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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#1
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102706/co-effect-of-phosphorus-and-cadmium-interaction-on-fraction-distribution-and-accumulation-of-phosphorus-in-mangrove-sediment-system
#2
Jingna Du, Junyi Yu
Mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S. L.)) seedlings were cultivated in rhizoboxes under different rates of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) level. The speciation distributions of P both in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments were examined using sequential extraction procedures. P contents in different Kandelia obovata (S.L.) tissues were also determined. Results showed that considerable differences existed in P speciation distribution between rhizosphere and bulk sediments. A higher proportion of iron-bound phosphate (Fe-P) was found in the rhizosphere sediments, while a relatively higher concentration of exchangeable phosphate (Ex-P) and Al-bound phosphate (Al-P) was found in the bulk sediments...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094438/environmental-niche-conservatism-explains-the-accumulation-of-species-richness-in-mediterranean-hotspot-plant-genera
#3
Alexander Skeels, Marcel Cardillo
The causes of exceptionally high plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots are not fully understood. We asked whether a mechanism similar to the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis could explain the diversity of four large genera (Protea, Moraea, Banksia, and Hakea) with distributions within and adjacent to the Greater Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) or the Southwest Floristic Region (Australia). Using phylogenetic and spatial data we estimated the environmental niche of each species, and reconstructed the mode and dynamics of niche evolution, and the geographic history, of each genus...
January 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094280/accumulation-and-transformation-of-inorganic-and-organic-arsenic-in-rice-and-role-of-thiol-complexation-to-restrict-their-translocation-to-shoot
#4
Seema Mishra, Jürgen Mattusch, Rainer Wennrich
Environmental contamination of arsenic (As) and its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is of serious human health concern. In planta speciation of As is an important tool to understand As metabolism in plants. In the present study, we investigated root to shoot As translocation and speciation in rice exposed to inorganic and methylated As. Arsenate (As(V)) and methylarsonate (MA(V)) were efficiently reduced to arsenite (As(III)) and MA(III), respectively in rice root and shoot but no trivalent form of dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) was detected...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#5
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#6
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081503/in-silico-identification-of-alternative-oxidase-2-aox2-in-monocots-a-new-evolutionary-scenario
#7
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#8
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074927/quaternary-climate-change-drives-allo-peripatric-speciation-and-refugial-divergence-in-the-dysosma-versipellis-pleiantha-complex-from-different-forest-types-in-china
#9
Yi-Han Wang, Hans Peter Comes, Ya-Nan Cao, Rui Guo, Yun-Rui Mao, Ying-Xiong Qiu
Subtropical China harbours the world's most diverse temperate flora, but little is known about the roles of geographical and eco-climatic factors underlying the region's exceptionally high levels of species diversity and endemism. Here we address this key question by investigating the spatio-temporal and ecological processes of divergence within the Dysosma versipellis-pleiantha species complex, endemic to subtropical China. Our cpDNA phylogeny showed that this monophyletic group of understory herbs is derived from a Late Pliocene ancestor of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)/Southwest China...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057398/selenium-speciation-profiles-in-biofortified-sangiovese-wine
#10
Maria Chiara Fontanella, Roberto D'Amato, Luca Regni, Primo Proietti, Gian Maria Beone, Daniela Businelli
Biofortification is an agronomic-based strategy, utilized by farmers, to produce selenium (Se)-enriched food products that may help reduce dietary deficiencies of Se occurring throughout susceptible regions of the world. The foliar exposure route application ensures a high efficiency of Se assimilation by the plant since it does not depend on root-to-shoot translocation. In this study we treated grapevines of Sangiovese variety in the pre-flowering period with sodium selenate (100mg Se L(-1)). Se content was measured in leaves, fruit at harvest time and in wine respectively in treated and not treated samples with ICP-MS...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052858/ecological-range-shift-in-the-polyploid-members-of-the-south-american-genus-fosterella-bromeliaceae
#11
Juraj Paule, Natascha D Wagner, Kurt Weising, Georg Zizka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The distribution of polyploidy along a relatively steep Andean elevation and climatic gradient is studied using the genus Fosterella L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) as a model system. Ecological differentiation of cytotypes and the link of polyploidy with historical biogeographic processes such as dispersal events and range shift are assessed. METHODS: 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of nuclei and flow cytometry were used to estimate the ploidy levels of 159 plants from 22 species sampled throughout the distribution range of the genus...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043702/understanding-arsenic-dynamics-in-agronomic-systems-to-predict-and-prevent-uptake-by-crop-plants
#12
Tracy Punshon, Brian P Jackson, Andrew A Meharg, Todd Warczack, Kirk Scheckel, Mary Lou Guerinot
This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032134/arsenic-speciation-in-organisms-from-two-large-shallow-freshwater-lakes-in-china
#13
Fen Yang, Nan Zhang, Chaoyang Wei, Jinxin Liu, Shaowen Xie
This study measured the elemental and species concentrations of arsenic (As) in the water, sediments and food webs of two shallow Chinese freshwater lakes. Organic As species were widely detected in various organisms from the two lakes (60%-100% of the total). Among these organisms, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was predominant in most of the samples. The average concentrations and corresponding proportions were 0.59 mg/kg, 81% in fish; 3.24 mg/kg, 70.63% in zoobenthos; and 1.34 mg/kg, 79% in plants. The average concentrations and corresponding proportions of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and inorganic As were much lower, ranging from n...
