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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222176/correction-a-complete-fossil-calibrated-phylogeny-of-seed-plant-families-as-a-tool-for-comparative-analyses-testing-the-time-for-speciation-hypothesis
#1
Liam W Harris, T Jonathan Davies
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162907.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219973/sulfoquinovose-in-the-biosphere-occurrence-metabolism-and-functions
#2
REVIEW
Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Spencer J Williams
The sulfonated carbohydrate sulfoquinovose (SQ) is produced in quantities estimated at some 10 billion tonnes annually and is thus a major participant in the global sulfur biocycle. SQ is produced by most photosynthetic organisms and incorporated into the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as within some archaea for incorporation into glycoprotein N-glycans. SQDG is found mainly within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, where it appears to be important for membrane structure and function and for optimal activity of photosynthetic protein complexes...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216663/the-importance-of-pollen-chemistry-in-evolutionary-host-shifts-of-bees
#3
Maryse Vanderplanck, Nicolas J Vereecken, Laurent Grumiau, Fabiana Esposito, Georges Lognay, Ruddy Wattiez, Denis Michez
Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#4
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213306/phosphorous-extractability-and-ryegrass-availability-from-bio-waste-composts-in-a-calcareous-soil
#5
Marco Grigatti, Elisa Boanini, Silvia Mancarella, Andrea Simoni, Massimo Centemero, Adrie H M Veeken
In this work four stable bio-waste composts (C1, C2, C3, C4) were selected on the basis of their increasing water soluble P (H2O-P). The P speciation was assessed via sequential chemical extraction (SCE) on the same products. Moreover, the plant-available P was assessed via apparent recovery fraction approach (ARF) in a pot test on ryegrass over 21 weeks at 15 mg P kg(-)(1) of soil. An inorganic P source (P-chem) was added as a reference at the same P rate in addition to a non-fertilized control (Control)...
February 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208090/multi-approach-characterization-of-organic-sediment-produced-by-an-anaerobic-digestion-plant-fed-with-pig-slurry-and-stored-for-a-long-term-in-a-lagoon
#6
Anna Ricci, Luisa Massaccesi, Daniela Pezzolla, Giuseppe Corti, Alberto Agnelli, Giovanni Gigliotti
This study combined different approaches to characterize organic sediments produced by an anaerobic digestion plant feed with pig slurry, and accumulated for many years in a lagoon. The results of all analyses identified a certain homogeneity of the sediments. As a consequence of the pig diet, the sediment contained an high concentration of Zn (about 4gkg(-1)) and Cu (about 1.2gkg(-1)), which were mostly associated to the particles with a size ranging from 2 to 53μm. The sediment was made of large amount of organic matter, mostly cellulose and recalcitrant molecules, and 30-40% mineral fraction...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205587/nickel-biopathways-in-tropical-nickel-hyperaccumulating-trees-from-sabah-malaysia
#7
Antony van der Ent, Damien L Callahan, Barry N Noller, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Wojciech J Przybylowicz, Alban Barnabas, Hugh H Harris
The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187145/a-new-sythetic-hybrid-a1d5-between-gossypium-herbaceum-and-g-raimondii-and-its-morphological-cytogenetic-molecular-characterization
#8
Yuxiang Wu, Di Chen, Shuijin Zhu, Lufei Zhang, Lingjiao Li
