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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812669/the-evo-devo-of-plant-speciation
#1
REVIEW
Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Beverley J Glover
Speciation research bridges the realms of macro- and microevolution. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has classically dealt with macroevolutionary questions through a comparative approach to distantly related organisms, but the field later broadened in focus to address recent speciation and microevolution. Here we review available evidence of the power of evo-devo approaches to understand speciation in plants at multiple scales. At a macroevolutionary scale, evidence is accumulating for evolutionary developmental mechanisms giving rise to key innovations promoting speciation...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811884/factors-contributing-to-the-accumulation-of-reproductive-isolation-a-mixed-model-approach
#2
Dean M Castillo
The analysis of large datasets describing reproductive isolation between species has been extremely influential in the study of speciation. However, the statistical methods currently used for these data limit the ability to make direct inferences about the factors predicting the evolution of reproductive isolation. As a result, our understanding of iconic patterns and rules of speciation rely on indirect analyses that have clear statistical limitations. Phylogenetic mixed models are commonly used in ecology and evolution, but have not been applied to studies of reproductive isolation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808562/floral-scent-and-species-divergence-in-a-pair-of-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#3
Daniel D L Gervasi, Marc-Andre Selosse, Mathieu Sauve, Wittko Francke, Nicolas J Vereecken, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian P Schiestl
Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808554/arthropod-communities-on-hybrid-and-parental-cottonwoods-are-phylogenetically-structured-by-tree-type-implications-for-conservation-of-biodiversity-in-plant-hybrid-zones
#4
Karl J Jarvis, Gerard J Allan, Ashley J Craig, Rebecca K Beresic-Perrins, Gina Wimp, Catherine A Gehring, Thomas G Whitham
Although hybridization in plants has been recognized as an important pathway in plant speciation, it may also affect the ecology and evolution of associated communities. Cottonwood species (Populus angustifolia and P. fremontii) and their naturally occurring hybrids are known to support different plant, animal, and microbial communities, but no studies have examined community structure within the context of phylogenetic history. Using a community composed of 199 arthropod species, we tested for differences in arthropod phylogenetic patterns within and among hybrid and parental tree types in a common garden...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795805/how-rice-oryza-sativa-l-responds-to-elevated-as-under-different-si-rich-soil-amendments
#5
William A Teasley, Matthew Alan Limmer, Angelia L Seyfferth
Several strategies exist to mitigate As impacts on rice and each has its set of tradeoffs with respect to yield, inorganic As content in grain, and CH4 emissions. The addition of Si to paddy soil can decrease As uptake by rice but how rice will respond to elevated As when soil is amended with Si-rich materials is unresolved. Here, we evaluated yield impacts and grain As content and speciation in rice exposed to elevated As in response to different Si-rich soil amendments including rice husk, rice husk ash, and CaSiO3 in a pot study...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792456/genetic-structure-and-eco-geographical-differentiation-of-wild-sheep-fescue-festuca-ovina-l-in-xinjiang-northwest-china
#6
Chenglin Zhang, Jianbo Zhang, Yan Fan, Ming Sun, Wendan Wu, Wenda Zhao, Xiaopeng Yang, Linkai Huang, Yan Peng, Xiao Ma, Xinquan Zhang
Glaciation and mountain orogeny have generated new ecologic opportunities for plants, favoring an increase in the speciation rate. Moreover, they also act as corridors or barriers for plant lineages and populations. High genetic diversity ensures that species are able to survive and adapt. Gene flow is one of the most important determinants of the genetic diversity and structure of out-crossed species, and it is easily affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of an alpine species, Festuca ovina L...
August 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791037/adaptation-of-the-pivotal-differential-genome-pattern-for-the-induction-of-intergenomic-chromosome-recombination-in-hybrids-of-synthetic-amphidiploids-within-triticeae-tribe
#7
Michal T Kwiatek, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Halina Wisniewska
A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790327/natural-history-of-the-narrow-endemics-ipomoea-cavalcantei-and-i-marabaensis-from-amazon-canga-savannahs
#8
Elena Babiychuk, Sergei Kushnir, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Mariana Costa Dias, Nelson Carvalho-Filho, Gisele Lopes Nunes, Jorge Filipe Dos Santos, Lourival Tyski, Delmo Fonseca da Silva, Alexandre Castilho, Vera Lucia Imperatriz Fonseca, Guilherme Oliveira
Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781183/selenium-speciation-in-phosphate-mine-soils-and-evaluation-of-a-sequential-extraction-procedure-using-xafs
#9
Jessica E Favorito, Todd P Luxton, Matthew J Eick, Paul R Grossl
Selenium is a trace element found in western US soils, where ingestion of Se-accumulating plants has resulted in livestock fatalities. Therefore, a reliable understanding of Se speciation and bioavailability is critical for effective mitigation. Sequential extraction procedures (SEP) are often employed to examine Se phases and speciation in contaminated soils but may be limited by experimental conditions. We examined the validity of a SEP using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for both whole and a sequence of extracted soils...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771729/present-day-sympatry-belies-the-evolutionary-origin-of-a-high-order-polyploid
#10
Na Wei, Jacob A Tennessen, Aaron Liston, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Disentangling the evolutionary histories of polyploids, especially those with high ploidies, can reveal fundamental processes in speciation. Despite occurring frequently during evolution, the origins of many extant polyploid plant species remain largely unknown. By integrating linkage mapping, polyploid phylogeny and sex-determining region (SDR) in a unified framework, we statistically evaluated evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of a recently recognized decaploid strawberry (Fragaria cascadensis)...
