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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102541/tgf-%C3%AE-regulation-of-encephalitogenic-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Priscilla W Lee, Mary E Severin, Amy E Lovett-Racke
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to influence the differentiation and function of T cells. The role that TGF-β plays in immune-mediated disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), has become a major area of investigation since CD4(+) T cells appear to be a major mediator of autoimmunity. This review provides an analysis of the literature on the role that TGF-β plays in the generation and regulation of encephalitogenic and regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, as well as in T cells of MS patients...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100270/pro-inflammation-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-triggers-a-positive-feedback-via-enhancing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-liver-cancer-cells
#2
Mingyan He, Wenhui Zhang, Yinying Dong, Lishun Wang, Tingting Fang, Wenqing Tang, Bei Lv, Guanglang Chen, Biwei Yang, Peixin Huang, Jinglin Xia
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in a complex microenvironment characterized by chronic inflammation. In recent years, cholesterol metabolic abnormalities have been implicated the importance in cancer cell physiology. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between inflammation and cholesterol accumulation in HCC cells. METHODS: Human HCC cells HepG2 and Huh7 were cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099082/therapeutics-targeting-drivers-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-acute-aortic-dissections-insights-from-predisposing-genes-and-mouse-models
#3
Dianna M Milewicz, Siddharth K Prakash, Francesco Ramirez
Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095642/maternal-messages-to-live-by-a-personal-historical-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Mary Lou King
In the 1980's, the study of localized maternal mRNAs was just emerging as a new research area. Classic embryological studies had linked the inheritance of cytoplasmic domains with specific cell lineages, but the underlying molecular nature of these putative determinants remained a mystery. The model system Xenopus would play a pivotal role in the progress of this new field. In fact, the first localized maternal mRNA to be identified and cloned from any organism was Xenopus vg1, a TGF-beta family member. This seminal finding opened the door to many subsequent studies focused on how RNAs are localized and what functions they had in development...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092987/emerging-treatment-approaches-for-myeloma-related-bone-disease
#5
Maria Gavriatopoulou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Efstathios Kastritis, Evangelos Terpos
Multiple myeloma is characterized by the presence of osteolytic lesions that leads to devastating skeletal-related events in the majority of patients. Myeloma bone disease is attributed to increased osteoclastic and suppressed osteoblastic activity. Areas covered: Bisphosphonates remain the main treatment option, however they have limitations on their own. Understanding the pathogenesis of myeloma bone disease may provide a roadmap for new therapeutic approaches. The pathway of RANKRANKLOPG pathway has revealed denosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL as a novel emerging therapy for myeloma-related bone disease...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092266/tgf-%C3%AE-reduces-dna-ds-break-repair-mechanisms-to-heighten-genetic-diversity-and-adaptability-of-cd44-cd24-cancer-cells
#6
Debjani Pal, Anja Pertot, Nitin H Shirole, Zhan Yao, Naishitha Anaparthy, Tyler Garvin, Hilary Cox, Kenneth Chang, Fred Rollins, Jude Kendall, Leyla Edwards, Vijay A Singh, Gary C Stone, Michael C Schatz, James Hicks, Gregory Hannon, Raffaella Sordella
Many lines of evidence have indicated that both genetic and non-genetic determinants can contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity and influence cancer outcomes. Among the best described sub-population of cancer cells generated by non-genetic mechanisms are cells characterized by a CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker profile. Here, we report that human CD44+/CD24- cancer cells are genetically highly unstable due to intrinsic defects in their DNA repair capabilities. In fact, in CD44+/CD24- cells constitutive activation of the TGF-beta axis was both necessary and sufficient to reduce the expression of genes that are critical in coordinating DNA damage repair mechanisms...
