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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781541/the-two-rules-of-speciation-in-species-with-young-sex-chromosomes
#1
Dmitry A Filatov
The two "rules of speciation", Haldane's rule (HR) and the large-X effect (LXE), are thought to be caused by recessive species incompatibilities exposed in the phenotype due to the hemizygosity of X-linked genes in the heterogametic sex. Thus, the reports of HR and the LXE in species with recently evolved non- or partially-degenerate Y-chromosomes, such as Silene latifolia and its relatives, were surprising. Here I argue that rapid species-specific degeneration of Y-linked genes and associated adjustment of expression of X-linked gametologs (dosage compensation) may lead to rapid evolution of sex-linked species incompatibilities...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764984/parallel-evolution-of-common-allelic-variants-confers-flowering-diversity-in-capsella-rubella
#2
Li Yang, Hui-Na Wang, Xing-Hui Hou, Yu-Pan Zou, Ting-Shen Han, Xiao-Min Niu, Jie Zhang, Zhong Zhao, Marco Todesco, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian, Ya-Long Guo
Flowering time is an adaptive life history trait. Capsella rubella, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana and a young species, displays extensive variation for flowering time but low standing genetic variation due to an extreme bottleneck event, providing an excellent opportunity to understand how phenotypic diversity can occur with a limited initial gene pool. Here, we demonstrate that common allelic variation and parallel evolution at the FLC locus confer variation in flowering time in C. rubella. We show that two overlapping deletions in the 5' UTR region of C...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755483/multiple-origins-and-nested-cycles-of-hybridization-result-in-high-tetraploid-diversity-in-the-monocot-prospero
#3
Tae-Soo Jang, John S Parker, Khatere Emadzade, Eva M Temsch, Andrew R Leitch, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale , as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs), as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738577/widespread-plant-specialization-in-the-polyphagous-planthopper-hyalesthes-obsoletus-cixiidae-a-major-vector-of-stolbur-phytoplasma-evidence-of-cryptic-speciation
#4
Andrea Kosovac, Jes Johannesen, Oliver Krstić, Milana Mitrović, Tatjana Cvrković, Ivo Toševski, Jelena Jović
The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729219/finding-invisible-quantitative-trait-loci-with-missing-data
#5
Iulian Gabur, Harmeet Singh Chawla, Xiwei Liu, Vinod Kumar, Sébastien Faure, Andreas von Tiedemann, Christophe Jestin, Emmanuelle Dryzska, Susann Volkmann, Frank Breuer, Régine Delourme, Rod Snowdon, Christian Obermeier
Evolutionary processes during plant polyploidisation and speciation have led to extensive presence-absence variation (PAV) in crop genomes, and there is increasing evidence that PAV associates with important traits. Today, high-resolution genetic analysis in major crops frequently implements simple, cost-effective, high-throughput genotyping from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) hybridization arrays, however these are normally not designed to distinguish PAV from failed SNP calls caused by hybridization artefacts...
May 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719043/impact-of-whole-genome-duplication-events-on-diversification-rates-in-angiosperms
#6
Jacob B Landis, Douglas E Soltis, Zheng Li, Hannah E Marx, Michael S Barker, David C Tank, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) pervades the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite extensive progress in our understanding of WGD, the role of these events in promoting diversification is still not well understood. We seek to clarify the possible association between WGD and diversification rates in flowering plants. METHODS: Using a previously published phylogeny spanning all land plants (31,749 tips) and WGD events inferred from analyses of the 1000 Plants (1KP) transcriptome data, we analyzed the association of WGDs and diversification rates following numerous WGD events across the angiosperms...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715568/transposable-elements-and-polyploid-evolution-in-animals
#7
REVIEW
Fernando Rodriguez, Irina R Arkhipova
Polyploidy in animals is much less common than in plants, where it is thought to be pervasive in all higher plant lineages. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of polyploidization and the associated process of diploidy restoration on the evolution and speciation of selected taxonomic groups in the animal kingdom: from vertebrates represented by salmonid fishes and African clawed frogs to invertebrates represented by parasitic root-knot nematodes and bdelloid rotifers. In this review, we focus on the unique and diverse roles that transposable elements may play in these processes, from marking and diversifying subgenome-specific chromosome sets before hybridization, to influencing genome restructuring during rediploidization, to affecting subgenome-specific regulatory evolution, and occasionally providing opportunities for domestication and gene amplification to restore and improve functionality...
