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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731202/on-the-brink-the-highly-reduced-plastomes-of-nonphotosynthetic-ericaceae
#1
Thomas W A Braukmann, Michael B Broe, Saša Stefanović, John V Freudenstein
Ericaceae (the heather family) is a large and diverse group of plants that forms elaborate symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi, and includes several nonphotosynthetic lineages. Using an extensive sample of fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) species, we explored inter- and intraspecific variation as well as selective constraints acting on the plastomes of these unusual plants. The plastomes of seven MH genera were analysed in a phylogenetic context with two geographically disparate individuals sequenced for Allotropa, Monotropa, and Pityopus...
July 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727195/patterns-of-divergence-across-the-geographic-and-genomic-landscape-of-a-butterfly-hybrid-zone-associated-with-a-climatic-gradient
#2
Sean F Ryan, Michael C Fontaine, Mark J Scriber, Michael E Pfrender, Shawn T O'Neil, Jessica J Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate genes for ecological adaptations...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723902/seed-size-and-its-rate-of-evolution-correlate-with-species-diversification-across-angiosperms
#3
Javier Igea, Eleanor F Miller, Alexander S T Papadopulos, Andrew J Tanentzap
Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713419/population-structure-genetic-diversity-and-evolutionary-history-of-kleinia-neriifolia-asteraceae-on-the-canary-islands
#4
Ye Sun, Carlos F Vargas-Mendoza
Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west-east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710389/continuation-of-the-genetic-divergence-of-ecological-speciation-by-spatial-environmental-heterogeneity-in-island-endemic-plants
#5
Bing-Hong Huang, Chih-Wei Huang, Chia-Lung Huang, Pei-Chun Liao
Divergent selection plays a critical role not only as a speciation driver but also in maintaining post-speciation divergence. In the absence of direct evidence, ancestral interspecific gene flow between incipient species can reflect ancient selective pressure for ecological speciation. In the present study, two late-Pleistocene diverged species endemic to Taiwan, Scutellaria playfairii and S. tashiroi, were spatially and ecologically partitioned with partial overlap. Multilocus genome-scan analyses and in silico evaluation revealed ancestral interspecific gene flow but distinct genetic compositions, implying that adaptive divergence contributed to their speciation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696392/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-adaptive-evolution-of-notopterygium-incisum-and-notopterygium-franchetii-two-high-alpine-herbal-species-endemic-to-china
#6
Yun Jia, Mi-Li Liu, Ming Yue, Zhe Zhao, Gui-Fang Zhao, Zhong-Hu Li
The extreme conditions (e.g., cold, low oxygen, and strong ultraviolet radiation) of the high mountains provide an ideal natural laboratory for studies on speciation and the adaptive evolution of organisms. Up to now, few genome/transcriptome-based studies have been carried out on how plants adapt to conditions at extremely high altitudes. Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii (Notopterygium, Apiaceae) are two endangered high-alpine herbal plants endemic to China. To explore the molecular genetic mechanisms of adaptation to high altitudes, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the two species...
July 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688359/influence-of-silicon-treatment-on-antimony-uptake-and-translocation-in-rice-genotypes-with-different-radial-oxygen-loss
#7
Liping Zhang, Qianqian Yang, Shiliang Wang, Wanting Li, Shaoqing Jiang, Yan Liu
Antimony (Sb) pollution in soil may have a negative impact on the health of people consuming rice. This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si) application on rice biomass, iron plaque formation, and Sb uptake and speciation in rice plants with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) using pot experiments. The results demonstrated that Si addition increased the biomass of straw and grain, but had no obvious impact on the root biomass. Indica genotypes with higher ROL underwent greater iron plaque formation and exhibited more Sb sequestration in iron plaque...
July 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687904/a-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-at-the-level-of-isolated-root-hair-cells-reveals-new-conserved-root-hair-regulatory-elements
#8
Zhenzhen Qiao, Lise Pingault, Prince Zogli, Micaela Langevin, Niccole Rech, Andrew Farmer, Marc Libault
A comparative transcriptomic and genomic analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max root hair genes reveals the evolution of the expression of plant genes after speciation and whole genome duplication. Our understanding of the conservation and divergence of the expression patterns of genes between plant species is limited by the quality of the genomic and transcriptomic resources available. Specifically, the transcriptomes generated from plant organs are the reflection of the contribution of the different cell types composing the samples weighted by their relative abundances in the sample...
July 7, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681292/biochars-mitigate-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-bioaccumulation-of-potentially-toxic-elements-and-arsenic-speciation-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#9
Muhammad Ibrahim, Gang Li, Sardar Khan, Qiaoqiao Chi, Yaoyang Xu
Anthropogenic and natural activities can lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into soil environment. Biochar amendment to soils is a cost-effective technology and sustainable approach used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve phytoremediation, and minimize the health risks associated with consumption of PTE-contaminated vegetables. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of peanut shell biochar (PNB) and sewage sludge biochar (SSB) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, plant growth, PTE bioaccumulation, and arsenic (As) speciation in bean plants...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673978/unearthing-a-sesterterpene-biosynthetic-repertoire-in-the-brassicaceae-through-genome-mining-reveals-convergent-evolution
#10
Ancheng C Huang, Satria A Kautsar, Young J Hong, Marnix H Medema, Andrew D Bond, Dean J Tantillo, Anne Osbourn
Sesterterpenoids are a rare terpene class harboring untapped chemodiversity and bioactivities. Their structural diversity originates primarily from the scaffold-generating sesterterpene synthases (STSs). In fungi, all six known STSs are bifunctional, containing C-terminal trans-prenyltransferase (PT) and N-terminal terpene synthase (TPS) domains. In plants, two colocalized PT and TPS gene pairs from Arabidopsis thaliana were recently reported to synthesize sesterterpenes. However, the landscape of PT and TPS genes in plant genomes is unclear...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660288/influence-of-water-management-on-the-active-root-associated-microbiota-involved-in-arsenic-iron-and-sulfur-cycles-in-rice-paddies
#11
Sarah Zecchin, Anna Corsini, Maria Martin, Lucia Cavalca
In recent years, the role of microorganisms inhabiting rice rhizosphere in promoting arsenic contamination has emerged. However, little is known concerning the species and metabolic properties involved in this phenomenon. In this study, the influence of water management on the rhizosphere microbiota in relation to arsenic dissolution in soil solution was tested. Rice plants were cultivated in macrocosms under different water regimes: continuous flooding, continuous flooding with a 2-week period drainage before flowering, and dry soil watered every 10 days...
