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axon regeneration

Patrick Dömer, Bettina Kewitz, Christian P G Heinen, Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold, Thomas Kretschmer
BACKGROUND: Neuromas are pathologic nerve distensions caused by a nerve's response to trauma, resulting in a dysfunctional to non-functional nerve. Depending on the severance of the affected nerve, the resulting neuroma can be differentiated into continuous and stump neuroma. While neuroma formation has been investigated in animal models with enormous regenerative capacity, the search for differences in human response to nerve trauma on a molecular level ultimately seeks to identify reasons for functionally successful versus unsuccessful regeneration after peripheral nerve trauma in man...
April 14, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Naohiko Okabe, Naoyuki Himi, Emi Nakamura-Maruyama, Norito Hayashi, Issei Sakamoto, Kazuhiko Narita, Toru Hasegawa, Osamu Miyamoto
Descending spinal pathways (corticospinal, rubrospinal, and reticulospinal) are believed to contribute to functional recovery resulting from rehabilitative training after stroke. However, the contribution of each pathway remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated rehabilitation-induced functional recovery and remodelling of the descending spinal pathways after severe cortical stroke in rats followed by 3 weeks of various rehabilitation [constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), skilled forelimb reaching, rotarod, and treadmill exercise]...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Christina Maria Anna Pia Schuh, Adam George Edward Day, Heinz Redl, James Phillips
Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilisation within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). Here we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form EngNT, as prior to EngNT design a beneficial effect of fibrin on Schwann cell proliferation was observed. A range of blend formulations was tested in terms of mechanical behavior (gel formation, stabilisation, swelling, tensile strength and stiffness) and lead formulations were assessed in vitro...
March 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Hui Chen, Jianping Xiang, Junxia Wu, Bo He, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu, Canbin Zheng
Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Pamela Imperadore, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch, Graziano Fiorito
Octopus and cephalopods are able to regenerate injured tissues. Recent advancements in the study of regeneration in cephalopods appear promising encompassing different approaches helping to decipher cellular and molecular machinery involved in the process. However, lack of specific markers to investigate degenerative/regenerative phenomena and inflammatory events occurring after damage is limiting these studies. Label-free multiphoton microscopy is applied for the first time to the transected pallial nerve of Octopus vulgaris Various optical contrast methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been used...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Samuele Negro, Marco Stazi, Marta Marchioretto, Toma Tebaldi, Umberto Rodella, Elisa Duregotti, Volker Gerke, Alessandro Quattrone, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni, Gabriella Viero
Schwann cells are key players in neuro-regeneration: they sense alarm signals released by degenerating nerve terminals and differentiate toward a pro-regenerative phenotype, with phagocytosis of nerve debris and nerve guidance. At the murine neuromuscular junction, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signal of Schwann cells activation in response to a variety of nerve injuries. Here we report that Schwann cells exposed to low doses of H2 O2 rewire the expression of several RNAs at both transcriptional and translational levels...
April 11, 2018: RNA
Meili Liu, Chuanwei Yin, Zhengtai Jia, Kun Li, Zhifa Zhang, Yuchen Zhao, Xianghui Gong, Xiaoyu Liu, Ping Li, Yubo Fan
Nerve cells detect and respond to electric field stimulation and extrinsic chemical guidance cues during development and regeneration; therefore, the development and optimization of an approach for functional neuronal regeneration are necessary for a nerve injury. In this study, we proposed using electric field stimulation to repair a nerve injury triggered by serious mechanical stretch loading. A device that provides continuous mechanical stretch and constant electric field stimulation was designed. Primary dissociated spinal cord neurons were stimulated by mechanical stretch (tensile strain 2...
