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axon regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542923/the-polysialic-acid-mimetics-idarubicin-and-irinotecan-stimulate-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-and-signal-via-protein-kinase-c
#1
Gabriele Loers, Steven Astafiev, Yuliya Hapiak, Vedangana Saini, Bibhudatta Mishra, Sheraz Gul, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner, Thomas Theis
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542521/regeneration-of-myelin-sheaths-of-normal-length-and-thickness-in-the-zebrafish-cns-correlates-with-growth-of-axons-in-caliber
#2
Marja J Karttunen, Tim Czopka, Marieke Goedhart, Jason J Early, David A Lyons
Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542074/nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-when-neurorrhaphy-performed-at-the-early-distraction-osteogenesis-an-experimental-study
#3
Byung Jun Kim, Jeong Mok Cho, Sung Tack Kwon
Distraction osteogenesis is widely used in many clinical situations, but distraction in cases accompanying nerve injury has been avoided due to concern of unfavorable effect on nerve regeneration by traction. This study evaluated the feasibility of early distraction lengthening after neurorrhaphy. Thirty-six rats were evenly distributed into 3 groups (12 rats in each group); neurorrhaphy and distraction (group I), neurorrhaphy and osteotomy without distraction (group II), and only distraction without neurorrhaphy (group III), respectively...
May 24, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539870/a-select-subset-of-electron-transport-chain-genes-associated-with-optic-atrophy-link-mitochondria-to-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Wendy M Knowlton, Thomas Hubert, Zilu Wu, Andrew D Chisholm, Yishi Jin
The role of mitochondria within injured neurons is an area of active interest since these organelles are vital for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Using mechanosensory neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test regeneration after neuronal injury in vivo, we surveyed genes related to mitochondrial function for effects on axon regrowth after laser axotomy. Genes involved in mitochondrial transport, calcium uptake, mitophagy, or fission and fusion were largely dispensable for axon regrowth, with the exception of eat-3/Opa1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539419/microglia-are-irrelevant-for-neuronal-degeneration-and-axon-regeneration-after-acute-injury
#5
Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
The role of microglia in de- and regenerative processes after damage of the nervous system still remains ambiguous, partially due to the paucity of appropriate investigative methods. Here, we show that treatment with the pharmacological colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor PLX5622 specifically eliminated microglia in murine retinae and optic nerves. Interestingly, time course and extent of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration after optic nerve crush remained unaffected upon microglia depletion, although remnants of pre-labeled apoptotic RGCs were not cleared from the retina in these animals...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535416/the-role-of-timing-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Regeneration failure after primary spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to diverse clinical complications in a severity- and level of SCI-dependent manner. The cost of treating both of them (initial regeneration failure and following complications) would be prohibitive, particularly in less developed nations. The well-recognized circumstances arose from primary SCI include excitotoxicity and inflammation. SCI increases concentrations of extracellular amino acids (EAAs) in the severity-dependent manner and the maximum level of EAAs at the injury site will be reduced by distance from the injury site...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532897/mast-cells-improve-functional-recovery-of-transected-peripheral-nerve-a-novel-preliminary-study
#9
Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh, Leila Zarei, Negin Farhad, Mehran Bahrami-Bukani, Rahim Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Employment of regenerative properties of cells at the service of nerve repair has been initiated during recent decades. Effects of local transplantation of bone marrow-derived mast cells on peripheral nerve regeneration were studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a conduit chitosan-based hybrid conduit filled with BMMCs in BMMC group. In positive control group (Pos), the conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529011/the-effect-of-in-vivo-created-vascularized-neurotube-on-peripheric-nerve-regeneration
#10
Abdul Kerim Yapici, Yalcin Bayram, Hakan Akgun, Recep Gumus, Fatih Zor
INTRODUCTION: Creating vascularized nerve conduits for treatment of nerve gaps have been researched, however, these methods need microsurgical anastomosis thereby complicating the nerve repair process. Thus, the concept of vascularized nerve conduits has not popularized up till now. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vascularized and non-vascularized biological conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following ethical board approval, 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527111/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-linear-ordered-collagen-scaffold-improves-functional-recovery-after-completely-transected-spinal-cord-injury-in-canine
#11
Sufang Han, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Huan Zhao, Bin Wang, Zhixue Qiu, Zhi Li, Xin Mei, Bai Xu, Caixia Fan, Bing Chen, Jin Han, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi, Jianwu Dai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major challenge in the clinic. In this study, we sought to examine the synergistic effects of linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) and human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) when transplanted into completely transected beagle dogs. After 36 weeks observation, we found that LOCS+hPMSCs implants promoted better hindlimb locomotor recovery than was observed in the non-treatment (control) group and LOCS group. Histological analysis showed that the regenerated tissue after treatment was well integrated with the host tissue, and dramatically reduced the volume of cystic and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expression...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#12