June 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658741/role-of-fe-iii-carboxylates-in-amz-photodegradation-a-response-surface-study-based-on-a-doehlert-experimental-design
#12
Cátia A L Graça, Adriana Correia de Velosa, Antonio Carlos S C Teixeira
Photochemical redox reactions of Fe(III) complexes in surface waters are important sources of radical species, therefore contributing to the sunlight-driven elimination of waterborne recalcitrant contaminants. In this study, the effects of three Fe(III)-carboxylates (i.e., oxalate, citrate, and tartrate) on the UVA photoinduced oxidation of the herbicide amicarbazone (AMZ) were investigated. A Doehlert experimental design was applied to find the Fe(III):ligand ratios and pH that achieved the fastest AMZ degradation rate...
June 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654210/do-plant-eating-insect-lineages-pass-through-phases-of-host-use-generalism-during-speciation-and-host-switching-phylogenetic-evidence
#13
Nate B Hardy
The Oscillation Hypothesis posits that plant-eating insect diversity is generated by cycles of diet breadth expansion and contraction. Although at any given time most plant-eating insect species are host specialists, host-use evolution and speciation tend to entail a phase of generalism. The main evidence for this comes from comparative phylogenetic studies, but with mixed support. Here, I review and add to this evidence. I show that some of the original work that inspired the Oscillation Hypothesis is flawed in a way that leads to spurious inferences about trends in the evolution of diet diversity...
June 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633349/colchicine-application-significantly-affects-plant-performance-in-the-second-generation-of-synthetic-polyploids-and-its-effects-vary-between-populations
#14
Zuzana Münzbergová
Background and Aims: Understanding the direct consequences of polyploidization is necessary for assessing the evolutionary significance of this mode of speciation. Previous studies have not studied the degree of between-population variation that occurs due to these effects. Although it is assumed that the effects of the substances that create synthetic polyploids disappear in second-generation synthetic polyploids, this has not been tested. Methods: The direct consequences of polyploidization were assessed and separated from the effects of subsequent evolution in Vicia cracca , a naturally occurring species with diploid and autotetraploid cytotypes...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#15
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630293/a-null-model-for-microbial-diversification
#16
Timothy J Straub, Olga Zhaxybayeva
Whether prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) are naturally organized into phenotypically and genetically cohesive units comparable to animal or plant species remains contested, frustrating attempts to estimate how many such units there might be, or to identify the ecological roles they play. Analyses of gene sequences in various closely related prokaryotic groups reveal that sequence diversity is typically organized into distinct clusters, and processes such as periodic selection and extensive recombination are understood to be drivers of cluster formation ("speciation")...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609994/uncovering-the-hidden-biodiversity-of-natural-history-collections-insights-from-dna-barcoding-and-morphological-characters-of-the-neotropical-genus-i-orthocomotis-i-dognin-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#17
Józef Razowski, Volker Pelz, Sebastian Tarcz
We used a 227-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (DNA "barcode") in conjunction with morphological data to study specimens of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin, 1906, acquired from natural history collections. We examined over 20 species of Orthocomotis from 17 localities in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The analysis identified 32 haplotypes among the 62 specimens and found no haplotypes shared among species. The molecular study revealed not only the usefulness of short COI sequences in discriminating among Orthocomotis species but also showed distinctness of four clusters which correspond to those based on morphological (genitalia) characters...
April 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592558/duplication-and-loss-of-function-of-genes-encoding-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-c4-causes-hybrid-incompatibility-in-rice
#18
Giao Ngoc Nguyen, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Yuko Shigematsu, Miyako Watanabe, Yuta Miyazaki, Kazuyuki Doi, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Jianzhong Wu, Takashi Matsumoto, Hideshi Yasui, Atsushi Yoshimura
Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1) on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, Oryza nivara Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592249/ixora-rubiaceae-on-the-philippines-crossroad-or-cradle
#19
Cecilia I Banag, Arnaud Mouly, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Birgitta Bremer, Ulrich Meve, Guido W Grimm, Sigrid Liede-Schumann
BACKGROUND: The Philippine archipelago is globally one of the most important model island systems for studying evolutionary processes. However, most plant species on this archipelago have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. The main aim of this study is to unravel the evolutionary history and biogeographic relationships of the Philippine members of the pantropical genus Ixora. RESULTS: The complex plastid and nuclear divergence patterns in Philippine Ixora, documented using tree and network approaches, reveal a highly dynamic evolution in Ixora, involving several phases of radiation and recolonization...
June 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584725/genome-wide-analysis-suggests-high-level-of-microsynteny-and-purifying-selection-affect-the-evolution-of-ein3-eil-family-in-rosaceae
#20
Yunpeng Cao, Yahui Han, Dandan Meng, Dahui Li, Qing Jin, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (EIN3/EIL) proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), mei (Prunus mume), peach (Prunus persica) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca), respectively...
2017: PeerJ
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