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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933755/maternal-pre-pregnancy-bmi-downregulates-neonatal-cord-blood-lep-methylation
#1
R Kadakia, Y Zheng, Z Zhang, W Zhang, L Hou, J L Josefson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933732/hypothesis-driven-physical-examination-curriculum
#2
Sharon Allen, Andrew Olson, Jeremiah Menk, James Nixon
BACKGROUND: Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933698/sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-3-infection-in-india
#3
S R Shah, A Chowdhury, R Mehta, D Kapoor, A Duseja, A Koshy, A Shukla, A Sood, K Madan, R Sud, S Nijhawan, R Pawan, M Prasad, K Kersey, D Jiang, E Svarovskaia, B Doehle, B Kanwar, M Subramanian, S K Acharya, S Sarin
Until 2014, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the recommended standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. This open-label phase 3b study, conducted across 14 sites in India between 31 March 2014 and 30 November 2015, evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy among treatment-naïve patients with chronic genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection. A total of 117 patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection were randomized 1:1 to receive sofosbuvir 400 mg and weight-based ribavirin (1000 or 1200 mg) daily for 16 or 24 weeks...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933680/primary-breast-angiosarcoma-a-retrospective-study-of-36-cases-from-a-single-chinese-medical-institute-with-clinicopathologic-and-radiologic-correlations
#4
Lei Wang, I Weng Lao, Lin Yu, Wentao Yang, Jian Wang
The aim of this study was to present our experience with primary breast angiosarcoma (PBA) by describing a large series of cases with an emphasis on clinicopathologic and radiologic correlations. Thirty-six cases of PBA diagnosed at our institution between 2006 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. All but one case occurred in women with a median age of 35.5 years. The majority of patients presented with a deeply located painless mass, whereas a minority manifested as diffuse enlargement or swelling of the breast...
December 9, 2016: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933679/supplementation-with-nutrients-modulating-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-negatively-correlated-with-changes-in-the-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-community-dwelling-elderly-people-at-risk-of-undernutrition
#5
M Kim, M Kim, Y J Lee, H J Song, J K Shim, D H Chang, W K Yu, S-H Lee, J H Lee
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal nutrition accompanied by chronic low-grade increases in circulating cytokine levels is more common in elderly people. We explored the improvement in nutritional status, especially in the level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its relationship with changes in circulating cytokine levels, after providing extra protein and energy content to community-dwelling older adults at risk of undernutrition. METHODS: Sixty nondiabetic subjects, aged ≥65 years and living independently in a community for elderly people, with a serum pre-albumin level ≤30 mg dL(-1) and a body mass index <25 kg m(-2) , were recruited...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#6
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933664/left-ventricular-rotational-mechanics-in-infants-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-and-preterm-infants-at-36%C3%A2-weeks-postmenstrual-age-a-comparison-with-healthy-term-controls
#7
Colm R Breatnach, Eva Forman, Adrienne Foran, Cathy Monteith, Lisa McSweeney, Fergal Malone, Naomi McCallion, Orla Franklin, Afif El-Khuffash
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a paucity of data on left ventricle (LV) rotational physiology in neonates. We aimed to assess rotational mechanics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and premature infants (<32 weeks) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (preterm group) and compare them with healthy term controls (term controls). We also compared the parameters in preterm infants with and without chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: Echocardiography was performed within 48 hours of birth or at 36 weeks PMA...
December 9, 2016: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933645/aflatoxin-biomarkers-in-hair-may-facilitate-long-term-exposure-studies
#8
Innocent Mupunga, Christo D Izaaks, Leshweni J Shai, David R Katerere
Aflatoxins are highly toxic fungal metabolites produced by some members of the Aspergillus species. They are low molecular weight lipophilic compounds that are easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. They contaminate most staple foods, including maize, peanuts, peanut butter and sorghum mainly in the tropics where hot and humid conditions promote fungal growth. Absorbed aflatoxins are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the liver into toxic metabolites. Aflatoxin B (AFB)1 is the most toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic naturally occurring toxin...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933639/assessment-of-left-atrial-volume-and-function-by-real-time-three-dimensional-echocardiography-in-obese-patients
#9
Julide Yagmur, Mehmet Cansel, Ertugrul Kurtoglu, Siho Hidayet, Nusret Acıkgoz, Necip Ermis, Fatma Ozyalin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left atrial (LA) volume and functions in obese subjects using real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and also the relationship between LA mechanical functions and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP). METHODS: This study included 40 obese (26 females and 14 males, mean age 51.9 years) and 40 normal weight subjects (23 females and 16 males, mean age 53.5 years) with normal coronary angiograms. All the study participants underwent RT3DE to assess LA volume and mechanical function...
December 9, 2016: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933579/oligomerization-and-chaperone-like-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-small-heat-shock-protein-dmhsp27-and-three-arginine-mutants-in-the-alpha-crystallin-domain
#10
Mohamed Taha Moutaoufik, Geneviève Morrow, Halim Maaroufi, Céline Férard, Stéphanie Finet, Robert M Tanguay
The small Hsp DmHsp27 from Drosophila melanogaster is one of the few small heat shock proteins (sHsps) found within the nucleus. We report that its dimerization is independent of disulfide bond formation and seems to rely on salt bridges. Unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations at highly conserved arginine residues in mammalian sHsps have been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131, and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form...
