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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#1
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#2
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046188/association-of-imbalance-of-effector-t-cells-and-regulatory-cells-with-the-severity-of-asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-in-children
#3
Fei Huang, Jia-Ning Yin, Hong-Bo Wang, Shou-Yue Liu, Ya-Nan Li
PURPOSE: This study investigated the frequency and absolute numbers of different subsets of peripheral blood cells, including CD4+ T cells and CD19+ interleukin (IL) 10+ B regulatory cells (Breg) and their potential association with clinical laboratory measurements in children diagnosed with simple asthma or asthma plus allergic rhinitis (AR). METHOD: The frequency and numbers of peripheral blood CD4+ interferon (IFN) gamma+ T-helper (Th) type 1, CD4+ IL-4+ Th2, CD4+ IL-17A+ Th17, CD4+CD25+ Forkhead Box P3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD19+ IL-10+ Bregs in 22 children with asthma, 17 children with asthma and AR, and 25 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry...
November 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045131/dapsone-and-nitroso-dapsone-activation-of-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-from-healthy-donors
#4
Abdulaziz Alzahrani, Monday O Ogese, Xioali Meng, James Waddington, Arun Tailor, John Farrell, James L Maggs, Catherine J Betts, B Kevin Park, Dean John Naisbitt
Dapsone (DDS) causes hypersensitivity reactions in 0.5-3.6% of patients. Although clinical diagnosis is indicative of a hypersensitivity reaction, studies have not been performed to define whether dapsone or a metabolite activates specific T-cells. Thus, the aims of this study were to explore the immunogenicity DDS and nitroso DDS (DDS-NO) using PBMC from healthy donors and splenocytes from mice and generate human T-cell clones to characterize mechanisms of T-cell activation. DDS-NO was synthesized from DDS-hydroxylamine and shown to bind to the thiol group of glutathione and human and mouse albumin through sulfonamide and N-hydroxyl sulphonamide adducts...
October 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036651/aureobasidium-pullulans-cultured-fluid-induces-il-18-production-leading-to-th1-polarization-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#5
Daisuke Fujikura, Daisuke Muramatsu, Kochi Toyomane, Satoko Chiba, Takuji Daito, Atsushi Iwai, Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hideaki Higashi, Hiroshi Kida, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Several microbial molecules with pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulate host innate immune responses. The innate immune system plays a crucial role in activating acquired immune response via cytokine production and antigen presentation. Previous studies have shown that Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF), which contains β-glucan, exhibits adjuvant activity and renders mice resistance to influenza A virus infection; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the innate immune response to AP-CF...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035452/role-of-cytokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#6
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar, Madhav Bhatia, Kalpana Pai
Infection in humans with Leishmania manifests into a spectrum of diseases. The manifestations of the disease depend on the resultant evasion of the parasite to immune responses namely macrophages, which is an exclusive host of leishmania. The B cells valiantly mount antibody responses, however to no avail as the Leishmania parasites occupy the intracellular niches of the macrophages. Extensive studies have been documented on the role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in protection and counter survival strategies of the parasites leading to down-regulation of CMI...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016879/agonist-ox40-immunotherapy-improves-survival-in-glioma-bearing-mice-and-is-complementary-with-vaccination-with-irradiated-gm-csf-expressing-tumor-cells
#7
Nusrat Jahan, Hammad Talat, William T Curry
Background: Glioma immunotherapy is an active area of clinical investigation. Glioma-associated immunosuppression remains an obstacle to efficacious immunotherapy, and combination approaches are likely necessary for durable success. OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is upregulated on activated lymphocytes, ligation of which results in enhanced activity and may be active against cancer. We sought to confirm the efficacy of agonist anti-OX40 immunotherapy against glioma and hypothesized that it is complementary with irradiated whole tumor cell vaccination...
July 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975891/local-immune-response-in-cutaneous-basal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Silje Haukali Omland
BCC is an immunogenic tumor highlighted by the increased risk in immunosuppressed individuals and the frequent occurrence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor surroundings. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising treatment strategy for several cancer types where topical immunostimulators are among the possibilities for superficial BCC. The overall aim of this thesis is to characterize the immunologic response upon BCC as well as characterizing the surrounding tumor stroma. The aim was achieved by the use of a variety of laboratory techniques; immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence, qRT-PCR and NGS...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974499/interleukin-22-promotes-blood-pressure-elevation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-angiotensin-ii-treated-mice
#9
Jing Ye, Qingwei Ji, Jianfang Liu, Ling Liu, Ying Huang, Ying Shi, Lei Shi, Menglong Wang, Mengling Liu, Ying Feng, Huimin Jiang, Yao Xu, Zhen Wang, Junlong Song, Yingzhong Lin, Jun Wan
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, play critical roles in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Th22 cells, a novel subset of Th cells, take part in cardiovascular diseases by producing IL-22 (interleukin 22). This study aimed to investigate whether IL-22 is involved in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Th22 cells and IL-22 levels were detected in angiotensin II-infused mice, and the results showed that Th22 cells and IL-22 levels significantly increased...
