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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457614/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-and-poly-d-l-lactic-acid-modify-human-dendritic-cell-responses-to-staphylococci-but-do-not-affect-th1-and-th2-cell-development
#1
P P Balraadjsing, E C de Jong, D W Grijpma, M W Tanck, S A Zaat
Biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) are frequent complications in the use of medical devices (biomaterials) correlated with considerable patient discomfort and high treatment costs. The presence of a biomaterial in the host causes derangement of local immune responses increasing susceptibility to infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in directing the nature of immune responses by activating and controlling CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. To assess the immunomodulatory effect of the combined presence of biomaterials and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457221/association-of-stat6-gene-variants-with-food-allergy-diagnosed-by-double-blind-placebo-controlled-food-challenges
#2
C D van Ginkel, M E Pettersson, A E J Dubois, G H Koppelman
This study describes the role of two STAT6 gene variants in food allergy using data of patients and their parents who underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs). After quality control, 369 trios were analyzed including 262 children (71.0%) with food allergy. Associations were tested by family based association testing (FBAT). The A alleles of both SNPs were associated with food allergy (p=0.036 and p=0.013 for rs324015 and rs1059513, respectively). Furthermore, these A alleles were associated with peanut allergy, higher sIgE levels to both peanut and cow's milk, more severe symptoms and higher eliciting doses during peanut and cow's milk DBPCFCs (all p<0...
February 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457218/regulatory-t-cells-are-required-for-normal-and-activin-promoted-wound-repair-in-mice
#3
Eric Haertel, Natasha Joshi, Paul Hiebert, Manfred Kopf, Sabine Werner
Healing of skin wounds is orchestrated by various types of immune cells, but little is known about the role of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in this process. Here we determined if Tregs are important for wound healing in normal mice and if they contribute to the accelerated healing of mice overexpressing the growth and differentiation factor activin. Diphtheria-toxin induced Treg depletion prior to injury caused impaired healing characterized by delayed re-epithelialization, reduced wound contraction and impaired vessel maturation...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456700/effects-of-hiv-on-metabolic-and-biological-pathways-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#4
Yanli Ma, Wenge Zhao, Changhe Shi, Ning Wang, Tianli Fan
The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the metabolic and biological pathways of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocytes were investigated. A total of 150 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 50 healthy individuals who were admitted to hospital for physical examination during the period of June 2016 to January 2017, were selected as subjects in the present study. According to the virus load, 150 AIDS patients were divided into three groups: i) Viral load >106 copies/ml (group A, n=39), ii) 104 copies/ml < viral load <105 copies/ml (group B, n=76), and iii) viral load <104 copies/ml (group C, n=35)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454004/identification-and-analysis-of-peanut-specific-t-effector-and-t-regulatory-cells-in-children-allergic-and-tolerant-to-peanut
#5
Katherine A Weissler, Marjohn Rasooly, Tom DiMaggio, Hyejeong Bolan, Daly Cantave, David Martino, Melanie R Neeland, Mimi Lk Tang, Thanh D Dang, Katrina J Allen, Pamela A Frischmeyer-Guerrerio
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is potentially life-threatening and generally persists lifelong. Recent data suggests the skin may be an important route of initial sensitization to peanut, while early oral exposure to peanut is protective. In mice, T regulatory cells (Tregs) are central to development of tolerance to food, but their contribution to the pathogenesis of food allergy in humans is less clear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify and phenotype peanut-specific CD4+ T effector (ps-Teff) and ps-Tregs in children with and without peanut allergy or sensitization...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449887/role-of-the-t-and-b-lymphocytes-in-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#6
Marta Rydzewska, Michał Jaromin, Izabela Elżbieta Pasierowska, Karlina Stożek, Artur Bossowski
Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escaping tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of various T cell subsets...