April 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710629/speciation-of-phosphorus-in-plant-and-manure-derived-biochars-and-its-dissolution-under-various-aqueous-conditions
#8
Ke Sun, Mengyi Qiu, Lanfang Han, Jie Jin, Ziying Wang, Zezhen Pan, Baoshan Xing
Phosphorus (P) in biochar serves as both a P source for plant growth and a contributor to water eutrophication, thus prioritizing the efficient management of P in biochar. This study employed solid- and solution- state 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction analyses to explore the impact of feedstock and heating treatment temperature (HTT) on P species of biochars. The effects of ambient temperature, coexisting anions, pH and nutrient solution on P release were also investigated to study the effect of various environmental factors on P release from biochars...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706788/staying-cool-preadaptation-to-temperate-climates-required-for-colonising-tropical-alpine-like-environments
#9
Berit Gehrke
Plant species tend to retain their ancestral ecology, responding to temporal, geographic and climatic changes by tracking suitable habitats rather than adapting to novel conditions. Nevertheless, transitions into different environments or biomes still seem to be common. Especially intriguing are the tropical alpine-like areas found on only the highest mountainous regions surrounded by tropical environments. Tropical mountains are hotspots of biodiversity, often with striking degrees of endemism at higher elevations...
2018: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701969/bioavailability-speciation-and-phytotoxicity-of-tungsten-w-in-soil-affecting-growth-and-molybdoenzyme-activity-of-nodulated-soybean
#10
Eva Oburger, Carolina Vergara Cid, Julian Preiner, Junjian Hu, Stephan Hann, Wolfgang Wanek, Andreas Richter
Increasing use of tungsten (W) based products opened new pathways of W into environmental systems. Due to its chemical alikeness with molybdenum (Mo), W is expected to behave similarly to its 'twin element' Mo; however, our knowledge of the behaviour of W in the plant-soil environment still remains sketchy. The aim of this study was to investigate plant growth as well as W and nutrient uptake depending on soil chemical properties like soil pH and texture. Soybean (Glycine max cv Primus) was grown on two acidic soils differing in soil texture, that were either kept at their natural soil pH (pH 4...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684170/the-amount-of-nitrogen-used-for-photosynthesis-modulates-molecular-evolution-in-plants
#11
Steven Kelly
Genome and transcript sequences are composed of long strings of nucleotide monomers (A, C, G and T/U) that require different quantities of nitrogen atoms for biosynthesis. Here it is shown that the strength of selection acting on transcript nitrogen content is influenced by the amount of nitrogen plants require to conduct photosynthesis. Specifically, plants that require more nitrogen to conduct photosynthesis experience stronger selection on transcript sequences to use synonymous codons that cost less nitrogen to biosynthesise...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681284/alkylsilyl-speciation-and-direct-sample-preparation-of-plant-cannabinoids-prior-to-their-analysis-by-gc-ms
#12
Blanka Fodor, Imre Boldizsár, Ibolya Molnár-Perl
A literature criticism is given on methods currently using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine plant cannabinoids (p-CBDs). In this study, trialkylsilylation of seven p-CBDs (including their transformation products formed in the drug user's body) was compared applying various alkylsilyl reagents1 and the mass fragmentation properties of the corresponding derivatives were characterized. Derivatization, mass fragmentation and quantitation related model investigations were optimized as a function of the reaction times and conditions...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675137/variation-in-chromosome-number-and-breeding-systems-implications-for-diversification-in-pachycereus-pringlei-cactaceae
#13
Carina Gutiérrez-Flores, José L León-de la Luz, Francisco J García-De León, J Hugo Cota-Sánchez
Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885) Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672830/next-generation-lineage-discovery-a-case-study-of-tuberous-claytonia-l
#14
Thomas R Stoughton, Ricardo Kriebel, Diana D Jolles, Robin L O'Quinn