January 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090659/the-effect-of-intradetrusor-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-on-urinary-ngf-tgf-beta-1-timp-2-levels-in-children-with-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-due-to-myelodysplasia
#7
Tuncay Top, Cagri Akin Sekerci, Banu Isbilen-Basok, Yiloren Tanidir, Ilker Tinay, Ferruh Kemal Isman, Cem Akbal, Ferruh Simsek, Tufan Tarcan
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the value of urine nerve growth factor (NGF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-Beta-1), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) levels to predict the urodynamic profile before and after botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment in children with myelodysplasia. METHODS: This prospective study included 15 children with myelodysplasia who underwent intradetrusor BoNT-A injections due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDOA)...
January 16, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086769/effect-of-ginseng-extract-on-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats
#8
Mohamed M Hafez, Sherifa S Hamed, Manal F El-Khadragy, Zeinab K Hassan, Salim S Al Rejaie, Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed, Naif O Al-Harbi, Khalid A Al-Hosaini, Mohamed M Al-Harbi, Ali R Alhoshani, Othman A Al-Shabanah, Shakir Dekhal Alsharari
BACKGROUND: Liver diseases are major global health problems. Ginseng extract has antioxidant, immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effect of ginseng extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ginseng group, CCl4 group and CCl4 + ginseng group. Liver injury was induced by the intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of 3 ml/kg CCl4 (30% in olive oil) weekly for 8 weeks...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078601/inhibition-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-by-combined-tgfbeta-knockdown-and-metformin-treatment-in-a-canine-mammary-cancer-xenograft-model
#9
Camila Leonel, Thaiz Ferraz Borin, Lívia de Carvalho Ferreira, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Alicia M Viloria-Petit, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal properties, generating metastases. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is associated with this malignancy by having the ability to induce EMT. Metformin, has been shown to inhibit EMT in breast cancer cells. Based on this evidence we hypothesize that treatment with metformin and the silencing of TGF-β, inhibits the EMT in cancer cells. Canine metastatic mammary tumor cell line CF41 was stably transduced with a shRNA-lentivirus, reducing expression level of TGF-β1...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075040/n-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline-mediates-the-anti-fibrotic-properties-of-captopril-in-unilateral-ureteric-obstructed-balb-c-mice
#10
Gary Cw Chan, Hao Jia Wu, Kam Wa Chan, Stella Yiu, Ailis Zou, Xiao Ru Huang, Hui Yao Lan, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney Cw Tang
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are widely employed to deter the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Besides controlling hypertension and reduction of intra-glomerular pressure, ACEi appear to have anti-fibrotic effects in the renal cortex. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), an endogenous tetrapeptide that is degraded by ACE, has also been shown to ameliorate the pro-fibrotic phenotype displayed in CKD in our recent study. Whether the anti-fibrotic properties of ACEi are mediated by Ac-SDKP has not been fully investigated...
January 11, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067794/the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad4-signaling-pathway-in-pancreatic-carcinogenesis-and-its-clinical-significance
#11
REVIEW
Sunjida Ahmed, Azore-Dee Bradshaw, Shweta Gera, M Zahidunnabi Dewan, Ruliang Xu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal human cancers due to its complicated genomic instability. PDAC frequently presents at an advanced stage with extensive metastasis, which portends a poor prognosis. The known risk factors associated with PDAC include advanced age, smoking, long-standing chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and diabetes. Its association with genomic and somatic mutations is the most important factor for its aggressiveness. The most common gene mutations associated with PDAC include KRas2, p16, TP53, and Smad4...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065853/sitagliptin-inhibit-human-lymphocytes-proliferation-and-th1-th17-differentiation-in-vitro
#12
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Caroline Lais Stoppa, Claudete Justina Valduga, Cristina Eunice Okuyama, Renata Gorjão, Regina Mara Silva Pereira, Susana Nogueira Diniz
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that are widely used in clinical practice to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as lymphocyte cell surface protein, CD26, and plays an important role in T-cell immunity. Recent studies suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors improve beta-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. To investigate the direct effect of DPP4 in immune response, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were obtained by Ficoll gradient and cultivated in the absence (control) or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or stimulated with PHA and treated with sitagliptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063004/tubulin-alpha-8-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-induced-in-transformed-hepatocytes