2018: Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445365/-babesia-microti-infection-changes-host-spleen-architecture-and-is-cleared-by-a-th1-immune-response
#7
Vitomir Djokic, Lavoisier Akoolo, Nikhat Parveen
Babesia microti is a malaria-like parasite, which infects ∼2000 people annually, such that babesiosis is now a notifiable disease in the United States. Immunocompetent individuals often remain asymptomatic and are tested only after they feel ill. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show several human-like disease manifestations and are ideal to study pathogenesis of Babesia species. In this study, we examined parasitemia of B. microti at different time points and assessed its impact on hemoglobin levels in blood, on spleen pathology and overall immune response in C3H/HeJ mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444238/vitamin-d-receptor-restricts-th2-biased-inflammation-in-the-heart
#8
Jiangping Song, Xiao Chen, Liang Cheng, Man Rao, Kai Chen, Ningning Zhang, Jian Meng, Mengmeng Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Background and aims: The aberrant immune responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has immune regulatory functions. This study aims to investigate the role of VDR in the restricting the immune inflammation in the heart. Methods: The human heart samples were obtained from the heart transplantation. T helper (Th)2 and Th1 responses in the heart tissue were characterized by histology and immune assay. VDR-/- mice and Rag2-/- mice were used in the experiments to test the role of VDR in the maintaining the homeostasis in the heart...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434588/gata3-hdac6-and-bcl6-regulate-foxp3-treg-plasticity-and-determine-treg-conversion-into-either-novel-antigen-presenting-cell-like-treg-or-th1-treg
#9
Keman Xu, William Y Yang, Gayani Kanchana Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Fan Yang, Wenhui Hu, Eric T Choi, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
We conducted an experimental database analysis to determine the expression of 61 CD4+ Th subset regulators in human and murine tissues, cells, and in T-regulatory cells (Treg) in physiological and pathological conditions. We made the following significant findings: (1) adipose tissues of diabetic patients with insulin resistance upregulated various Th effector subset regulators; (2) in skin biopsy from patients with psoriasis, and in blood cells from patients with lupus, effector Th subset regulators were more upregulated than downregulated; (3) in rosiglitazone induced failing hearts in ApoE-deficient (KO) mice, various Th subset regulators were upregulated rather than downregulated; (4) aortic endothelial cells activated by proatherogenic stimuli secrete several Th subset-promoting cytokines; (5) in Treg from follicular Th (Tfh)-transcription factor (TF) Bcl6 KO mice, various Th subset regulators were upregulated; whereas in Treg from Th2-TF GATA3 KO mice and HDAC6 KO mice, various Th subset regulators were downregulated, suggesting that Bcl6 inhibits, GATA3 and HDAC6 promote, Treg plasticity; and (6) GATA3 KO, and Bcl6 KO Treg upregulated MHC II molecules and T cell co-stimulation receptors, suggesting that GATA3 and BCL6 inhibit Treg from becoming novel APC-Treg...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432811/rapamycin-attenuates-th2-driven-experimental-allergic-conjunctivitis
#10
Soojung Shin, Ji Hyun Lee, Hyun Jung Lee, Sun Young Chang, So-Hyang Chung
Allergic conjunctivitis is mediated by eosinophilic infiltration and Th2 type immune responses. This study aims to elucidate the role of rapamycin, mTOR inhibitor, on OVA-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC). Rapamycin administration intraperitoneally markedly reduced clinical signs, total and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1/G2a ratio in serum, and conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Infiltrations of CD11c+ dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells, and the expressions of chemokines and adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva were attenuated in rapamycin-treated mice, as well as decreased Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the cervical lymph nodes compared to non-treated mice...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429000/prunus-cerasoides-fruit-extract-ameliorates-inflammatory-stress-by-modulation-of-inos-pathway-and-th1-th2-immune-homeostasis-in-activated-murine-macrophages-and-lymphocytes
#11
Anamika Sharma, Robin Joshi, Shiv Kumar, Rohit Sharma, Rajneesh, Yogendra Padwad, Mahesh Gupta
The present investigation assessed the potential of Prunus cerasoides fruit extract (PCFE) in alleviation of inflammatory stress in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages as well as in concanavalin A (Con A)-activated splenic lymphocytes. We observed a strong inhibition in production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and NF-kB in macrophages treated with PCFE...
