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Salivary exosomes

Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
Michael Hackenberg, David Langenberger, Alexandra Schwarz, Jan Erhart, Michail Kotsyfakis
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an important disease vector whose salivary secretions mediate blood feeding success on vertebrate hosts, including humans. Here we describe the expression profiles and downstream analysis of de novo discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands and saliva. Eleven tick-derived libraries were sequenced to produce 67,375,557 Illumina reads. De novo prediction yielded 67 bona-fide miRNAs out of which 35 are currently not present in miRBase. We report for the first time the presence of microRNAs in tick saliva obtaining furthermore molecular indicators that those might be of exosomal origin...
May 4, 2017: RNA
Huojun Cao, Liu Hong, Brad A Amendt
Significant amounts of microRNAs (miRs) are detected in exosomes, but their function during fetal development is poorly understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hayashi et al. (2017) show that exosomal miRs secreted by mesenchymal cells can regulate epithelial KIT(+) progenitor cell expansion during murine salivary gland organogenesis.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
Toru Hayashi, Isabelle M A Lombaert, Belinda R Hauser, Vaishali N Patel, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions involve fundamental communication between tissues during organogenesis and are primarily regulated by growth factors and extracellular matrix. It is unclear whether RNA-containing exosomes are mobile genetic signals regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Here we identify that exosomes loaded with mesenchyme-specific mature microRNA contribute mobile genetic signals from mesenchyme to epithelium. The mature mesenchymal miR-133b-3p, loaded into exosomes, was transported from mesenchyme to the salivary epithelium, which did not express primary miR-133b-3p...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
Y Zhao, L Y Yin, R R Bi, P Ma, S B Li
There is growing interest in the whole saliva as a diagnostic fluid because of the relatively simple and non-invasive collection. Research on salivary proteomic and genomic has greatly facilitated the diagnosis and therapy of oral diseases, also revealed the molecular mechanism of the diseases. Saliva-derived exosome as a new source, with various molecular constituents of their cells of origin, including proteins, mRNA and miRNA might serve as potential biomarker. This article reviews the biological properties of saliva exosome, its separation and other aspects associated with disease...
December 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Stergios Katsiougiannis, David Chia, Yong Kim, Ram P Singh, David T W Wong
Tumor exosomes are emerging as antitumor immunity regulators; however, their effects on secondary exosome secretion by distal organs have not been explored. We have previously demonstrated that suppression of exosomes at the distal tumor site of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ablated the development of salivary biomarker profile. Here, we explore the function of salivary exosomes from tumor-bearing mice in immune surveillance. We provide evidence that salivary exosomes from mice with PDAC exhibit a suppressive effect that results in reduced tumor-killing capacity by NK cells...
March 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuko Ogawa, Masafumi Tsujimoto, Ryohei Yanoshita
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs and mRNAs that are produced by various types of cells. We previously used ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate two types of human salivary exosomes (exosomes I, II) that are different in size and proteomes. We showed that salivary exosomes contain large repertoires of small RNAs. However, precise information regarding long RNAs in salivary exosomes has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the compositions of protein-coding RNAs (pcRNAs) and long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of exosome I, exosome II and whole saliva (WS) by next-generation sequencing technology...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tatsuya Machida, Takaaki Tomofuji, Takayuki Maruyama, Toshiki Yoneda, Daisuke Ekuni, Tetsuji Azuma, Hisataka Miyai, Hirofumi Mizuno, Hironari Kato, Koichiro Tsutsumi, Daisuke Uchida, Akinobu Takaki, Hiroyuki Okada, Manabu Morita
Pancreatobiliary tract cancer is a highly fatal cancer. Detection of pancreatobiliary tract cancer is difficult because it lacks typical clinical symptoms and because of its anatomical location. Biomarker discovery is therefore important to detect pancreatobiliary tract cancer in its early stage. A study demonstrated that expression levels of miR‑1246, miR‑3976, miR‑4306, and miR‑4644 in serum exosomes were higher in pancreatic cancer patients than these levels in healthy control participants. Supposing that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in saliva are similar to those in serum, four miRNAs (miR‑1246, miR‑3976, miR‑4306, and miR‑4644) in salivary exosomes may also be useful for detection of pancreatobiliary tract cancer...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Alessia Gallo, Shyh-Ing Jang, Hwei Ling Ong, Paola Perez, Mayank Tandon, Indu Ambudkar, Gabor Illei, Ilias Alevizos
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is associated with inflammation and dysfunction of salivary and lacrimal glands. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying this exocrinopathy is not known, although the syndrome has been associated with viruses, such as the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). We report herein that an EBV-specific microRNA (ebv-miR-BART13-3p) is significantly elevated in salivary glands (SGs) of pSS patients and we show that it targets stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), a primary regulator of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway that is essential for SG function, leading to loss of SOCE and Ca(2+)-dependent activation of NFAT...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
J-S Byun, S-H Hong, J-K Choi, J-K Jung, H-J Lee
OBJECTIVE: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease whose exact cause is unclear and which requires efficient diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Identification of disease-specific biomarkers in saliva is an easy, quick, and non-invasive approach for molecular diagnosis. This study was designed to examine salivary exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be candidates for diagnosing and elucidating the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared miRNA profiles of salivary exosomes of patients with oral lichen planus with those of healthy controls...