The diploid species G. herbaceum (A1) and G. raimondii (D5) are the progenitors of allotetraploid cotton, respectively. However, hybrids between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii haven't been reported. In the present study, hybridization between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii was explored. Morphological, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were used to assess the hybridity. The interspecific hybrid plants were successfully obtained. Most of the morphological characteristics of the hybrids were intermediate between G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186158/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-complex-interplay-between-resistance-and-effector-genes-during-the-compatible-lentil-colletotrichum-lentis-interaction
#9
Vijai Bhadauria, Perumal Vijayan, Yangdou Wei, Sabine Banniza
Colletotrichum lentis is a hemibiotrophic pathogen and causes anthracnose on lentil. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the symptomatic phase of infection, a cDNA plasmid library was developed from the susceptible lentil cultivar Eston infected with an isolate of the virulent race 0 of C. lentis. The library was sequenced on the Sanger sequencing platform, generating a total of 11,094 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing 3,488 unigenes. Mapping of unigenes onto the C. lentis and the L. culinaris genomes resulted in the identification of 2,418 unigenes of fungal origin and 1,070 unigenes of plant origin...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179898/metatranscriptomic-analysis-reveals-unexpectedly-diverse-microbial-metabolism-in-a-biogeochemical-hot-spot-in-an-alluvial-aquifer
#10
Talia N M Jewell, Ulas Karaoz, Markus Bill, Romy Chakraborty, Eoin L Brodie, Kenneth H Williams, Harry R Beller
Organic matter deposits in alluvial aquifers have been shown to result in the formation of naturally reduced zones (NRZs), which can modulate aquifer redox status and influence the speciation and mobility of metals, affecting groundwater geochemistry. In this study, we sought to better understand how natural organic matter fuels microbial communities within anoxic biogeochemical hot spots (NRZs) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at the Rifle (CO) site. We conducted a 20-day microcosm experiment in which NRZ sediments, which were enriched in buried woody plant material, served as the sole source of electron donors and microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168124/geography-shapes-the-phylogeny-of-frailejones-espeletiinae-cuatrec-asteraceae-a-remarkable-example-of-recent-rapid-radiation-in-sky-islands
#11
Mauricio Diazgranados, Janet C Barber
BACKGROUND: The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world's fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164332/a-dominant-negative-actin-mutation-alters-corolla-tube-width-and-pollinator-visitation-in-mimulus-lewisii
#12
Baoqing Ding, Fengjuan Mou, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen, Foen Peng, Harvey D Bradshaw, Yao-Wu Yuan
A third of all angiosperm species produce flowers with petals fused into a corolla tube. The various elaborations of corolla tube attributes, such as length, width and curvature, have enabled plants to exploit many specialized pollinator groups. These elaborations often differ dramatically among closely related species, contributing to pollinator shift and pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and speciation. However, very little is known about the genetic and developmental control of these corolla tube attributes...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161902/phylogenomic-analysis-of-gene-co-expression-networks-reveals-the-evolution-of-functional-modules
#13
Colin Ruprecht, Sebastian Proost, Marcela Hernandez-Coronado, Carlos Ortiz-Ramirez, Daniel Lang, Stefan A Rensing, Jörg D Becker, Klaas Vandepoele, Marek Mutwil
Molecular evolutionary studies correlate genomic and phylogenetic information with the emergence of new traits of organisms. These traits are, however, the consequence of dynamic gene networks composed of functional modules, which might not be captured by genomic analyses. Here, we established a method, which combines large-scale genomic and phylogenetic data with gene co-expression networks, to extensively study the evolutionary make-up of modules in the moss Physcomitrella patens and in the angiosperms Arabidopsis thaliana and rice...