February 10, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428795/poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-containing-cashew-nut-proteins-can-induce-a-strong-th1-and-treg-immune-response-after-oral-administration
#12
Marcela Araújo Pereira, Juliana de Souza Rebouças, Rafaela de Siqueira Ferraz Carvalho, Inés Luis de Redín, Priscila Valera Guerra, Carlos Gamazo, Claudia Ida Brodskyn, Juan M Irache, Nereide Stela Santos-Magalhães
Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy. Traditional allergen immunotherapy presents several clinical drawbacks that can be reduced by using nanoparticles-basedallergen-delivery systems, modulating the immune response towards a protective one. In this context, the goal of this work was to assess the potential of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP) for cashew nut oral immunization. Cashew nut allergens-loaded nanoparticles (CNE-NP) were prepared by solvent displacement method...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425215/friend-virus-limits-adaptive-cellular-immune-responses-by-imprinting-a-maturation-resistant-and-t-helper-type-2-biased-immunophenotype-in-dendritic-cells
#13
Limei Shen, Stefan Tenzer, Moritz Hess, Ute Distler, Ingrid Tubbe, Evelyn Montermann, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Bros
The murine Friend virus (FV) retrovirus model has been widely used to study anti-viral immune responses, and virus-induced cancer. Here we analyzed FV immune evasion mechanisms on the level of dendritic cells (DC) essential for the induction of primary adaptive immune responses. Comparative quantitative proteome analysis of FV-infected DC (FV-DC) of different genotypes (BALB/c, C57BL/6) and non-infected DC revealed numerous genotype-independently regulated proteins rergulating metabolic activity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and antigen processing/presentation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425052/regulatory-t-cells-subvert-mycobacterial-containment-in-patients-failing-extensively-drug-resistant-tb-treatment
#14
Malika Davids, Anil S Pooran, Elize Pietersen, Helen C Wainwright, Anke Binder, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
RATIONALE: The advent of extensively (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB, with limited or no treatment options, has facilitated renewed interest in host directed immunotherapy, particularly for therapeutically destitute patients. However, the selection and utility of such approaches depend upon understanding the host immune response in XDR-TB, which hitherto remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the host immunological profile in patients with XDR-TB, compared to drug-sensitive TB, using peripheral blood and explanted lung tissue...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422898/cyclic-amp-pathway-suppress-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-functions-of-encephalitogenic-cd4-t-cells-and-enhancing-m2-macrophage-polarization-at-the-site-of-inflammation
#15
Tatyana Veremeyko, Amanda W Y Yung, Marina Dukhinova, Inna S Kuznetsova, Igor Pomytkin, Alexey Lyundup, Tatyana Strekalova, Natasha S Barteneva, Eugene D Ponomarev
Although it has been demonstrated that cAMP pathway affect both adaptive and innate cell functions, the role of this pathway in the regulation of T-cell-mediated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammation, such as in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), remains unclear. It is also unclear how cAMP pathway affects the function of CD4 T cells in vivo at the site of inflammation. We found that adenylyl cyclase activator Forskolin besides inhibition of functions autoimmune CD4 T cells also upregulated microRNA (miR)-124 in the CNS during EAE, which is associated with M2 phenotype of microglia/macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420850/chitotriosidase-inhibits-allergic-asthmatic-airways-via-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-expression-and-foxp3-treg-cells
#16
Jung Yeon Hong, Mina Kim, In Suk Sol, Kyung Won Kim, Chang-Min Lee, Jack A Elias, Myung Hyun Sohn, Chun Geun Lee
BACKGROUND: Chitotriosidase (Chitnase 1, Chit1), a major true chitinase in humans, is induced in childhood asthma and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory and tissue remodeling responses. We hypothesized that Chit1 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. To identify the role of Chit1, the mechanisms that underlie these contributions and the relevance of these murine findings to childhood asthma. METHODS: Wild type and Chit1-deficient mice and cells in culture were used to define the roles of Chit1 in models of allergic adaptive Th2 inflammation...