November 2015: Oral Diseases
Tatsuya Machida, Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni, Takayuki Maruyama, Toshiki Yoneda, Yuya Kawabata, Hirofumi Mizuno, Hisataka Miyai, Muneyoshi Kunitomo, Manabu Morita
The aim of this study was to examine whether salivary exosomal miRNAs could be identified as aging biomarkers. Fifteen young healthy volunteers (median age, 21.0 years) and 13 old individuals (median age, 66.0 years) were recruited. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, salivary exosomes were isolated, and total RNA was extracted. In a microarray, 242 miRNAs were commonly detected in these two mixed samples. Based on the cut-off values of 2- or 0.5-fold changes (FC) and regulatory power for aging process, six candidate miRNAs (miR-24-3p, miR-371a-5p, miR-3175, miR-3162-5p, miR-671-5p, and miR-4667-5p) were selected...
September 7, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Geping Wu, Guanghai Yang, Ruxin Zhang, Guangyin Xu, Ling Zhang, Wu Wen, Jianbing Lu, Jianyong Liu, Yan Yu
PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airway. Exosomes or extracellular vesicles are nanosized vesicles of endosomal origin released from inflammatory and epithelial cells that have been implicated in allergic diseases. In this study, we characterized the microRNA (miRNA) content of exosomes in AR. METHODS: Extracellular vesicles were isolated from nasal mucus from healthy control subjects (n=10) and patients with severe AR (n=10)...
September 2015: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Priya Sivadasan, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Gajanan J Sathe, Lavanya Balakrishnan, Priyanka Palit, Harsha Gowda, Amritha Suresh, Moni Abraham Kuriakose, Ravi Sirdeshmukh
Proteins present in human saliva offer an immense potential for clinical applications. However, exploring salivary proteome is technically challenged due to the presence of amylase and albumin in high abundance. In this study, we used four workflows to analyze human saliva from healthy individuals which involved depletion of abundant proteins using affinity-based separation methods followed by protein or peptide fractionation and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. We identified a total of 1256 human salivary proteins, 292 of them being reported for the first time...
September 8, 2015: Journal of Proteomics
Dan-dan Yu, Ying Wu, Hong-yu Shen, Meng-meng Lv, Wei-xian Chen, Xiao-hui Zhang, Shan-liang Zhong, Jin-hai Tang, Jian-hua Zhao
Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women...
August 2015: Cancer Science
Michael Tu, Fang Wei, Jieping Yang, David Wong
Exosomes are microvesicular structures that play a mediating role in intercellular communication. It is of interest to study the internal cargo of exosomes to determine if they carry disease discriminatory biomarkers. For performing exosomal analysis, it is necessary to develop a method for extracting and analyzing exosomes from target biofluids without damaging the internal content. Electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) is a method for specifically extracting exosomes from biofluids, unloading their cargo, and testing their internal RNA/protein content...
January 23, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Débora A González, Patricia Egido, Noelia B Balcarcel, Claude Hattab, Martín M Barbieri van Haaster, Julie Pelletier, Jean Sévigny, Mariano A Ostuni
Extracellular nucleotides modulate a wide number of biological processes such as neurotransmission, platelet aggregation, muscle contraction, and epithelial secretion acting by the purinergic pathway. Nucleotidases as NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are membrane-anchored proteins that regulate extracellular nucleotide concentrations. In a previous work, we have partially characterized an NTPDase-like activity expressed by rat submandibular gland microsomes, giving rise to the hypothesis that membrane NTPDases could be released into salivary ducts to regulate luminal nucleotide concentrations as was previously proposed for ovarian, prostatic, and pancreatic secretions...
March 2015: Purinergic Signalling
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Jieni Zhang, Qian Zhang, Jiuxiang Lin
Today, exosome-related studies have become a focus in science and technology. Recently, three scientists won the Nobel Prize for determining the mechanisms of exosomal transport, making exosomes a promising biomarker system for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review provides a general introduction of exosomes and explores the recent progress on the function, application, isolation, and identification of exosomes as biomarkers in blood and other body fluids, especially in saliva. Detailed information of exosomal proteins and RNAs is discussed in the paper because of their ability to determine the function of exosomes...
November 2014: Journal of Membrane Biology
Jana Karbanová, Jan Laco, Anne-Marie Marzesco, Peggy Janich, Magda Voborníková, Jaroslav Mokrý, Christine A Fargeas, Wieland B Huttner, Denis Corbeil
Prominin-1 (CD133) is physiologically expressed at the apical membranes of secretory (serous and mucous) and duct cells of major salivary glands. We investigated its expression in various human salivary gland lesions using two distinct anti-prominin-1 monoclonal antibodies (80B258 and AC133) applied on paraffin-embedded sections and characterized its occurrence in saliva. The 80B258 epitope was extensively expressed in adenoid cystic carcinoma, in lesser extent in acinic cell carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma, and rarely in mucoepidermoid carcinoma...
2014: PloS One
Stephen S Dominy, Joseph N Brown, Mark I Ryder, Marina Gritsenko, Jon M Jacobs, Richard D Smith
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last several years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse; however, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored...
2014: PloS One
Nikolaos C Kyriakidis, Efstathia K Kapsogeorgou, Athanasios G Tzioufas
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by periepithelial lymphocytic infiltrates in affected tissues and the production of plethora of autoantibodies. Among them autoimmune responses against Ro/SSA and La/SSB are of major importance since their detection is routinely used for disease diagnosis and clinical characterization. Although the exact mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood, the important role of salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) in the initiation and development of the local immune responses is well-established...
June 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
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