February 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139322/the-local-impact-of-a-coal-fired-power-plant-on-inorganic-mercury-and-methyl-mercury-distribution-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#14
Xiaohang Xu, Bo Meng, Chao Zhang, Xinbin Feng, Chunhao Gu, Jianyang Guo, Kevin Bishop, Zhidong Xu, Sensen Zhang, Guangle Qiu
Emission from coal-fired power plants is one of the major anthropogenic sources of mercury (Hg) in the environment, because emitted Hg can be quickly deposited nearby the source, attention is paid to the effects of coal-burning facilities on levels of toxic methyl-mercury (MeHg) in biota near such sources. Since rice is an agricultural crop that can bio-accumulate MeHg, the potential effects of a large Hg-emitting coal-fired power plant in Hunan Province, China on both inorganic Hg (Hg(II)) and MeHg distributions in rice was investigated...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131042/speciation-and-leaching-of-trace-metal-contaminants-from-e-waste-contaminated-soils
#15
Jin-Li Cui, Chun-Ling Luo, Chloe Wing-Yee Tang, Ting-Shan Chan, Xiang-Dong Li
Primitive electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities have caused serious environmental problems. However, little is known about the speciation and leaching behaviors of metal contaminants at e-waste contaminated sites. This study investigated trace metal speciation/mobilization from e-waste polluted soil through column leaching experiments involving irrigation with rainwater for almost 2.5 years. Over the experimental period, Cu and Zn levels in the porewater were 0.14±0.08mg/L, and 0.16±0...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129618/removal-of-aluminum-from-drinking-water-treatment-sludge-using-vacuum-electrokinetic-technology
#16
Hang Xu, Mingmei Ding, Kunlun Shen, Jianfeng Cui, Wei Chen
A vacuum electrokinetic apparatus was operated at a municipal water supply plant in Wuxi, China to study the removal of aluminum from the plant's drinking water treatment sludge, high in trivalent aluminum content. The effect of several experimental variables (initial pH, potential gradient, and zone in the sludge tank) and the trivalent aluminum removal mechanism were analyzed. The speciation of trivalent aluminum mainly depends on the initial pH of drinking water treatment sludge, and more fractions of trivalent aluminum were migrated at pH 4 than at higher or lower pH...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121460/polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-alfalfa-accumulation-sorption-and-speciation-in-different-plant-parts
#17
Ying Teng, Xianghui Sun, Lingjia Zhu, Peter Christie, Yongming Luo
The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117833/a-fungal-wheat-pathogen-evolved-host-specialization-by-extensive-chromosomal-rearrangements
#18
Fanny E Hartmann, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Bruce A McDonald, Daniel Croll
Fungal pathogens can rapidly evolve virulence towards resistant crops in agricultural ecosystems. Gains in virulence are often mediated by the mutation or deletion of a gene encoding a protein recognized by the plant immune system. However, the loci and the mechanisms of genome evolution enabling rapid virulence evolution are poorly understood. We performed genome-wide association mapping on a global collection of 106 strains of Zymoseptoria tritici, the most damaging pathogen of wheat in Europe, to identify polymorphisms linked to virulence on two wheat varieties...
January 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116071/plant-invasion-and-speciation-along-elevational-gradients-on-the-oceanic-island-la-palma-canary-islands
#19
Manuel J Steinbauer, Severin D H Irl, Juana María González-Mancebo, Frank T Breiner, Raquel Hernández-Hernández, Sebastian Hopfenmüller, Yohannes Kidane, Anke Jentsch, Carl Beierkuhnlein
Ecosystems that provide environmental opportunities but are poor in species and functional richness generally support speciation as well as invasion processes. These processes are expected not to be equally effective along elevational gradients due to specific ecological, spatial, and anthropogenic filters, thus controlling the dispersal and establishment of species. Here, we investigate speciation and invasion processes along elevational gradients. We assess the vascular plant species richness as well as the number and percentage of endemic species and non-native species systematically along three elevational gradients covering large parts of the climatic range of La Palma, Canary Islands...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112651/improving-the-sensitivity-of-the-activated-sludge-respiration-inhibition-test-and-verifying-the-results-using-an-oxidation-reduction-potential-electrode
#20
F Friedrichs, K U Rudolph, Bich Hanh Nguyen, D Meinardi, W Genthe, D Q Trung
The inhibition of activated sludge respiration is one of the most important parameters for monitoring wastewater toxicity. The main objective of this study was to improve respiration inhibition testing in order to protect the biological degradation within the aerobic process in a wastewater treatment plant more efficiently. In order to influence the sensitivity of the testing bacteria, two different nutrient solutions were selected for biological testing, synthetic wastewater according to ISO 8192 and NaAc (sodium acetate)...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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