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Plant speciation

David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
Chris J Thorogood, Ulrike Bauer, Simon J Hiscock
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The pitcher trap is a striking example of convergent evolution across unrelated carnivorous plant lineages. Convergent traits that have evolved across pitcher plant lineages are essential for trap function, suggesting that key selective pressures are in action. Recent studies have also revealed patterns of divergent evolution in functional pitcher morphology within genera. Adaptations to differences in local prey assemblages may drive such divergence and, ultimately, speciation...
November 13, 2017: New Phytologist
J M Esbrí, H Cacovean, P Higueras
Closure of chloralkali plants poses a risk of abandonment of important sources of gaseous mercury. In this work, an assessment has been made of the potential for pollution from one of these plants in the proximity of a densely populated town in central Romania. The work involved a comparison between two major types of monitoring survey: biomonitoring using leaves of a tree common in urban environments; and LUMEX-based gaseous mercury analysis. For biomonitoring, 21 samples from Salix alba L. trees were taken in Turda area...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Yangzhou Wang, Kyung Seok Kim, Wenchao Guo, Qiyun Li, Yunyue Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Brad S Coates
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause damage to cultivated maize in spatially distinct geographies, and have evolved divergent hydrocarbons as the basis of sexual communication. The Yili area of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China represents the only known region where O. furnacalis has invaded a native O. nubilalis range, and these two corn borer species have made secondary contact. Genetic differentiation was estimated between Ostrinia larvae collected from maize plants at 11 locations in Xinjiang Province, and genotyped using high throughput SNP and microsatellite markers...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Jinru Lin, Wei Sun, Jacques Desmarais, Ning Chen, Renfei Feng, Patrick Zhang, Dien Li, Arthur Lieu, John S Tse, Yuanming Pan
Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Fuyu Guo, Changfeng Ding, Zhigao Zhou, Gaoxiang Huang, Xingxiang Wang
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination in China has become a serious concern due to its high toxicity to human health through food chains. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydrated lime (L), hydroxyapatite (H) and organic fertilizer (F) alone or in combination to remedy a mild (DY) and a moderate (YX) Cd contaminated agricultural soil under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that crops grain yield and Cd concentration, soil pH, CaCl2 extractable Cd and Cd speciation were markedly affected by the amendments...
October 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
F Pax C Blamey, Brigid A McKenna, Cui Li, Miaomiao Cheng, Caixian Tang, Haibo Jiang, Daryl L Howard, David J Paterson, Peter Kappen, Peng Wang, Neal W Menzies, Peter M Kopittke
Soil acidity and waterlogging increase manganese (Mn) in leaf tissues to potentially toxic concentrations, an effect reportedly alleviated by increased silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) supply. Effects of Si and P on Mn toxicity were studied in four plant species using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to determine Mn distribution in leaf tissues and using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to measure Mn speciation in leaves, stems and roots...
November 1, 2017: New Phytologist
Nancy Peña, Assumpció Antón, Andreas Kamilaris, Peter Fantke
Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ian Beddows, Aparna Reddy, Thorsten Kloesges, Laura E Rose
Hybridization between closely related plant species is widespread, but the outcomes of hybridization are not fully understood. This study investigates phylogenetic relationships and the history of hybridization in the wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon).We sequenced RNA from individuals of 38 different populations and, by combining this with published data, build a comprehensive genomic dataset for the entire clade.The data indicate that many taxa are not monophyletic and many individuals are admixed due to repeated hybridization...
October 24, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Seyed Majid Mousavi, Babak Motesharezadeh, Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini, Hoseinali Alikhani, Ali Asghar Zolfaghari
Many studies have conducted to determine the best management practice to reduce the mobility and phytoavailability of the trace metals in contaminated soils. In this study, geochemical speciation and phytoavailability of Zn for sunflower were studied after application of nanoparticles (SiO2 and zeolite, with an application rate of 200 mg kg(-1)) and bacteria [Bacillus safensis FO-036b(T) and Pseudomonas fluorescens p.f.169] to a calcareous heavily contaminated soil. Results showed that the biotic and abiotic treatments significantly reduced the Zn concentration in the aboveground to non-toxicity levels compared to the control treatment, and the nanoparticle treatments were more effective than the bacteria and control treatments...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Renske E Onstein, William J Baker, Thomas L P Couvreur, Søren Faurby, Jens-Christian Svenning, W Daniel Kissling
Animal-mediated seed dispersal by frugivorous birds and mammals is central to the ecology and functioning of ecosystems, but whether and how frugivory-related traits have affected plant speciation remains little explored. Fruit size is directly linked to plant dispersal capacity and therefore influences gene flow and genetic divergence of plant populations. Using a global species-level phylogeny with comprehensive data on fruit sizes and plant species distributions, we test whether fruit size has affected speciation rates of palms (Arecaceae), a plant family characteristic of tropical rainforests...