December 8, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933550/effect-of-variable-doses-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-male-albino-mice-behavior
#11
Javeria Zahra, Shahid Iqbal, Kiran Zahra, Zulha Javed, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Atif Akbar, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq, Furhan Iqbal
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933427/minimal-impact-of-response-shift-for-sf-12-mental-and-physical-health-status-in-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-individuals-an-item-level-multi-group-analysis
#12
Anne M Gadermann, Richard Sawatzky, Anita Palepu, Anita M Hubley, Bruno D Zumbo, Tim Aubry, Susan Farrell, Stephen W Hwang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether homeless or vulnerably housed individuals experienced response shift over a 12-month time period in their self-reported physical and mental health status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Health and Housing in Transition study, a longitudinal multi-site cohort study in Canada (N = 1190 at baseline). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) and methods for response shift detection at the item level, based on the approach by Oort, were used to test for reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift on the SF-12 in four groups of individuals who were homeless (n = 170), housed (n = 437), or who reported a change in their housing status [from homeless to housed (n = 285) or housed to homeless (n = 73)] over a 12-month time period...
December 8, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933402/quality-of-life-evaluation-during-platinum-based-neoadjuvant-chemotherapies-for-urothelial-carcinoma
#13
Ken Fukushi, Takuma Narita, Shingo Hatakeyama, Hayato Yamamoto, Osamu Soma, Teppei Matsumoto, Yuki Tobisawa, Tohru Yoneyama, Atsushi Imai, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Chikara Ohyama
BACKGROUND: Although quality of life (QOL) is one of the most important considerations in patients treated with anticancer therapies, desirable regimens for neoadjuvant chemotherapy including QOL in locally advanced urothelial carcinoma remain unclear. The present study evaluated the influence of neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy on QOL in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: Between June 2013 and March 2016, 83 urothelial carcinoma patients who received two courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this prospective observational study...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933399/implementation-of-clinical-decision-support-in-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-at-the-emergency-department
#14
Dorien Geurts, Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout Steyerberg, Johan van der Lei, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on diagnostics, treatment, and costs compared with usual care by attending physician. A randomized controlled trial was performed in 222 children, aged 1 month to 5 years at the ED of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's hospital in The Netherlands ( 2010-2012)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933307/impact-of-intravenous-infusion-time-on-aav8-vector-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-liver-transduction-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#15
Jenny A Greig, Jayme Ml Nordin, Erin Bote, Leah Makaron, Mason E Garnett, Lisa M Kattenhorn, Peter Bell, Tamara Goode, James M Wilson
Systemically delivered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are now in early-phase clinical trials for a variety of diseases. While there is a general consensus on inclusion and exclusion criteria for each of these trials, the conditions under which vectors are infused vary significantly. In this study, we evaluated the impact of intravenous infusion rate of AAV8 vector in cynomolgus macaques on transgene expression, vector clearance from the circulation, and potential activation of the innate immune system...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933298/non-targeted-plasma-metabolome-of-early-and-late-lactation-gilts
#16
Lea A Rempel, Jeremy R Miles, William T Oliver, Corey D Broeckling
Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933296/modeling-diet-induced-obesity-with-obesity-prone-rats-implications-for-studies-in-females
#17
REVIEW
Erin D Giles, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933290/validation-of-a-cochlear-implant-patient-specific-model-of-the-voltage-distribution-in-a-clinical-setting
#18
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933280/bone-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-the-evolving-roles-of-nuclear-medicine-and-radiology
#19
REVIEW
Gary J R Cook, Gurdip Azad, Anwar R Padhani
The bone scan continues to be recommended for both the staging and therapy response assessment of skeletal metastases from prostate cancer. However, it is widely recognised that bone scans have limited sensitivity for disease detection and is both insensitive and non-specific for determining treatment response, at an early enough time point to be clinically useful. We, therefore, review the evolving roles of nuclear medicine and radiology for this application. We have reviewed the published literature reporting recent developments in imaging bone metastases in prostate cancer, and provide a balanced synopsis of the state of the art...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933254/characterization-of-a-novel-hatching-enzyme-purified-from-starfish-asterina-pectinifera
#20
Ji Hoon Choi, Sang Moo Kim
Hatching enzyme is a protease which can degrade the membrane of egg. In this study, a hatching enzyme was purified from starfish (Asterina pectinifera) with 6.34 fold of purification rate, 5.04 % of yield, and 73.87 U/mg of specific activity. The molecular weight of starfish hatching enzyme was 86 kDa, which was reduced to 62 kDa after removal of N-linked oligosaccharides. The optimal pH and temperature of the hatching enzyme activity were pH 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively, while those of stability were pH 8 and 20 °C...
2016: SpringerPlus
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