December 28, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028850/history-geography-and-host-use-shape-genome-wide-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-redheaded-pine-sawfly-neodiprion-lecontei
#14
Robin K Bagley, Vitor C Sousa, Matthew L Niemiller, Catherine R Linnen
Divergent host use has long been suspected to drive population differentiation and speciation in plant-feeding insects. Evaluating the contribution of divergent host use to genetic differentiation can be difficult, however, as dispersal limitation and population structure may also influence patterns of genetic variation. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that divergent host use contributes to genetic differentiation among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), a widespread pest that uses multiple Pinus hosts throughout its range in eastern North America...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018407/indications-of-selenium-protection-against-cadmium-and-lead-toxicity-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#15
Zhilin Wu, Xuebin Yin, Gary S Bañuelos, Zhi-Qing Lin, Ying Liu, Miao Li, Linxi Yuan
The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd(+2)) and lead (Pb(+2)) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg(-1)) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018379/comparative-transcriptomics-of-strawberries-fragaria-spp-provides-insights-into-evolutionary-patterns
#16
Qin Qiao, Li Xue, Qia Wang, Hang Sun, Yang Zhong, Jinling Huang, Jiajun Lei, Ticao Zhang
Multiple closely related species with genomic sequences provide an ideal system for studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics, as well as the mechanism of speciation. The whole genome sequences of six strawberry species (Fragaria spp.) have been released, which provide one of the richest genomic resources of any plant genus. In this study, we first generated seven transcriptome sequences of Fragaria species de novo, with a total of 48,557-82,537 unigenes per species. Combined with 13 other species genomes in Rosales, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree at the genomic level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011721/genome-analysis-of-hibiscus-syriacus-provides-insights-of-polyploidization-and-indeterminate-flowering-in-woody-plants
#17
Yong-Min Kim, Seungill Kim, Namjin Koo, Ah-Young Shin, Seon-In Yeom, Eunyoung Seo, Seong-Jin Park, Won-Hee Kang, Myung-Shin Kim, Jieun Park, Insu Jang, Pan-Gyu Kim, Iksu Byeon, Min-Seo Kim, JinHyuk Choi, Gunhwan Ko, JiHye Hwang, Tae-Jin Yang, Sang-Bong Choi, Je Min Lee, Ki-Byung Lim, Jungho Lee, Ik-Young Choi, Beom-Seok Park, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Doil Choi, Ryan W Kim
Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H...
December 22, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011112/the-artificial-and-natural-isotopes-distribution-in-sedge-carex-l-biomass-from-the-yenisei-river-flood-plain-adaptation-of-the-sequential-elution-technique
#18
Marya Kropacheva, Mikhail Melgunov, Irina Makarova
The study of migration pathways of artificial isotopes in the flood-plain biogeocoenoses, impacted by the nuclear fuel cycle plants, requires determination of isotope speciations in the biomass of higher terrestrial plants. The optimal method for their determination is the sequential elution technique (SET). The technique was originally developed to study atmospheric pollution by metals and has been applied to lichens, terrestrial and aquatic bryophytes. Due to morphological and physiological differences, it was necessary to adapt SET for new objects: coastal macrophytes growing on the banks of the Yenisei flood-plain islands in the near impact zone of Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004369/mycorrhizal-colonization-status-of-lowland-rice-oryza-sativa-l-in-the-southeastern-region-of-china
#19
Xun-Wen Chen, Fu-Yong Wu, Hui Li, Wai-Fung Chan, Sheng-Chun Wu, Ming-Hung Wong
The accumulation, distribution, and speciation of contaminants, such as arsenic, in rice can be affected by soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). As a potential measure to control contaminant acquisition in rice, the status and performance of AMF in the field need to be investigated. Root samples of rice plants were collected in seven different cities in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Hubei, and Jiangsu Provinces in China in order to investigate the colonization rate of AMF. The total DNA of the roots was extracted, followed by PCR and sequencing, and further confirmed the existence of AMF...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003532/uncovering-higher-taxon-diversification-dynamics-from-clade-age-and-species-richness-data
#20
Luna L Sánchez-Reyes, Hélène Morlon, Susana Magallón
The relationship between clade age and species richness has been increasingly used in macroevolutionary studies as evidence for ecologically versus time-dependent diversification processes. However, theory suggests that phylogenetic structure, age type (crown or stem age), and taxonomic delimitation can affect estimates of the age-richness correlation (ARC) considerably. We currently lack an integrative understanding of how these different factors affect ARCs, which in turn, obscures further interpretations...
October 6, 2016: Systematic Biology
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