February 8, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416536/trichinella-spiralis-excretory-secretory-products-induce-tolerogenic-properties-in-human-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#17
Nataša Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Jelena Cvetkovic, Sergej Tomic, Dragana Bozidar Vucevic, Carmen Aranzamendi, Miodrag Colic, Elena Pinelli, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Trichinella spiralis, as well as its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), given either alone or via dendritic cells (DCs), induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment in inbred rodents and successfully ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ES L1 directs the immunological balance away from T helper (Th)1, toward Th2 and regulatory responses by modulating DCs phenotype. The ultimate goal of our work is to find out if it is possible to translate knowledge obtained in animal model to humans and to generate human tolerogenic DCs suitable for therapy of autoimmune diseases through stimulation with ES L1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415463/changes-in-dna-methylation-from-age-18-to-pregnancy-in-type-1-2-and-17-t-helper-and-regulatory-t-cells-pathway-genes
#18
Sabrina Iqbal, Gabrielle A Lockett, John W Holloway, S Hasan Arshad, Hongmei Zhang, Akhilesh Kaushal, Sabarinath R Tetali, Nandini Mukherjee, Wilfried J J Karmaus
To succeed, pregnancies need to initiate immune biases towards T helper 2 (Th2) responses, yet little is known about what establishes this bias. Using the Illumina 450 K platform, we explored changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell pathway genes before and during pregnancy. Female participants were recruited at birth (1989), and followed through age 18 years and their pregnancy (2011-2015). Peripheral blood DNAm was measured in 245 girls at 18 years; from among these girls, the DNAm of 54 women was repeatedly measured in the first (weeks 8-21, n = 39) and second (weeks 22-38, n = 35) halves of pregnancy, respectively...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410647/emerging-understanding-of-the-mechanism-of-action-for-dimethyl-fumarate-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mills, Magdalena A Ogrodnik, Andrew Plave, Yang Mao-Draayer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective treatment option for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), but its therapeutic mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. A better understanding of its mechanism will allow for the development of assays to monitor its clinical efficacy and safety in patients, as well as guide the development of the next generation of therapies for MS. In order to build the foundation for determining its mechanism, we reviewed the manner in which DMF alters lymphocyte subsets in MS patients, its impact on clinical efficacy and safety, as well as its molecular effects in cellular and animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410258/comprehensive-analysis-of-immune-extracellular-matrices-and-pathogens-profile-in-lung-granulomatosis-of-unexplained-etiology
#20
Paola da Costa Souza, Patrícia Suemi Dondo, Gabriela Souza, Deborah Lopes, Marcel Moscardi, Vinicius de Miranda Martinho, Rodolfo Daniel de Mattos Lourenço, Tabatha Prieto, Marcelo Luiz Balancin, Aline Kawassaki Assato, Walcy Rosolia Teodoro, Silvia Rodrigues, Mariana Lima, Maria Vera Castellano, Ester Coletta, Edwin Roger Parra, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
This study analyzed the Type 1 and Type 2T helper (Th-1/Th-2) cytokines (including interleukins), immune cellular, matrix profile and pathogens in granulomas with unexplained etiology and compared to infectious and non-infectious etiology. Surgical lung biopsies from 108 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, morphometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed, respectively, to evaluate total collagen and elastin fibers, collagen I and III, immune cells, cytokines, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), myofibroblasts and multiple usual and unusual pathogens...
February 2, 2018: Human Pathology
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