October 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Darina Koubínová, Vlad Dincă, Leonardo Dapporto, Raluca Vodă, Tomasz Suchan, Roger Vila, Nadir Alvarez
Biotic interactions are often acknowledged as catalysers of genetic divergence and eventual explanation of processes driving species richness. We address the question, whether extreme ecological specialization is always associated with lineage sorting, by analysing polymorphisms in morphologically similar ecotypes of the myrmecophilous butterfly Maculinea alcon. The ecotypes occur in either hygric or xeric habitats, use different larval host plants and ant species, but no significant distinctive molecular traits have been revealed so far...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joshua P Jahner, Matthew L Forister, Thomas L Parchman, Angela M Smilanich, James S Miller, Joseph S Wilson, Thomas R Walla, Eric J Tepe, Lora A Richards, Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril, Andrea E Glassmire, Lee A Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
So Youn Won, Soo-Jin Kwon, Tae-Ho Lee, Jae-A Jung, Jung Sun Kim, Sang-Ho Kang, Seong-Han Sohn
Comparative transcriptome analysis of wild and cultivated chrysanthemums provides valuable genomic resources and helps uncover common and divergent patterns of genome and gene evolution in these species. Plants are unique in that they employ polyploidy (or whole-genome duplication, WGD) as a key process for speciation and evolution. The Chrysanthemum genus is closely associated with hybridization and polyploidization, with Chrysanthemum species exhibiting diverse ploidy levels. The commercially important species, C...
October 19, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Thomas Nakel, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Yanbo Mao, Golo Fuchert, Dieu Vo, Rita Groß-Hardt
It is considered an inviolable principle that sexually reproducing organisms have no more than two parents and fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm (polyspermy) is lethal in many eukaryotes. In flowering plants polyspermy has remained a hypothetical concept, due to the lack of tools to unambiguously identify and trace this event. We established a high-throughput polyspermy detection assay, which uncovered that supernumerary sperm fusion does occur in planta and can generate viable polyploid offspring. Moreover, polyspermy can give rise to seedlings with one mother and two fathers, challenging the bi-organismal concept of parentage...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Houshuai Wang, Jeremy D Holloway, Niklas Janz, Mariana P Braga, Niklas Wahlberg, Min Wang, Sören Nylin
Theory on plasticity driving speciation, as applied to insect-plant interactions (the oscillation hypothesis), predicts more species in clades with higher diversity of host use, all else being equal. Previous support comes mainly from specialized herbivores such as butterflies, and plasticity theory suggests that there may be an upper host range limit where host diversity no longer promotes diversification. The tussock moths (Erebidae: Lymantriinae) are known for extreme levels of polyphagy. We demonstrate that this system is also very different from butterflies in terms of phylogenetic signal for polyphagy and for use of specific host orders...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Masaya Yamamoto, Masato Ohtani, Kaoruko Kurata, Hiroaki Setoguchi
Background and Aims: Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Renato Jun Horikoshi, Daniel Bernardi, Celso Omoto, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo Mendes Brandão
BACKGROUND: Our main purpose was to evaluate the expression of plastic and evolved genes involved in ecological speciation in the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW); and to demonstrate how host plants might influence lineage differentiation in this polyphagous insect. FAW is an important pest of several crops worldwide, and it is differentiated into host plant-related strains, corn (CS) and rice strains (RS). RNA-Seq and transcriptome characterization were applied to evaluate unbiased genetic expression differences in larvae from the two strains, fed on primary (corn) and alternative (rice) host plants...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Amir Szitenberg, Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Vivian C Blok, Dominik R Laetsch, Soumi Joseph, Valerie M Williamson, Mark L Blaxter, David H Lunt
The Root-Knot Nematodes (RKN; genus Meloidogyne) are important plant parasites causing substantial agricultural losses. The Meloidogyne incognita group (MIG) of species, most of which are obligatory apomicts (mitotic parthenogens), are extremely polyphagous and important problems for global agriculture. While understanding the genomic basis for their variable success on different crops could benefit future agriculture, analyses of their genomes are challenging due to complex evolutionary histories that may incorporate hybridization, ploidy changes, and chromosomal fragmentation...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Owen G Osborne, Rishi De-Kayne, Martin I Bidartondo, Ian Hutton, William J Baker, Colin G N Turnbull, Vincent Savolainen
Microbes can have profound effects on their hosts, driving natural selection, promoting speciation and determining species distributions. However, soil-dwelling microbes are rarely investigated as drivers of evolutionary change in plants. We used metabarcoding and experimental manipulation of soil microbiomes to investigate the impact of soil and root microbes in a well-known case of sympatric speciation, the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island (Australia). Whereas H. forsteriana can grow on both calcareous and volcanic soils, H...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
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