April 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Yan Xu, Liang Li, Hai-Tao Ren, Bin Yin, Jian-Gang Yuan, Xiao-Zhong Peng, Bo-Qin Qiang, Li-Ying Cui
AIMS: To investigate the association of the Nectin/Necl family genes with the risk of developing NMOSD. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on two familial NMOSD cases and two unaffected family members. Additionally, 106 patients with sporadic NMOSD and 212 healthy controls (HCs) underwent screening for mutant Necl2. Finally, the molecular weight and cellular localization of mutant NECL2 was examined in transfected HeLa cells. RESULTS: We identified a novel deletion mutation in Necl2 (c...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Wen-Cheng Lu, Yu-Xiao Zhou, Ping Qiao, Jin Zheng, Qiang Wu, Qiang Shen
In adult mammals, axon regeneration after central nervous system injury is very poor, resulting in persistent functional loss. Enhancing the ability of axonal outgrowth may be a potential treatment strategy because mature neurons of the adult central nervous system may retain the intrinsic ability to regrow axons after injury. The protocadherin (Pcdh) clusters are thought to function in neuronal morphogenesis and in the assembly of neural circuitry in the brain. We cultured primary hippocampal neurons from E17...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Richard Eva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Fausto Ulloa, Tiziana Cotrufo, Delia Ricolo, Eduardo Soriano, Sofia J Araújo
Through complex mechanisms that guide axons to the appropriate routes towards their targets, axonal growth and guidance lead to neuronal system formation. These mechanisms establish the synaptic circuitry necessary for the optimal performance of the nervous system in all organisms. Damage to these networks can be repaired by neuroregenerative processes which in turn can re-establish synapses between injured axons and postsynaptic terminals. Both axonal growth and guidance and the neuroregenerative response rely on correct axonal growth and growth cone responses to guidance cues as well as correct synapses with appropriate targets...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Li-Ning Su, Xiao-Qing Song, Zhan-Xia Xue, Chen-Qing Zheng, Hai-Feng Yin, Hui-Ping Wei
Axon regeneration is crucial for recovery from neurological diseases. Numerous studies have identified several genes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and transcription factors (TFs) that influence axon regeneration. However, the regulatory networks involved have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed a regulatory network of 51 miRNAs, 27 TFs, and 59 target genes, which is involved in axon regeneration. We identified 359 pairs of feed-forward loops (FFLs), seven important genes (Nap1l1, Arhgef12, Sema6d, Akt3, Trim2, Rab11fip2, and Rps6ka3), six important miRNAs (hsa-miR-204-5p, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-16-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, and hsa-miR-15b-5p), and eight important TFs (Smada2, Fli1, Wt1, Sp6, Sp3, Smad4, Smad5, and Creb1), which appear to play an important role in axon regeneration...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Hong Yu, Vittorio Porciatti, Alfred Lewin, William Hauswirth, John Guy
In many human disorders mitochondrial dysfunction is central to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As these cells do not regenerate, vision is irreversibly lost. Here we show reversal of visual dysfunction by a mitochondrially targeted adeno associated virus in transgenic mice harboring a G11778A mutation in the ND4 subunit of complex I persists longterm and it is associated with reduced loss of RGCs and their axons, improved oxidative phosphorylation, persistence of transferred ND4 DNA and transcription of ND4 mRNA...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuichi Sekine, Chad S Siegel, Tomoko Sekine-Konno, William B J Cafferty, Stephen M Strittmatter
Axonal growth after traumatic spinal cord injury is limited by endogenous inhibitors, selective blockade of which promotes partial neurological recovery. The partial repair phenotypes suggest that compensatory pathways limit improvement. Gene expression profiles of mice deficient in Ngr1 , which encodes a receptor for myelin-associated inhibitors of axonal regeneration such as Nogo, revealed that trauma increased the mRNA expression of ORL1 , which encodes the receptor for the opioid-related peptide nociceptin...
April 3, 2018: Science Signaling
Rui Li, Yiyang Li, Yanqing Wu, Yingzheng Zhao, Huanwen Chen, Yuan Yuan, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Yingfeng Lu, Jian Wang, Xiaokun Li, Xiaofeng Jia, Jian Xiao
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury...
March 26, 2018: Biomaterials
Ya-Ling Zhang, Yi-Guo Liu, De-Jian Chen, Bao-Lin Yang, Tao-Tao Liu, Jia-Juan Li, Xiu-Qi Wang, Hao-Tian Rose Li, Zeng-Xu Liu
Transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) can promote axonal regeneration and formation of the myelin sheath, reduce inflammation, and promote repair to the damaged nerve. Our previous studies have shown that transplantation of free or micro-encapsulated olfactory ensheathing cells can relieve neuropathic pain. There are no related reports regarding whether the transplantation of micro-encapsulated SCs can alleviate neuropathic pain mediated by P2 × 2/3 receptors. In the present study, we micro-encapsulated SCs in alginic acid and transplanted them into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in the rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Fengna Chu, Mingchao Shi, Chao Zheng, Donghui Shen, Jie Zhu, Xiangyu Zheng, Li Cui
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, as well as axonal and neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). Macrophages and microglia are important components of the innate immune system. They participate in the primary response to microorganisms and play a role in inflammatory responses, homeostasis, and tissue regeneration. In the initial phase of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, macrophages from peripheral tissues infiltrate into the CNS and, together with residential microglia, contribute to the pathogenesis of MS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Pengfei Liu, Zhang Zhang, Chenlong Liao, Wenxiang Zhong, Pengyang Li, Wenchuan Zhang
BACKGROUND:  End-to-side (ETS) neurorrhaphy is a promising procedure for peripheral nerve repair, yet controversies regarding the efficacy of this repair in facial nerve anastomosis for facial paralysis still exist. METHODS:  Thirty rats were divided into three groups: intact control group, direct facial-hypoglossal ETS neurorrhaphy, and end-to-end (ETE) neurorrhaphy. Nerve regeneration was assessed with vibrissae motor performance, electrophysiological tests, retrograde labeling, and histomorphological analysis at 4 and 8 months postoperatively...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Jeffrey H Kordower, Robert E Burke
Disease modification and structural neuroprotection have been the holy grail for Parkinson's disease (PD) experimental therapeutics. Theoretically, there are a number of ways to implement such therapeutics, but to date all have failed. This review examines the potential of axonal regeneration and trophic factor delivery for the nigrostriatal system as 2 such approaches that historically have initiated much excitement. However, we conclude this discussion with the following question: has science passed these approaches by? © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society...
March 30, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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