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Plant speciation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#1
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419900/dimethylarsenate-dma-exposure-influences-germination-rates-arsenic-uptake-and-arsenic-species-formation-in-wheat
#2
Elliott G Duncan, William A Maher, Simon D Foster, Frank Krikowa, Cathryn A O'Sullivan, Margaret M Roper
The contamination of cereals with arsenic (As) is a global health and agronomic concern. This study compared the physiological response, As uptake and As speciation in the grains and above ground tissues of 20 wheat cultivars exposed to 5 mg As kg(-1) soil as either arsenate (As(V)) or dimethylarsenate (DMA) under glasshouse conditions. Germination rates for the majority of cultivars exceeded 80% for the majority of cultivars when exposed to As(V), but fell significantly to 20-40% when exposed to DMA. For a number of cultivars, grain yields were 20-50% lower when plants were exposed to DMA compared to As(V)...
April 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413161/rapid-and-recent-evolution-of-ltr-retrotransposons-drives-rice-genome-evolution-during-the-speciation-of-aa-genome-oryza-species
#3
Qun-Jie Zhang, Li-Zhi Gao
The dynamics of LTR retrotransposons and their contribution to genome evolution during plant speciation have remained largely unanswered. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparison of all eight Oryza AA- genome species, and identify 3,911 intact LTR retrotransposons classified into 790 families. The top 44 most abundant LTR retrotransposon families show patterns of rapid and distinct diversification since the species split over the last ~4.8 Myr. Phylogenetic and read depth analyses of 11 representative retrotransposon families further provide a comprehensive evolutionary landscape of these changes...
April 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394403/divergence-in-style-length-and-pollen-size-leads-to-a-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-barrier-among-populations-of-silene-latifolia
#4
Amanda N Brothers, Lynda F Delph
A central tenet of speciation research is the need to identify reproductive isolating barriers. One approach to this line of research is to identify the phenotypes that lead to reproductive isolation. Several studies on flowering plants have shown that differences in style length contribute to reproductive isolation between species, leading us to consider whether style length could act as a reproductive barrier among populations of a single species. This could occur if style length varied sufficiently and pollen size covaried with style length...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393442/wide-but-not-impermeable-testing-the-riverine-barrier-hypothesis-for-an-amazonian-plant-species
#5
Alison G Nazareno, Christopher W Dick, Lúcia G Lohmann
Wallace's riverine barrier hypothesis postulates that large rivers, such as the Amazon and its tributaries, reduce or prevent gene flow between populations on opposite banks, leading to allopatry and areas of species endemism occupying interfluvial regions. Several studies have shown that two major tributaries, Rio Branco and Rio Negro, are important barriers to gene flow for birds, amphibians and primates. No botanical studies have considered the potential role of the Rio Branco as a barrier, while a single botanical study has evaluated the Rio Negro as a barrier...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391688/total-as-and-as-speciation-in-italian-rice-as-related-to-producing-areas-and-paddy-soils-properties
#6
Daniele Tenni, Maria Martin, Elisabetta Barberis, Gian Maria Beone, Eleonora Miniotti, Marcella Sodano, Elena Zanzo, Maria Chiara Fontanella, Marco Romani
Rice and rice-based foodstuffs are important pathways for inorganic As dietary intake. This work shows a detailed picture of As content and speciation in Italian rice, which contributes to more than one half of European production, and addresses the role of soil chemistry and agronomic management on As concentration in rice grain, in view of ameliorative strategies. The mean total As content in Italian white rice was 155±65 µg kg-1 with significant differences among producing areas, while the mean inorganic As was 102±26 µg kg-1, largely below the E...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388878/medium-term-water-deficit-elicits-distinct-transcriptome-responses-in-eucalyptus-species-of-contrasting-environmental-origin
#7
Antanas V Spokevicius, Josquin Tibbits, Philippe Rigault, Marc-Alexandre Nolin, Caroline Müller, Andrew Merchant
BACKGROUND: Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387874/analysis-of-allopolyploidy-induced-rapid-genetic-and-epigenetic-changes-and-their-relationship-in-wheat
#8
T Qiu, Y Z Dong, X M Yu, N Zhao, Y F Yang
We used the conventional and methylation-sensitive randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analyses to assess genome-wide changes and explore the relationships between genetic and epigenetic variations among individuals of a newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat line whose genomic constitution is identical to that of the natural common wheat, compared with its parent plants and a natural counterpart named Chinese Spring. We found rapid, extensive, and predominantly consistent non-Mendelian changes in the form of genetic and DNA methylation variations in the allohexaploid individuals...