August 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763635/effect-of-corrosion-inhibitor-benzotriazole-on-the-uptake-and-translocation-of-cd-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-under-different-exposure-conditions
#11
Zhen Liu, Lei Wang, Chenye Wang, Shujuan Sun, Li Qin, Yi An, Yanshuai Xing, Hongwen Sun
Emerging contaminants that can complex with heavy metals might affect the speciation of coexisting metals and result in different ecological risks. As a widely used metal corrosion inhibitor, 1H-benzotriazole (BTR) is frequently detected in the environments, sometimes at very high levels. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was used to assess the ecological risk of combined exposure to cadmium (Cd) and BTR in plants and discuss the potential effects of exposure sequence on the uptake and translocation of Cd under hydroponic culture...
July 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759788/isolation-of-vanadium-resistance-endophytic-bacterium-pre01-from-pteris-vittata-in-stone-coal-smelting-district-and-characterization-for-potential-use-in-phytoremediation
#12
Liang Wang, Hai Lin, Yingbo Dong, Yinhai He, Chenjing Liu
This study investigates the V-resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from V-accumulator Pteris vittata grown on stone coal smelting district. Among all the ten isolates, the strain PRE01 identified as Serratia marcescens ss marcescens by Biolog GEN III MicroPlate™ was screened out by ranking first in terms of heavy metal resistance and plant growth promoting traits. The S. marcescens PRE01 had strong V, Cr and Cd resistance especially for V up to 1500mg/L. In addition, it exhibited ACC deaminase activity, siderophore production and high indoleacetic acid production (60...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757445/phylogenetics-of-australasian-gall-flies-diptera-fergusoninidae-evolutionary-patterns-of-host-shifting-and-gall-morphology
#13
S J Scheffer, K A Davies, G S Taylor, A H Thornhill, M L Lewis, I S Winkler, D K Yeates, M F Purcell, J Makinson, R M Giblin-Davis
This study investigated host-specificity and phylogenetic relationships in Australian galling flies, Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), in order to assess diversity and explore the evolutionary history of host plant affiliation and gall morphology. A DNA barcoding approach using COI data from 203 Fergusonina specimens from 5gall types on 56 host plant species indicated 85 presumptive fly species. These exhibited a high degree of host specificity; of the 40 species with multiple representatives, each fed only on a single host genus, 29 (72...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742982/investigation-of-orthologous-pathogen-recognition-gene-rich-regions-in-solanaceous-species
#14
A Di Donato, Giuseppe Andolfo, A Ferrarini, M Delledonne, M R Ercolano
The genome architecture of pathogen receptor genes (PRGs) was extensively investigated in several plant species. However, we still know little about their elaborate reorganization arose during the plant speciation process. Using recently released pepper and eggplant genome sequences we were able to identify 1097 pathogen recognition genes in pepper Zunla-1 and 775 in eggplant Nakate-Shinkuro. The retrieved genes were analysed for their tendency to cluster, using different methods to infer the means of grouping...
July 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742230/allopatric-speciation-despite-historical-gene-flow-divergence-and-hybridization-in-carex-furva-and-c-lucennoiberica-cyperaceae-inferred-from-plastid-and-nuclear-rad-seq-data
#15
E Maguilla, M Escudero, A L Hipp, M Luceño
Gene flow among incipient species can act as a creative or destructive force in the speciation process, generating variation on which natural selection can act while, potentially, undermining population divergence. The flowering plant genus Carex exhibits a rapid and relatively recent radiation with many species limits still unclear. This is the case with the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) endemic C. lucennoiberica, which lay unrecognized within Carex furva until its recent description as a new species...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731202/on-the-brink-the-highly-reduced-plastomes-of-nonphotosynthetic-ericaceae
#16
Thomas W A Braukmann, Michael B Broe, Saša Stefanović, John V Freudenstein
Ericaceae (the heather family) is a large and diverse group of plants that forms elaborate symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi, and includes several nonphotosynthetic lineages. Using an extensive sample of fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) species, we explored inter- and intraspecific variation as well as selective constraints acting on the plastomes of these unusual plants. The plastomes of seven MH genera were analysed in a phylogenetic context with two geographically disparate individuals sequenced for Allotropa, Monotropa, and Pityopus...
July 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727195/patterns-of-divergence-across-the-geographic-and-genomic-landscape-of-a-butterfly-hybrid-zone-associated-with-a-climatic-gradient
#17
Sean F Ryan, Michael C Fontaine, Mark J Scriber, Michael E Pfrender, Shawn T O'Neil, Jessica J Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate genes for ecological adaptations...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723902/seed-size-and-its-rate-of-evolution-correlate-with-species-diversification-across-angiosperms
#18
Javier Igea, Eleanor F Miller, Alexander S T Papadopulos, Andrew J Tanentzap
Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713419/population-structure-genetic-diversity-and-evolutionary-history-of-kleinia-neriifolia-asteraceae-on-the-canary-islands
#19
Ye Sun, Carlos F Vargas-Mendoza
Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west-east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710389/continuation-of-the-genetic-divergence-of-ecological-speciation-by-spatial-environmental-heterogeneity-in-island-endemic-plants
#20
Bing-Hong Huang, Chih-Wei Huang, Chia-Lung Huang, Pei-Chun Liao
Divergent selection plays a critical role not only as a speciation driver but also in maintaining post-speciation divergence. In the absence of direct evidence, ancestral interspecific gene flow between incipient species can reflect ancient selective pressure for ecological speciation. In the present study, two late-Pleistocene diverged species endemic to Taiwan, Scutellaria playfairii and S. tashiroi, were spatially and ecologically partitioned with partial overlap. Multilocus genome-scan analyses and in silico evaluation revealed ancestral interspecific gene flow but distinct genetic compositions, implying that adaptive divergence contributed to their speciation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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