October 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972093/the-cooperative-role-of-cd326-and-cd11b-dendritic-cell-subsets-for-a-hapten-induced-th2-differentiation
#10
Yuri Cho, Dohyeong Kwon, Suk-Jo Kang
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in directing immune responses. Previous studies have identified a variety of DC subsets and elucidated their context-dependent functions that parallel those of effector Th cell subsets. However, little is known about the DC subsets responsible for differentiation of Th2 cells governing allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we sought to determine the DC subset(s) that mediate Th2 priming in hapten-sensitized mice. We induced hapten-specific Th2 differentiation by sensitizing the mice with a single application of FITC dissolved in acetone:dibutyl phthalate, and traced the immune cells responsible for inducing the Th2 differentiation process at the primary stimulation, enabling us to track Th2 priming in vivo and to delete basophils and specific DC subsets...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971150/lambda-phage-based-vaccine-induces-antitumor-immunity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Yoshifumi Iwagami, Sarah Casulli, Katsuya Nagaoka, Miran Kim, Rolf I Carlson, Kosuke Ogawa, Michael S Lebowitz, Steve Fuller, Biswajit Biswas, Solomon Stewart, Xiaoqun Dong, Hossein Ghanbari, Jack R Wands
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a difficult to treat tumor with a poor prognosis. Aspartate β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a highly conserved enzyme overexpressed on the cell surface of both murine and human HCC cells. METHODS: We evaluated therapeutic effects of nanoparticle lambda (λ) phage vaccine constructs against ASPH expressing murine liver tumors. Mice were immunized before and after subcutaneous implantation of a syngeneic BNL HCC cell line...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968468/irf-8-regulates-expansion-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-and-modulates-th2-immune-responses-to-gastrointestinal-nematode-infection
#12
Rajesh M Valanparambil, Mifong Tam, Pierre-Paul Gros, Jean-Philippe Auger, Mariela Segura, Philippe Gros, Armando Jardim, Timothy G Geary, Keiko Ozato, Mary M Stevenson
Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is critical for Th1 cell differentiation and negatively regulates myeloid cell development including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC expand during infection with various pathogens including the gastrointestinal (GI) nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb). We investigated if IRF-8 contributes to Th2 immunity to Hpb infection. Irf8 expression was down-regulated in MDSC from Hpb-infected C57BL/6 (B6) mice. IRF-8 deficient Irf8-/- and BXH-2 mice had significantly higher adult worm burdens than B6 mice after primary or challenge Hpb infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966255/differential-contribution-of-adhesion-molecules-to-th1-and-th2-cell-mediated-lung-and-bowel-inflammation
#13
Osamu Kaminuma, Mayumi Saeki, Tomoe Nishimura, Noriko Kitamura, Nobumasa Watanabe, Takachika Hiroi, Akio Mori
CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the development of allergic inflammation in several target organs. Various adhesion molecules are involved in the local recruitment of T cells and other inflammatory cells. We investigated the differential contribution of adhesion molecules to T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell-mediated allergic lung and bowel inflammation by employing their neutralizing antibodies. BALB/c mice transferred with in vitro-differentiated antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells were intratracheally or intrarectally challenged with a relevant antigen...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963930/oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-attenuate-airway-inflammation-in-asthma-by-inhibiting-dendritic-cells-maturation
#14
Yeshan Li, Qijun Yu, Wenxue Zhao, Jiaxiang Zhang, Wentao Liu, Mao Huang, Xiaoning Zeng
To date, although a promising anti-inflammatory activity of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) has been observed in asthma, the mechanism responsible for these immunomodulatory properties remains obscure. Dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in the airway have been widely perceived as an important contributor to asthma. Our study was to demonstrate OPCs' effects on maturation and immunoregulation of pulmonary CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs). BALB/c mice were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) to induce murine model of asthma...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960280/functional-specialization-of-intestinal-dendritic-cell-subsets-during-th2-helminth-infection-in-mice
#15
Stephen A Redpath, Graham A Heieis, Lisa A Reynolds, Nicolette M Fonseca, Sandra S-Y Kim, Georgia Perona-Wright
