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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#1
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101526/rapamycin-resistant-mtor-activity-is-required-for-sensory-axon-regeneration-induced-by-a-conditioning-lesion
#2
Weitao Chen, Na Lu, Yue Ding, Yuan Wang, Leung Ting Chan, Xu Wang, Xin Gao, Songshan Jiang, Kai Liu
Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091556/vegf-b-promotes-recovery-of-corneal-innervations-and-trophic-functions-in-diabetic-mice
#3
Guohu Di, Xiaowen Zhao, Xia Qi, Songmei Zhang, Lu Feng, Weiyun Shi, Qingjun Zhou
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B possesses the capacity of promoting injured peripheral nerve regeneration and restore their sensory and trophic functions. However, the contribution and mechanism of VEGF-B in diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and role of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal neuropathy by using type 1 diabetic mice and cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Hyperglycemia attenuated the endogenous expression of VEGF-B in regenerated diabetic corneal epithelium, but not that of VEGF receptors in diabetic TG neurons and axons...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088077/rhoa-knockdown-by-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-sirhoa-polyplexes-enhances-axonal-regeneration-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#4
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069926/creatine-enhances-mitochondrial-mediated-oligodendrocyte-survival-following-demyelinating-injury
#6
Kelly A Chamberlain, Kristen S Chapey, Sonia E Nanescu, Jeffrey K Huang
: Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in ATP buffering, in oligodendrocyte function...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#7
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
: Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069919/calpain-mediated-proteolysis-of-talin-and-fak-regulates-adhesion-dynamics-necessary-for-axon-guidance
#8
Patrick C Kerstein, Kevin M Patel, Timothy M Gomez
: Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing affects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067783/stem-cell-transplantation-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-current-options-and-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Liangfu Jiang, Salazar Jones, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complicated process highlighted by Wallerian degeneration, axonal sprouting, and remyelination. Schwann cells play an integral role in multiple facets of nerve regeneration but obtaining Schwann cells for cell-based therapy is limited by the invasive nature of harvesting and donor site morbidity. Stem cell transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration offers an alternative cell-based therapy with several regenerative benefits. Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into Schwann-like cells that recruit macrophages for removal of cellular debris...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067631/schwann-cells-are-activated-by-atp-released-from-neurons-in-an-in-vitro-cellular-model-of-miller-fisher-syndrome
#10
Umberto Rodella, Samuele Negro, Michele Scorzeto, Elisanna Bergamin, Kees Jalink, Cesare Montecucco, Nobuhiro Yuki, Michela Rigoni
The neuromuscular junction is exposed to different types of insults including mechanical traumas, toxins or autoimmune antibodies and, accordingly, has retained through evolution a remarkable ability to regenerate. Regeneration is driven by multiple signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of the junction. These signals are largely unknown.Miller Fisher syndrome is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by autoimmune antibodies specific for epitopes of peripheral axon terminals. Using an animal model of Miller Fisher syndrome, we recently reported that a monoclonal anti-polysialoganglioside GQ1b antibody plus complement damages nerve terminals with production of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, that activates Schwann cells...