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#13
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514764/trim32-affects-the-recovery-of-motor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury-through-regulating-proliferation-of-glia
#14
Qiang Fu, Ming-Ming Zou, Jian-Wei Zhu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jin Chen, Mei Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu, Quan-Hong Ma, Ru-Xiang Xu
Both the extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic neuronal mechanisms limit the axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we identify tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is barely detected in glial cells in the normal uninjured spinal cord, exhibits strong expression in both astrocytes and microglia following SCI. We further observe that deficiency of TRIM32 results in increased numbers of astrocytes and microglia, which is accompanied by enhanced proliferation of both cells and increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-10...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514330/-mri-morphometry-of-neuroplastic-changes-in-the-brain-after-conservative-treatment-of-traumatic-brachial-plexopathy
#15
S A Zhivolupov, E N Gnevyshev, A G Trufanov, L V Voronkov, A A Jurin, N A Rashidov, I N Samartsev, I D Poltavsky
AIM: To identify neuroplastic changes in the brain structures during treatment of traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus (the pathology of peripheral nervous system). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI morphometry of white and grey matter was studied in 62 patients with traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: There were correlations between the thickness of sensorimotor cortex, morphometric parameters (volume, diffusion, fractional anisotropy) of subcortical formations (corticospinal tracts, the forceps minor), severity of neurological deficit and dynamics of clinical course depending on the therapeutic strategy...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512649/purification-and-characterization-of-schwann-cells-from-adult-human-skin-and-nerve
#16
Jo Anne Stratton, Ranjan Kumar, Sarthak Sinha, Prajay Shah, Morgan Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Rajiv Midha, Jeff Biernaskie
Despite its modest capacity for regeneration, peripheral nervous system injury often results in significant long-term disability. Supplementing peripheral nervous system injury with autologous Schwann cells (SCs) may serve to rejuvenate the postinjury environment to enhance regeneration and ultimately improve functional outcomes. However, human nerve-derived SC (hN-SC) collection procedures require invasive surgical resection. Here, we describe the characterization of SCs from adult human skin (hSk-SCs) of four male donors ranging between 27 and 46 years old...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511287/generation-and-characterization-of-highly-purified-canine-schwann-cells-from-spinal-nerve-dorsal-roots-as-potential-new-candidates-for-transplantation-strategies
#17
Nicole Steffensen, Annika Lehmbecker, Ingo Gerhauser, Yimin Wang, Regina Carlson, Andrea Tipold, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Veronika M Stein
Schwann cells (SCs) are promising candidates for transplantation-strategies in the central nervous system by promoting axonal regeneration. The dog represents a translational model for human spinal cord injury (SCI) for studies with new repair strategies after intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). To overcome the necessity for an additional surgical procedure, for the first time a protocol for isolation, and purification of canine SCs from spinal-nerve-biopsies during standard hemilaminectomy in IVDH affected paraplegic dogs for potential transplantation was developed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507996/effects-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-with-predatory-stress-on-functional-and-histological-index-of-injured-sciatic-nerve-in-rat
#18
Maryam Tasbih-Forosh, Leila Zarei, Ehsan Saboory, Mehran Bahrami-Bukani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of combination of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with predatory stress on transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rats. METHODS: In sham- operated group (SOG) the nerve was manipulated and left intact. The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In transected group (Transected) nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in vein graft group (VG) the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In VG/PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the whole body was exposed to PEMF...
April 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506533/schwann-cell-precursors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-myelin-repair
#19
Han-Seop Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Da Yong Lee, Young-Dae Kim, Jae Yun Kim, Hyung Jin Lim, Sungmin Lim, Yee Sook Cho
Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505619/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-increases-gap-43-expression-via-erk1-2-and-pi3k-akt-pathways-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#20
Jianzhong Cui, Changmeng Cui, Ying Cui, Ran Li, Huaxin Sheng, Xiaohua Jiang, Yanxia Tian, Kaijie Wang, Junling Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs in hypertensive patients and results in high rates of mortality and disability. This study determined whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation affects axonal regeneration and examined the underlying mechanisms after the administration of PD98059 (p-ERK1/2 inhibitor) or/ and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor). The hypothesis that was intended to be tested was that BMSC transplantation regulates the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) via the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways...
May 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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