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in dictating the nature and effectiveness of immune responses. In the intestine DCs can be separated into discrete subsets, defined by expression of CD11b and CD103, each with different developmental requirements and distinct functional potential. Recent evidence has shown that different intestinal DC subsets are involved in the induction of T helper (Th)17 and regulatory T cell responses, but the cells that initiate Th2 immune responses are still incompletely understood...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952282/activation-and-inhibition-of-adaptive-immune-response-mediated-by-mast-cells
#16
E Toniato, I Frydas, I Robuffo, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, S K Kritas, P Conti
Adaptive immune response plays an important role against bacteria and parasites, a reaction that also involves mast cell (MC) activation which participates in innate and adaptive immunity. In allergic reactions there is a TH2 immune response with generation of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. In MCs, IgE cross-link FcRI high affinity receptor and activate tyrosine kinase proteins, leading to stimulation of NF-κB and AP-1 resulting in the release of a number of cytokines/chemokines and other compounds. Through their proteolytic pathways, MCs may process the antigen for presentation to CD4+ cells which release TH2 cytokines and growth factors, which play an important role in asthma, allergy, anaphylaxis and inflammation...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949386/tim4-tim1-interaction-modulates-th2-pattern-inflammation-through-enhancing-sirt1-expression
#17
Tianyong Hu, Xiaoqin Fan, Li Ma, Jiangqi Liu, Yunli Chang, Pingchang Yang, Shuqi Qiu, Tao Chen, Litao Yang, Zhiqiang Liu
Skewed T helper 2 (Th2)‑cell polarization plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammations; however, the underlying mechanisms require further elucidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms through which the interaction between T‑cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM)4 and TIM1 regulates the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in Th2 cells, and the role of SIRT1 in Th2‑cell polarization during nasal allergic inflammation. The results demonstrated that TIM4 expression by splenic dendritic cells was increased in mice with allergic rhinitis, and the TIM4̸TIM1 interaction promoted CD4+ T cells to express SIRT1 during allergic inflammation via enhancing phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt phosphorylation...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948612/il-2-is-required-for-the-generation-of-viral-specific-cd4-th1-tissue-resident-memory-cells-and-b-cells-are-essential-for-maintenance-in-the-lung
#18
Brian D Hondowicz, Karen S Kim, Mikel J Ruterbusch, Gladys J Keitany, Marion Pepper
CD4(+) tissue resident cells are an important first line of defense against viral infections in the lungs and are critical for promoting the localization of lung resident CD8(+) T cells. However, relatively little is known about the signaling programs required for the development of viral-specific CD4(+) tissue resident cells in the lungs. Recently, it was shown that signaling through the high affinity IL-2 receptor is required for the differentiation of lung-resident Th2 memory (Trm) cells in a murine model of airway inflammation...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946394/bifidobacterium-animalis-in-combination-with-human-origin-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ameliorate-neuroinflammation-in-experimental-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-altering-cd4-t-cell-subset-balance
#19
Zohre Salehipour, Dariush Haghmorad, Mojtaba Sankian, Maryam Rastin, Reza Nosratabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Nafiseh Tabasi, Mahdieh Khazaee, Leila Roozbeh Nasiraii, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent reports have shown that probiotics can induce immunomodulatory activity with promising effects in inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum A7, which comprises human commensal bacteria, and Bifidobacterium animalis, a potential probiotic strain, on alleviation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
September 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945272/cd4-t-helper-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-active-lupus-nephritis-an-imbalance-towards-a-predominant-th1-response
#20
D Mesquita, G Mastroianni Kirsztajn, M F Franco, L A Reis, S F Perazzio, F V Mesquita, V da Silva Ferreira, L E Coelho Andrade, A W Silva de Souza
The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CD4(+) T cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), urine and renal tissue from patients with lupus nephritis (LN). PBMC and urinary cells were collected from 17 patients with active LN, 20 disease controls (DC) with primary glomerulonephritis and 10 healthy controls (HC) and were analysed by flow cytometry with markers for T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (Treg ) cells. T cell subsets were assessed by immunohistochemistry from LN biopsy specimens from 12 LN patients...
September 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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