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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906313/the-distribution-of-intratumoral-macrophages-correlates-with-molecular-phenotypes-and-impacts-prognosis-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#1
Younghoon Kim, Xianyu Wen, Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive. In this study, we aimed to examine the correlation between TAMs, clinicopathological features, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and prognosis in CRC via image analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163 was performed with pan-macrophage and M2-macrophage markers, respectively. Each marker was separately analyzed for intraepithelial and stromal area densities. All four macrophage densities showed a significant correlation with one another (p = 0...
June 15, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905984/effect-of-vitamin-e-supplementation-in-milk-replacer-and-shiga-toxoid-vaccination-on-serum-%C3%AE-tocopherol-performance-haematology-and-blood-chemistry-in-male-holstein-calves
#2
Nadine Schmidt, Tim Luhmann, Liane Hüther, Ulrich Meyer, Stefanie A Barth, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Jana Frahm, Sven Dänicke
Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and performance in cattle. The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. Active and passive immunization of calves with Shiga toxoids (rStxMUT ) was recently shown to reduce the STEC shedding...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905574/mechanisms-leading-to-t-cell-activation-in-drug-hypersensitivity
#3
Xiaoli Meng, Daniel Yerly, Dean J Naisbitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed-type or nonimmediate drug hypersensitivity reactions often involve the activation of drug-specific T cells. As such, the molecular initiating event is an interaction between HLA proteins, HLA-binding peptides and the drug. For many years, the formation of covalently modified drug protein adducts was assumed to be a prerequisite for T-cell activation. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies using human PBMC, T-cell lines and clones, which show that drugs are in fact loaded onto HLA molecules in different forms to activate T cells...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905559/-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-for-the-adverse-course-of-infectious-mononucleosis-in-children
#4
Ya Kolesnik, T Zharkova, O Rzhevskaya, T Kvaratskheliya, O Sorokina
The article presents the results of our own studies to determine the criteria for the adverse variants of the course of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children. The study was conducted in the regional children's infectious clinical hospital in Kharkov. 161 children aged three to fifteen years were under observation with diagnosis of infectious moninucleosis. Out of 161 ill children, 140 (86.9%) had moderate severity of disease, and 21 (13.1%) had severe forms. All children were prescribed standard clinical and laboratory-instrumental examinations...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904934/common-gamma-chain-cytokines-promote-regulatory-t-cell-development-and-survival-at-the-cd4-cd8-stage-in-the-human-thymus
#5
Reetta Vanhanen, Anni Tuulasvaara, Joonatan Mattila, Tommi Pätilä, T Petteri Arstila
Thymic commitment of human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells begins at the double positive (DP) CD4+ CD8+ stage. In the current study we show that interleukin-2 promotes the development of FOXP3+ thymocytes and enhances their survival at the DP phase. IL-2 increases the frequency of FOXP3+ cells and promotes the Treg phenotype after TCR-mediated positive selection at the most mature DP stage. However, it has no effect on FOXP3+ cells at the earlier maturation steps before positive selection. DP FOXP3+ are highly susceptible to cell death but IL-2 promotes their survival...
June 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904904/ilixadencel-an-allogeneic-cell-based-anticancer-immune-primer-for-intratumoral-administration
#6
Alex Karlsson-Parra, Juliana Kovacka, Emilia Heimann, Margareth Jorvid, Sijme Zeilemaker, Sharon Longhurst, Peter Suenaert
Intratumoral administration of an immune primer is a therapeutic vaccine strategy aimed to trigger dendritic cell (DC)-mediated cross-presentation of cell-associated tumor antigens to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells without the need for tumor antigen characterization. The prevailing view is that these cross-presenting DCs have to be directly activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), including Toll-like receptor ligands or live microbial agents like oncolytic viruses. Emerging data are however challenging this view, indicating that the cross-presenting machinery in DCs is suboptimally activated by direct PAMP recognition, and that endogenous inflammatory factors are the main drivers of DC-mediated cross-presentation within the tumor...