April 5, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387233/north-andean-origin-and-diversification-of-the-largest-ithomiine-butterfly-genus
#9
Donna Lisa De-Silva, Luísa L Mota, Nicolas Chazot, Ricardo Mallarino, Karina L Silva-Brandão, Luz Miryam Gómez Piñerez, André V L Freitas, Gerardo Lamas, Mathieu Joron, James Mallet, Carlos E Giraldo, Sandra Uribe, Tiina Särkinen, Sandra Knapp, Chris D Jiggins, Keith R Willmott, Marianne Elias
The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383882/uptake-and-distribution-of-silver-in-the-aquatic-plant-landoltia-punctata-duckweed-exposed-to-silver-and-silver-sulfide-nanoparticles
#10
John P Stegemeier, Benjamin P Colman, Fabienne Schwab, Mark R Wiesner, Gregory V Lowry
Aquatic ecosystems are expected to receive Ag0 and Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) through anthropogenic waste streams. The speciation of silver in Ag-NPs affects their fate in ecosystems, but its influence on interactions with aquatic plants is still unclear. Here, the Ag speciation and distribution was measured in an aquatic plant, duckweed (Landoltia punctata), exposed to Ag0 or Ag2S NPs, or to AgNO3. The silver distribution in duckweed roots was visualized using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping and Ag speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383257/copper-oxide-nanoparticle-foliar-uptake-phytotoxicity-and-consequences-for-sustainable-urban-agriculture
#11
TianTian Xiong, Camille Dumat, Vincent Dappe, Hervé Vezin, Eva Schreck, Muhammad Shahid, Antoine Pierart, Sophie Sobanska
Throughout the world, urban agriculture supplies fresh local vegetables to city populations. However, the increasing anthropogenic uses of metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) such as CuO-NPs in urban areas may contaminate vegetables through foliar uptake. This study focused on the CuO-NP transfer processes in leafy edible vegetables (i.e., lettuce and cabbage) to assess their potential phytotoxicity. Vegetables were exposed via leaves for 5, 10, or 15 days to various concentrations of CuO-NPs (0, 10, or 250 mg per plant)...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383248/xylem-and-phloem-based-transport-of-ceo2-nanoparticles-in-hydroponic-cucumber-plants
#12
Yuhui Ma, Xiao He, Peng Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yayun Ding, Junzhe Zhang, Guohua Wang, Changjian Xie, Wenhe Luo, Jing Zhang, Lirong Zheng, Zhifang Chai, Ke Yang
Uptake and translocation of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in plants have drawn much attention due to their potential toxicity to the environment, including food webs. In this paper, the xylem and phloem based transport of CeO2 NPs in hydroponic cucumber plants was investigated using a split-root system. One half of the root system was treated with 200 or 2000 mg/L of CeO2 NPs for 3 days, whereas the other half remained untreated, with both halves sharing the same aerial part. The quantitative distribution and speciation of Ce in different plant tissues and xylem sap were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscope, X-ray absorption near edge structure, and X-ray fluorescence...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381621/hummingbird-pollination-and-the-diversification-of-angiosperms-an-old-and-successful-association-in-gesneriaceae
#13
Martha Liliana Serrano-Serrano, Jonathan Rolland, John L Clark, Nicolas Salamin, Mathieu Perret
The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380570/microscale-investigations-of-soil-heterogeneity-impacts-on-zinc-retention-and-uptake-in-zinc-contaminated-soils
#14
Carla E Rosenfeld, Rufus L Chaney, Ryan V Tappero, Carmen E Martínez
Metal contaminants in soils can persist for millennia, causing lasting negative impacts on local ecosystems. Long-term contaminant bioavailability is related to soil pH and to the strength and stability of solid-phase associations. We combined physical density separation with synchrotron-based microspectroscopy to reduce solid-phase complexity and to study Zn speciation in field-contaminated soils. We also investigated Zn uptake in two Zn-hyperaccumulating ecotypes of (Ganges and Prayon). Soils were either moderately contaminated (500-800 mg Zn kg via contaminated biosolids application) or grossly enriched (26,000 mg Zn kg via geogenic enrichment)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373546/uplift-driven-diversification-in-the-hengduan-mountains-a-temperate-biodiversity-hotspot
#15
Yaowu Xing, Richard H Ree
