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Plant speciation

Andrea Raab, Marilena Ronzan, Joerg Feldmann
Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS...
September 21, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Miaomiao Cheng, Anan Wang, Caixian Tang
Nitrogen fertilization has been shown to improve Cd uptake by plants but there is little information on the effect of N form. This study examined the effects of N form on Cd bioavailability and phytoextraction in two soils differing in pH. Plants of halophytic species Carpobrotus rossii were grown in an acidic Sodosol [pH (CaCl2) 4.9] and a neutral Vertosol (pH 7.2) spiked with 20 mg kg(-1) Cd as CdCl2. Three N forms, KNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and (NH2)2CO at a rate of 24 mg N kg(-1) were applied at weekly intervals, together with nitrification inhibitor dicyanodiamide...
September 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M Johnson, Kimberly K O Walden, Mary A Schuler, Hugh M Robertson, May R Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random "birth and death" processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or transition via divergence...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
María Jiménez-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Lominchar, María José Sierra, Rocío Millán, Rosa Carmen Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios
Recent investigations revealed that monomethylmercury (MMHg) can be absorbed and accumulated by plants, i.e. rice crops, thus becoming an important route of human exposure to MMHg through diet. The increasing concern about this fact makes that appropriate analytical methods for Hg speciation in these samples are urgently required. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the development of a fast and sensitive method which enables the simultaneous determination of MMHg and inorganic Hg in rice and aquatic plants...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
Sangrong Sun, Jinpeng Wang, Jigao Yu, Fanbo Meng, Ruiyan Xia, Li Wang, Zhenyi Wang, Weina Ge, Xiaojian Liu, Yuxian Li, Yinzhe Liu, Nanshan Yang, Xiyin Wang
Grass genomes are complicated structures as they share a common tetraploidization, and particular genomes have been further affected by extra polyploidizations. These events and the following genomic re-patternings have resulted in a complex, interweaving gene homology both within a genome, and between genomes. Accurately deciphering the structure of these complicated plant genomes would help us better understand their compositional and functional evolution at multiple scales. Here, we build on our previous research by performing a hierarchical alignment of the common wheat genome vis-à-vis eight other sequenced grass genomes with most up-to-date assemblies, and annotations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Érika C P de Castro, Mika Zagrobelny, Márcio Z Cardoso, Søren Bak
Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides...
September 13, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Nikolas Hagemann, Edisson Subdiaga, Silvia Orsetti, José María de la Rosa, Heike Knicker, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pablo Vargas, Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Ruben Heleno
A review of 27 species-rich and species-poor plant clades (26 genera) of angiosperms of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed considering phylogenetic and biological data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of the Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (40-23 Ma), far earlier than the historically proposed onset of the Mediterranean climate (c. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 clades of the species-poor group (14 clades) have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six clades within the species-rich group (13 clades) show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene...
September 11, 2017: Plant Biology
Hao-Xi Li, Thomas M Gottilla, Marin Talbot Brewer
Population divergence and speciation of closely related lineages can result from reproductive differences leading to genetic isolation. An increasing number of fungal diseases of plants and animals have been determined to be caused by morphologically indistinguishable species that are genetically distinct, thereby representing cryptic species. We were interested in identifying if mating systems among three Stagonosporopsis species (S. citrulli, S. cucurbitacearum, and S. caricae) causing gummy stem blight (GSB) of cucurbits or leaf spot and dry rot of papaya differed, possibly underlying species divergence...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
Shaohong Fu, Liqin Yin, Mingchao Xu, Yun Li, Maolin Wang, Jin Yang, Tingdong Fu, Jisheng Wang, Jinxiong Shen, Asif Ali, Qiong Zou, Bin Yi, Jing Wen, Lanrong Tao, Zeming Kang, Rong Tang
We found a new in vivo route to produce maternal doubled haploid of Brassica napus . The pollen donor, an allooctaploid rapeseed, acts as a DH inducer. Inbred line has a powerful advantage in cultivar breeding and genetic analysis. Compared to the traditional breeding methods, doubled haploid production can save years off the breeding process. Though genotype-dependent tissue culture methods are widely used in the Brassica crops, seed-based in vivo doubled haploid developing systems are rare in nature and in the laboratory...
September 6, 2017: Planta
Shusi Liu, Yixin Lu, Chen Yang, Chuanping Liu, Lin Ma, Zhi Dang
Biochar was carbon-rich and generated by high-temperature pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Due to the limitations of surface functional groups and the weakness of surface activity in the field of environmental remediation, the raw biochar frequently was chemically modified to improve its properties with a new performance. In this study, a kind of high-efficiency and low-cost amino biochar modified by nano zero-valent iron (ABC/NZVI) was synthesized and applied to paddy soil contaminated with arsenic (As)...