June 14, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904582/development-of-a-novel-mechanism-based-glycolipid-adjuvant-for-vaccination
#7
REVIEW
Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Xiangming Li, Moriya Tsuji
The inability to elicit strong and durable cellular responses is a major obstacle in the development of successful vaccines, in particular those against malaria. In this regard, the generation of novel adjuvants that will potently boost cell-mediated immunity induced by candidate vaccines is helpful. We and others have found a glycolipid, called α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which could be presented on CD1d expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and stimulate natural killer T (NKT) cells. This triggers the activation/maturation of APCs, particularly dendritic cells (DCs)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904388/niches-for-the-long-term-maintenance-of-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#8
REVIEW
Shiki Takamura
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are a population of immune cells that reside in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs without recirculation through the blood. These important cells occupy and utilize unique anatomical and physiological niches that are distinct from those for other memory T cell populations, such as central memory T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs and effector memory T cells that circulate through the tissues. CD8+ TRM cells typically localize in the epithelial layers of barrier tissues where they are optimally positioned to act as sentinels to trigger antigen-specific protection against reinfection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904386/costimulatory-function-of-cd58-cd2-interaction-in-adaptive-humoral-immunity-in-a-zebrafish-model
#9
Tong Shao, Wei Shi, Jia-Yu Zheng, Xiao-Xiao Xu, Ai-Fu Lin, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
CD58 and CD2 have long been known as a pair of reciprocal adhesion molecules involved in the immune modulations of CD8+ T and NK-mediated cellular immunity in humans and several other mammals. However, the functional roles of CD58 and CD2 in CD4+ T-mediated adaptive humoral immunity remain poorly defined. Moreover, the current functional observations of CD58 and CD2 were mainly acquired from in vitro assays, and in vivo investigation is greatly limited due to the absence of a Cd58 homology in murine models...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904378/integrin-%C3%AE-1-optimizes-diabetogenic-t-cell-migration-and-function-in-the-pancreas
#10
Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco, Cécile Le Saout, Pierre Fontanaud, Aurélien Michau, Patrice Mollard, Javier Hernandez, Marie Schaeffer
T cell search behavior is dictated by their need to encounter their specific antigen to eliminate target cells. However, mechanisms controlling effector T cell motility are highly tissue-dependent. Specifically, how diabetogenic T cells encounter their target beta cells in dispersed islets throughout the pancreas (PA) during autoimmune diabetes remains unclear. Using intra-vital 2-photon microscopy in a mouse model of diabetes, we found that CXCR3 chemokine downregulated CD8+ T cell motility specifically within islets, promoting effector cell confinement to their target sites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904021/overcoming-resistance-of-human-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-to-cd19-car-ctl-therapy-by-celecoxib-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#11
Antoni Xavier Torres-Collado, Ali R Jazirehi
Patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) who fail to respond to first-line treatment regimens or develop resistance, exhibit poor prognosis. This signifies the need to develop alternative treatment strategies. CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-redirected immunotherapy is an attractive and novel option, which has shown encouraging outcomes in phase I clinical trials of relapsed/refractory NHL. However, the underlying mechanisms of, and approaches to overcome, acquired anti-CD19CAR CD8⁺ T cells (CTL)-resistance in NHL remain elusive...
June 14, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903545/evaluation-of-t-cells-in-blood-after-a-short-gluten-challenge-for-coeliac-disease-diagnosis
#12
Natalia López-Palacios, Virginia Pascual, Mercedes Castaño, Andrés Bodas, Marta Fernández-Prieto, Laura Espino-Paisán, Eva Martínez-Ojinaga, Isabel Salazar, Raquel Martínez-Curiel, Enrique Rey, Lourdes Estrada, Magdalena Molero-Abraham, Pedro A Reche, Romina Dieli-Crimi, Concepción Núñez
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To diagnose coeliac disease (CD) in individuals on a gluten free diet (GFD), we aimed to assess the utility of detecting activated γδ and CD8 T cells expressing gut-homing receptors after a short gluten challenge. METHODS: We studied 15 CD patients and 35 non-CD controls, all exposed to three days of gluten when following a GFD. Peripheral blood was collected before and six days after starting gluten consumption, and the expression of CD103, β7 and CD38 in γδ and CD8 T cells was assessed by flow cytometry...
April 27, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902727/live-attenuated-bivalent-measles-virus-derived-vaccines-targeting-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-induce-robust-and-multifunctional-t-cell-responses-against-both-viruses-in-an-appropriate-mouse-model
#13
Bianca S Bodmer, Anna H Fiedler, Jan R H Hanauer, Steffen Prüfer, Michael D Mühlebach
Cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue to occur, making it one of the WHO´s targets for accelerated vaccine development. One vaccine candidate is based on live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine encoding the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (MERS-S). MVvac2 -MERS-S(H) induces robust humoral and cellular immunity against MERS-S mediating protection. Here, the induction and nature of immunity after vaccination with MVvac2 -MERS-S(H) or novel MVvac2 -MERS-N were further characterized...
June 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902528/divergent-mechanisms-of-metabolic-dysfunction-drive-fibroblast-and-t-cell-senescence
#14
Lauren A Callender, Elizabeth C Carroll, Emilia A Bober, Sian M Henson
The impact of cellular senescence during ageing is well established, however senescence is now recognised to play a role in a variety of age related and metabolic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. It is therefore crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that control cellular senescence. In recent years our understanding of the intimate relationship between cell metabolism, cell signalling and cellular senescence has greatly improved. In this review we discuss the differing roles of glucose and protein metabolism in both senescent fibroblast and CD8+ T-cells, and explore the impact cellular metabolism has on the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of these cell types...