A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification-that orogeny creates conditions favoring rapid in situ speciation of resident lineages. We tested this hypothesis in the context of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjoining mountain ranges, using the phylogenetic and geographic histories of multiple groups of plants to infer the tempo (rate) and mode (colonization versus in situ diversification) of biotic assembly through time and across regions. We focused on the Hengduan Mountains region, which in comparison with the QTP and Himalayas was uplifted more recently (since the late Miocene) and is smaller in area and richer in species...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364035/distinct-patterns-of-gene-gain-and-loss-diverse-evolutionary-modes-of-nbs-encoding-genes-in-three-solanaceae-crop-species
#16
Lan-Hua Qian, Guang-Can Zhou, Xiao-Qin Sun, Zhao Lei, Yan-Mei Zhang, Jia-Yu Xue, Yue-Yu Hang
Plant resistance conferred by nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance genes plays a key role in the defense against various pathogens throughout the entire plant life cycle. However, comparative analyses for the systematic evaluation and determination of the evolutionary modes of NBS-encoding genes among Solanaceae species are rare. In this study, 447, 255 and 306 NBS-encoding genes were identified from the genomes of potato, tomato and pepper, respectively. These genes usually clustered as tandem arrays on chromosomes; few existed as singletons...
March 31, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361395/bioaccumulation-of-gadolinium-in-freshwater-bivalves
#17
Emilie Perrat, Marc Parant, Jean-Sebastien Py, Christophe Rosin, Carole Cossu-Leguille
In this study, the presence of anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd) was evaluated in rivers, close to wastewater treatment plant outputs. Then, one site was selected for in situ experiments to assess the bioaccumulation of Gd in the digestive gland and in the gills of two bivalves (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Corbicula fluminea). For both organisms, the results suggested that the bioaccumulation of Gd can be observed when organisms are exposed in a geogenic and anthropogenic Gd mixture. In order to observe if Gd can bioaccumulate in tissues of bivalves when the ion is only present as the main anthropogenic speciation of Gd, i...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356141/genomic-history-of-the-origin-and-domestication-of-common-bean-unveils-its-closest-sister-species
#18
Martha Rendón-Anaya, Josaphat M Montero-Vargas, Soledad Saburido-Álvarez, Anna Vlasova, Salvador Capella-Gutierrez, José Juan Ordaz-Ortiz, O Mario Aguilar, Rosana P Vianello-Brondani, Marta Santalla, Luis Delaye, Toni Gabaldón, Paul Gepts, Robert Winkler, Roderic Guigó, Alfonso Delgado-Salinas, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella
BACKGROUND: Modern civilization depends on only a few plant species for its nourishment. These crops were derived via several thousands of years of human selection that transformed wild ancestors into high-yielding domesticated descendants. Among cultivated plants, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume. Yet, our understanding of the origins and concurrent shaping of the genome of this crop plant is limited. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of 29 accessions representing 12 Phaseolus species...
March 29, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351014/phytostabilisation-of-severely-contaminated-mine-tailings-using-halophytes-and-field-addition-of-organic-and-inorganic-amendments
#19
T Pardo, M P Bernal, R Clemente
Phytostabilisation strategies have proven to be an efficient remediation option for mine tailings, but the adequate plant species and amendments have to be carefully selected. A remediation experiment was carried out at the semi-field level in tailings (pH 3.2, ≈1100, 4700 and 5000 mg kg(-1) of As, Pb and Zn, respectively) from the mining district of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain). A red mud derivative (Fe/Al oxides), its combination with compost, and hydrated lime (Ca hydroxide) were applied in field plots of 0...
March 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347915/chromium-speciation-bioavailability-uptake-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-soil-plant-system-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid, Saliha Shamshad, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Irshad Bibi, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior...
March 24, 2017: Chemosphere
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