September 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marco Grigatti, Elisa Boanini, Giampaolo Di Biase, Claudio Marzadori, Claudio Ciavatta
Composting is considered a suitable process for organic waste management, providing stable products that can be safely utilized as fertilizers, but little is still known about the variation of phosphorous (P) extractability during the stabilization process. In this work, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) with increasing strength extractants (H2O; 0.5M NaHCO3 pH 8.5; 0.1M NaOH, 1M HCl) was applied for P speciation over 56days of composting of either agro-industrial or urban wastewater sludge with green waste treated (AICFe+; SSCFe+) or not (AICFe-; SSCFe-) with FeSO4 (2%v/v)...
August 30, 2017: Waste Management
Frank Tawussi, Dharmendra K Gupta, Elena L Mühr-Ebert, Stephanie Schneider, Stefan Bister, Clemens Walther
Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10(-9) mol L(-1). Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Karine Alix, Pierre R Gérard, Trude Schwarzacher, J S Pat Heslop-Harrison
Background: Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication is now recognized as being present in almost all lineages of higher plants, with multiple rounds of polyploidy occurring in most extant species. The ancient evolutionary events have been identified through genome sequence analysis, while recent hybridization events are found in about half of the world's crops and wild species. Building from this new paradigm for understanding plant evolution, the papers in this Special Issue address questions about polyploidy in ecology, adaptation, reproduction and speciation of wild and cultivated plants from diverse ecosystems...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
Kamil Myszczyński, Alina Bączkiewicz, Katarzyna Buczkowska, Monika Ślipiko, Monika Szczecińska, Jakub Sawicki
Aneura pinguis is known as a species complex with several morphologically indiscernible species, which are often reproductively isolated from each other and show distinguishable genetic differences. Genetic dissimilarity of cryptic species may be detected by genomes comparison. This study presents the first complete sequences of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of six cryptic species of A. pinguis complex: A. pinguis A, B, C, E, F, J. These genomes have been compared to each other in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to gain better understanding of the evolutionary process of cryptic speciation in this complex...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lillian Jennifer Rodriguez, Anthony Bain, Lien-Siang Chou, Lucie Conchou, Astrid Cruaud, Regielene Gonzales, Martine Hossaert-McKey, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Hsy-Yu Tzeng, Finn Kjellberg
BACKGROUND: Interspecific interactions have long been assumed to play an important role in diversification. Mutualistic interactions, such as nursery pollination mutualisms, have been proposed as good candidates for diversification through co-speciation because of their intricate nature. However, little is known about how speciation and diversification proceeds in emblematic nursery pollination systems such as figs and fig wasps. Here, we analyse diversification in connection with spatial structuring in the obligate mutualistic association between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps throughout the Philippines and Taiwan...
August 29, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Zheyun Zhang, Hee Sun Moon, Satish C B Myneni, Peter R Jaffé
Although abiotic process of competitive sorption between phosphate (P) and arsenate (As(V)), especially onto iron oxides, are well understood, P-mediated biotic processes of Fe and As redox transformation contributing to As mobilization and speciation in wetlands remain poorly defined. To gain new insights into the effects of P on As mobility, speciation, and bioavailability in wetlands, well-controlled greenhouse experiments were conducted. As expected, increased P levels contributed to more As desorption, but more interestingly the interactions between P and wetland plants played a synergistic role in the microbially-mediated As mobilization and enhanced As uptake by plants...
August 21, 2017: Chemosphere
Shiv Bolan, Anitha Kunhikrishnan, Balaji Seshadri, Girish Choppala, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yong Sik Ok, Ming Zhang, Chun-Guang Li, Feng Li, Barry Noller, Mary Beth Kirkham
The last few decades have seen the rise of alternative medical approaches including the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines, which are collectively known as 'Complementary medicines'. However, there are increasing concerns on the safety and health benefits of these medicines. One of the main hazards with the use of complementary medicines is the presence of heavy metal(loid)s such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). This review deals with the characteristics of complementary medicines in terms of heavy metal(loid)s sources, distribution, bioavailability, toxicity, and human risk assessment...
August 23, 2017: Environment International
Bianca S Pinheiro, Luana L Gimenes, Ailton J Moreira, André F de Araújo, Carolina D Freschi, Gian Paulo Giovanni Freschi
This work presents an alternative method for arsenic speciation using the nano-TiO2 hydride generation photocatalytic hydride generation (PCHG) system, which is easily separated from the medium. Nano-TiO2 was studied as photocatalyst to reduction of arsenic species by UV-induced with formic acid and atomic absorption detection of different forms of arsenic [As (III), As (V), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in environmental samples (water, sediment and plant). The effect of the average pH, the organic acid concentration, the ultraviolet irradiation time and their amount were investigated...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Susanne Sachs, Gerhard Geipel, Frank Bok, Jana Oertel, Karim Fahmy
Radioecological studies depend on the quantitative toxicity assessment of environmental radionuclides. At low dose exposure, the life span of affected organisms is barely shortened, enabling the transfer of radionuclides through an almost-intact food chain. Lethality-based toxicity estimates are not adequate in this regime because they require higher concentrations. However, increased radionuclide concentration alters its speciation, rendering the extrapolation to the low dose exposure chemically inconsistent...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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