and diversification scenarios have been proposed in the literature, but there is confusion about the processes underlying each scenario, and assessing their relative contribution is not straightforward. Here, we propose to refine these scenarios into a framework which evaluates four evolutionary mechanisms: higher speciation rate in the Andes, lower extinction rates in the Andes, older colonization times and higher colonization rates of the Andes from adjacent areas...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Clara Bertel, Peter Schönswetter, Božo Frajman, Andreas Holzinger, Gilbert Neuner
Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden...
October 7, 2016: Protoplasma
Zhenhua Liu, Raquel Tavares, Evan S Forsythe, François André, Raphaël Lugan, Gabriella Jonasson, Stéphanie Boutet-Mercey, Takayuki Tohge, Mark A Beilstein, Danièle Werck-Reichhart, Hugues Renault
Expansion of the cytochrome P450 gene family is often proposed to have a critical role in the evolution of metabolic complexity, in particular in microorganisms, insects and plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this complexity are poorly understood. Here we describe the evolutionary history of a plant P450 retrogene, which emerged and underwent fixation in the common ancestor of Brassicales, before undergoing tandem duplication in the ancestor of Brassicaceae. Duplication leads first to gain of dual functions in one of the copies...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Ianis Delpla, Manuel J Rodriguez
The quality of drinking water sources can decrease when contaminants are transported by overland and subsurface flow and discharged into surface waters following rainfall events. Increases in organic contaminants such as road salts and organic matter may occur and potentially modify disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentration and speciation. This study investigated the effects of various spring rainfall events on the quality of treated waters at a large water treatment plant through the implementation of intensive water quality monitoring of raw, filtered and treated waters during different rainfall events...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Liam W Harris, T Jonathan Davies
Explaining the uneven distribution of species richness across the branches of the tree of life has been a major challenge for evolutionary biologists. Advances in phylogenetic reconstruction, allowing the generation of large, well-sampled, phylogenetic trees have provided an opportunity to contrast competing hypotheses. Here, we present a new time-calibrated phylogeny of seed plant families using Bayesian methods and 26 fossil calibrations. While there are various published phylogenetic trees for plants which have a greater density of species sampling, we are still a long way from generating a complete phylogeny for all ~300,000+ plants...
2016: PloS One
Linnea K Honeker, Robert A Root, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Karen B Barnard-Kubow, Morgan A McCoy, Laura F Galloway
Although organelle inheritance is predominantly maternal across animals and plants, biparental chloroplast inheritance has arisen multiple times in the angiosperms. Biparental inheritance has the potential to impact the evolutionary dynamics of cytonuclear incompatibility, interactions between nuclear and organelle genomes that are proposed to be among the earliest types of genetic incompatibility to arise in speciation. We examine the interplay between biparental inheritance and cytonuclear incompatibility in Campanulastrum americanum, a plant species exhibiting both traits...
September 30, 2016: New Phytologist
Karen B Barnard-Kubow, Nina So, Laura F Galloway
Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here we show substantial postzygotic reproductive isolation in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness)...
September 28, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Chuan Wu, Qi Zou, Sheng-Guo Xue, Wei-Song Pan, Xu Yue, William Hartley, Liu Huang, Jing-Yu Mo
Four rice genotypes, two hybrid and two indica, were selected to investigate the effects of silicate (Si) application on arsenic (As) accumulation and speciation in rice and As fractionation in soil. There were significant differences in root, straw and grain biomass among genotypes (p < 0.05), and Si application significantly increased root (p < 0.05) and grain biomass (p < 0.001). Silicate addition reduced the proportion of As associated with well-crystallized hydrous oxides of Fe and Al and residual phases, whilst increasing the proportions of specifically-sorbed As and As associated with amorphous and poorly-crystalline Fe and Al hydrous oxides...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Zheyun Zhang, Hee Sun Moon, Satish C B Myneni, Peter R Jaffé
Microbial redox transformations of arsenic (As) are coupled to dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction in the wetlands, however, the processes involved are complex and poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction on As dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants using greenhouse mesocosms. Results show that high Fe (50μM ferrihydrite/g solid medium) and SO4(2-) (5mM) treatments are most favorable for As sequestration in the presence of wetland plants (Scirpus actus), probably because root exudates facilitate the microbial reduction of Fe(III), SO4(2-), and As(V) to sequester As(III) by incorporation into iron sulfides and/or plant uptake...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Changbin Gao, Guilong Zhou, Chaozhi Ma, Wen Zhai, Tong Zhang, Zhiquan Liu, Yong Yang, Ming Wu, Yao Yue, Zhiqiang Duan, Yaya Li, Bing Li, Jijun Li, Jinxiong Shen, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu
The mating system transition in polyploid Brassica napus (AACC) from out-crossing to selfing is a typical trait to differentiate it from their diploid progenitors. Elucidating the mechanism of mating system transition has profound consequences for understanding the speciation and evolution in B. napus. Functional complementation experiment has shown that the insertion of 3.6 kb into the promoter of self-incompatibility male determining gene, BnSP11-1 leads to its loss of function in B. napus. The inserted fragment was found to be a non-autonomous Helitron transposon...
2016: Scientific Reports
J Rull, E Tadeo, R Lasa, M Aluja
Dormancy has been thoroughly studied for several species of economic importance in the genus Rhagoletis in temperate areas of North America and Europe. Much less is known on life history regulation for species inhabiting high-elevation areas in the subtropics at the southern extreme of their geographical range. Host plant phenology has been found to play a key role in generating allochronic isolation among sibling species and host races of Rhagoletis in the course of sympatric speciation, and has important implications for pest management...
September 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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