June 11, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902483/cd46-is-a-potent-co-stimulatory-receptor-for-expansion-of-human-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-cd8-t-cells
#15
Aida S Hansen, Josefine Slater, Mette Biltoft, Bettina B Bundgaard, Bjarne K Møller, Per Höllsberg
Similar to CD4+ T cells, precursor CD8+ T cells are thought to depend on a co-stimulatory signal through CD28 for proliferation and differentiation into effector cells. CD46 is another co-stimulatory receptor that promotes differentiation of CD4+ T-helper cells type 1 (Th1 cells) into a regulatory phenotype with a switch from IFN-γ towards IL-10-secretion over time. Whether CD46 exerts a similar function on CD8+ T cells remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that CD46 co-stimulation induced secretion of IFN-γ as well as expansion of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells...
June 11, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901978/in-vivo-imaging-tracking-and-immune-responses-to-nanovaccines-involving-combined-antigen-nanoparticles-with-a-programmed-delivery
#16
Xia Dong, Jie Liang, Afeng Yang, Chun Wang, Deling Kong, Feng Lv
Combined nanovaccine can generate robust and persistent antigen-specific immune responses. A combined nanovaccine was developed based on antigen loaded genipin-crosslinked-polyethyleneimine-antigen nanoparticles and in vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging tracked the antigen delivery of combined nanovaccine. The inner layer antigen nanoparticles carried abundant antigens by self-crosslinking for persistent immune response, while the outer antigen on the surface of antigen nanoparticles provided initial antigen exposure...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901486/weight-loss-weight-loss-maintenance-and-cellular-aging-in-the-supporting-health-through-nutrition-and-exercise-shine-study
#17
Ashley E Mason, Frederick M Hecht, Jennifer J Daubenmier, David A Sbarra, Jue Lin, Patricia J Moran, Samantha G Schleicher, Michael Acree, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a weight-loss clinical trial for obesity, the impact of intervention arm, weight change, and weight-loss maintenance on telomere length (TL). METHODS: Adults (N=194) with a BMI between 30 and 45 were randomized to a 5.5-month weight-loss program with (n=100) or without (n=94) mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed TL at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline in immune cell populations (primarily in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], but also in granulocytes and T and B lymphocytes)...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900173/a-perspective-on-the-interplay-of-ultraviolet-radiation-skin-microbiome-and-skin-resident-memory-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells
#18
VijayKumar Patra, Léo Laoubi, Jean-François Nicolas, Marc Vocanson, Peter Wolf
The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiome exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R). UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900067/blockade-of-lag3-enhances-responses-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-cells-in-mismatch-repair-proficient-liver-metastases-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
Guoying Zhou, Lisanne Noordam, Dave Sprengers, Michail Doukas, Patrick P C Boor, Adriaan A van Beek, Remco Erkens, Shanta Mancham, Dirk Grünhagen, Anand G Menon, Johan F Lange, Pim J W A Burger, Alexandra Brandt, Boris Galjart, Cornelis Verhoef, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Marco J Bruno
Purpose : Liver metastasis develops in >50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and is a leading cause of CRC-related mortality. We aimed to identify which inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways can be targeted to enhance functionality of intra-tumoral T-cells in mismatch repair-proficient liver metastases of colorectal cancer (LM-CRC). Methodology : Intra-tumoral expression of multiple inhibitory molecules was compared among mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC, peritoneal metastases of colorectal cancer (PM-CRC) and primary CRC...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900064/induction-of-enhanced-immunogenic-cell-death-through-ultrasound-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-by-liposome-microbubble-complexes
#20
Feng-Ying Huang, Jing Lei, Yan Sun, Fei Yan, Bin Chen, Liming Zhang, Zhuoxuan Lu, Rong Cao, Ying-Ying Lin, Cai-Chun Wang, Guang-Hong Tan
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a specific kind of cell death that stimulates the immune system to combat cancer cells. Ultrasound (US)-controlled targeted release of drugs by liposome-microbubble complexes is a promising approach due to its non-invasive nature and visibility through ultrasound imaging. However, it is not known whether this approach can enhance ICD induced by drugs, such as doxorubicin. Herein, we prepared a doxorubicin-liposome-microbubble complex (MbDox), and the resultant MbDox was then characterized and tested for US-controlled release of Dox (MbDox+US treatment) to enhance the induction of ICD in LL/2 and CT26 cancer cells and in syngeneic murine models...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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