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Species formation is an intuitive endpoint of reproductive isolation, but circumscribing taxa that arise during speciation can be difficult because of gene flow, morphological continuity, hybridization or polyploidization, and low sequence variation among newly diverged lineages. Nonetheless, species complexes are ubiquitous, and their classification is essential for understanding how diversity influences ecosystem function. METHODS: We used modern sequencing technology to identify lineages of perennial Claytonia L...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672665/evolutionary-and-functional-potential-of-ploidy-increase-within-individual-plants-somatic-ploidy-mapping-of-the-complex-labellum-of-sexually-deceptive-bee-orchids
#15
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666627/convergent-evolution-and-the-diverse-ontogenetic-origins-of-tendrils-in-angiosperms
#16
REVIEW
Mariane S Sousa-Baena, Neelima R Sinha, José Hernandes-Lopes, Lúcia G Lohmann
Climbers are abundant in tropical forests, where they constitute a major functional plant type. The acquisition of the climbing habit in angiosperms constitutes a key innovation. Successful speciation in climbers is correlated with the development of specialized climbing strategies such as tendrils, i.e., filiform organs with the ability to twine around other structures through helical growth. Tendrils are derived from a variety of morphological structures, e.g., stems, leaves, and inflorescences, and are found in various plant families...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666586/ecological-and-phylogenetic-relationships-shape-the-peripheral-olfactory-systems-of-highly-specialized-gall-midges-cecidomiiydae
#17
Béla P Molnár, Tina Boddum, Sharon R Hill, Bill S Hansson, Ylva Hillbur, Göran Birgersson
Insects use sensitive olfactory systems to detect relevant host volatiles and avoid unsuitable hosts in a complex environmental odor landscape. Insects with short lifespans, such as gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), are under strong selection pressure to detect and locate suitable hosts for their offspring in a short period of time. Ephemeral gall midges constitute excellent models for investigating the role of olfaction in host choice, host shift, and speciation. Midges mate near their site of emergence and females migrate in order to locate hosts for oviposition, thus females are expected to be more responsive to olfactory cues emitted by the host compared to males...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663397/what-explains-high-plant-richness-in-east-asia-time-and-diversification-in-the-tribe-lysimachieae-primulaceae
#18
Hai-Fei Yan, Cai-Yun Zhang, Arne A Anderberg, Gang Hao, Xue-Jun Ge, John J Wiens
What causes the disparity in biodiversity among regions is a fundamental question in biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Evolutionary and biogeographic processes (speciation, extinction, dispersal) directly determine species richness patterns, and can be studied using integrative phylogenetic approaches. However, the strikingly high richness of East Asia relative to other Northern Hemisphere regions remains poorly understood from this perspective. Here, for the first time, we test two general hypotheses (older colonization time, faster diversification rate) to explain this pattern, using the plant tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae) as a model system...
April 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660873/determining-the-speciation-of-zn-in-soils-around-the-sediment-ponds-of-chemical-plants-by-xrd-and-xafs-spectroscopy-and-sequential-extraction
#19
Tatiana Minkina, Dina Nevidomskaya, Tatiana Bauer, Victoria Shuvaeva, Alexander Soldatov, Saglara Mandzhieva, Yan Zubavichus, Alexander Trigub
For a correct assessment of risk of polluted soil, it is crucial to establish the speciation and mobility of the contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the speciation and transformation of Zn in strongly technogenically transformed contaminated Spolic Technosols for a long time in territory of sludge collectors by combining analytical techniques and synchrotron techniques. Sequential fractionation of Zn compounds in studied soils revealed increasing metal mobility. Phyllosilicates and Fe and Mn hydroxides were the main stabilizers of Zn mobility...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655918/embracing-community-ecology-in-plant-microbiome-research
#20
Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jos M Raaijmakers
Community assembly is mediated by selection, dispersal, drift, and speciation. Environmental selection is mostly used to date to explain patterns in plant microbiome assembly, whereas the influence of the other processes remains largely elusive. Recent studies highlight that adopting community ecology concepts provides a mechanistic framework for plant microbiome research.
April 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
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