January 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067245/effect-of-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-hydrogel-in-regeneration-of-spinal-cord-injury-demonstrated-by-tractography-a-pilot-study
#11
Zhenxia Zhang, Shenglian Yao, Sheng Xie, Xiumei Wang, Feiyan Chang, Jie Luo, Jingming Wang, Jun Fu
Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064059/par1-activation-affects-the-neurotrophic-properties-of-schwann-cells
#12
Elena Pompili, Cinzia Fabrizi, Francesca Somma, Virginia Correani, Bruno Maras, Maria Eugenia Schininà, Viviana Ciraci, Marco Artico, Francesco Fornai, Lorenzo Fumagalli
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059804/bupivacaine-increases-the-rate-of%C3%A2-motoneuron-death-following-peripheral%C3%A2-nerve-injury
#13
Susanna C Byram, Scott W Byram, Nicholas M Miller, Keith N Fargo
BACKGROUND: Appropriate management of pain after an injury or surgical procedure has been shown to improve patient outcomes. While infrequent, nerve damage resulting from regional anesthesia can be devastating, however the mechanism remains unknown. Local anesthetics are neurotoxic yet are frequently applied to sites where peripheral nerves are regenerating. Therefore, understanding their effects on injured and growing neurons may have important implications for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if local anesthetics exacerbate the rate of motoneuron death following axotomy...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059646/irreversible-changes-occurring-in-long-term-denervated-schwann-cells-affect-delayed-nerve-repair
#14
Giulia Ronchi, Michele Cillino, Giovanna Gambarotta, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Stefania Raimondo, Pierfrancesco Pugliese, Pierluigi Tos, Adriana Cordova, Francesco Moschella, Stefano Geuna
OBJECTIVE Multiple factors may affect functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury, among them the lesion site and the interval between the injury and the surgical repair. When the nerve segment distal to the lesion site undergoes chronic degeneration, the ensuing regeneration (when allowed) is often poor. The aims of the current study were as follows: 1) to examine the expression changes of the neuregulin 1/ErbB system during long-term nerve degeneration; and 2) to investigate whether a chronically denervated distal nerve stump can sustain nerve regeneration of freshly axotomized axons...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057509/promoting-bioengineered-tooth-innervation-using-nanostructured-and-hybrid-scaffolds
#15
S Kuchler-Bopp, A Larrea, L Petry, Y Idoux-Gillet, V Sebastian, A Ferrandon, P Schwinté, M Arruebo, N Benkirane-Jessel
: The innervation of teeth mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia is essential for their function and protection. Immunosuppressive therapy using Cyclosporine A (CsA) was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues and particularly that of bioengineered teeth. To avoid the CsA side effects, we report in this study the preparation of CsA loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, their embedding on polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds and their possible use as templates for the innervation of bioengineered teeth...
January 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056790/immunization-with-neural-derived-peptides-plus-scar-removal-induces-a-permissive-microenvironment-and-improves-locomotor-recovery-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Adrián Flores-Romero, Ana María Fernández-Presas, Elisa García-Vences, Raúl Silva-García, Mina Konigsberg, Liliana Blancas-Espinoza, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Karla Soria-Zavala, Paola Suárez-Meade, Antonio Ibarra
BACKGROUND: Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP) as well as scar removal-separately-have shown to induce morphological and functional improvement after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we compared the effect of INDP alone versus INDP with scar removal on motor recovery, regeneration-associated and cytokine gene expression, and axonal regeneration after chronic SCI. Scar removal was conducted through a single incision with a double-bladed scalpel along the stump, and scar renewal was halted by adding α,α'-dipyridyl...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049831/mobile-zinc-increases-rapidly-in-the-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury-and-regulates-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#17
Yiqing Li, Lukas Andereggen, Kenya Yuki, Kumiko Omura, Yuqin Yin, Hui-Ya Gilbert, Burcu Erdogan, Maria S Asdourian, Christine Shrock, Silmara de Lima, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Yehong Zhuo, Michal Hershfinkel, Stephen J Lippard, Paul A Rosenberg, Larry Benowitz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045825/the-effect-of-carnitine-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#18
Kemal Karaca, Fevzi Solmaz
INTRODUCTION: Proximal and distal axons of the nerve body are subject to varying degrees of traumatic degeneration after an incision. The histologic structure of rat peripheral nerves cannot be distinguished from the human. Studies on systemic carnitine treatment following peripheral nerve injury and its positive results are available in the literature. There are no reported results of local administration. METHODS: The authors used 50 rats. A total of 5 groups were created by randomly assigning the rats...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039763/spatial-and-temporal-arrangement-of-neuronal-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-mechanisms-controlling-axon-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Tedeschi, Frank Bradke
Axon regeneration and neuronal tissue repair varies across animal lineages as well as in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. While the peripheral nervous system retains the ability to self-repair, the majority of axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to reactivate intrinsic growth programs after injury. Recent findings, however, suggest that long-distance axon regeneration, neuronal circuit assembly and recovery of functions in the adult mammalian CNS are possible...
December 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036084/preferential-enhancement-of-sensory-and-motor-axon-regeneration-by-combining-extracellular-matrix-components-with-neurotrophic-factors
#20
Daniel Santos, Francisco González-Pérez, Guido Giudetti, Silvestro Micera, Esther Udina, Jaume Del Valle, Xavier Navarro
After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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