#13
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060893/positioning-of-tacrolimus-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy-based-on-computational-network-analysis
#14
Constantin Aschauer, Paul Perco, Andreas Heinzel, Judith Sunzenauer, Rainer Oberbauer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tacrolimus as therapeutic option for diabetic nephropathy (DN) based on molecular profile and network-based molecular model comparisons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated molecular models representing pathophysiological mechanisms of DN and tacrolimus mechanism of action (MoA) based on literature derived data and transcriptomics datasets. Shared enriched molecular pathways were identified based on both model datasets. A newly generated transcriptomics dataset studying the effect of tacrolimus on mesangial cells in vitro was added to identify mechanisms in DN pathophysiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055980/immunohistochemical-profiling-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-med12-and-tgf-%C3%AE-rii-of-surgically-resected-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-the-potential-of-c-kit-as-a-prognostic-marker
#15
Hiroshi Yokouchi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Toshiyuki Harada, Takashi Ishida, Shigeo Yamazaki, Hajime Kikuchi, Satoshi Oizumi, Weidong Ma, Yajie Fan, Congxia Wang, Kenji Akie, Fumiko Sugaya, Yuka Fujita, Kei Takamura, Tetsuya Kojima, Mitsunori Higuchi, Osamu Honjo, Yoshinori Minami, Naomi Watanabe, Aya Goto, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Hiroshi Isobe, Masaharu Nishimura, Mitsuru Munakata
The limited number of available treatments for patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has prompted us to further investigate the biology of SCLC by molecular profiling. We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 127 patients with SCLC, who had undergone surgery at 16 institutions between January 2003 and January 2013, and analyzed the association between disease-specific survival and protein expression of c-kit, c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor, human EGFR-related 2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12), and transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGF-βRII) by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052022/abnormal-expression-of-tgf-beta-type-ii-receptor-isoforms-contributes-to-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Yong Wu, Min Su, ShuX Zhang, Yu Cheng, Xiao Y Liao, Bao Y Lin, Yuan Z Chen
Altered transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia. Although TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) isoforms have been isolated from human leukemia cells, their expression patterns and functions of these variants are unclear. In this study, we determined that two TβRII isoforms (TβRII and TβRII-B) are abnormally expressed in leukemic cells, as compared to normal hematopoietic cells. TβRII-B, but not TβRII, was found to promote cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation of leukemic cells...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051272/tgf-%C3%AE-1-factor-in-the-cerebrovascular-diseases-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
X Zhang, W-J Huang, W-W Chen
Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-βs) belong to three isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3) members of a large pleiotropic superfamily of around 100 distinct proteins participating in the regulation of key events of development and disease, and tissue repair. In the central nervous system (CNS), all the three isoforms are produced by both glial and neuronal cells and are involved in essential tissue functions such as cell-cycle control, regulation of early development and differentiation, neuronal survival and astrocytes differentiation...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043294/-effects-of-huanglian-ointment-on-wound-healing-of-mice-with-full-thickness-skin-defect-and-the-related-mechanism
#18
X F Zhang, G F Sun, Y F Chen, J Y Ma, C F Gao, X Sheng, D X Feng
Objective: To observe the effects of Huanglian ointment on wound healing of mice with full-thickness skin defect, and to explore the related mechanism. Methods: Thirty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into Huanglian ointment group and vehicle group according to the random number table after round wounds of full-thickness skin defect with diameter of 7.5 mm were inflicted on the back of each mouse, with 15 mice in each group. Wounds of mice in Huanglian ointment group and vehicle group were treated with Huanglian ointment and vehicle respectively from post injury day (PID) 1 on, 2 times each day...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042775/inhibition-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-response-to-treatment-with-metformin-and-y27632-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Camila Leonel, Lívia Carvalho Ferreira, Thaiz Ferraz Borin, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Gabriela Scavacini Freitas, Michel Raineri Haddad, João Antonio de Camargos Pinto Robles, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari
BACKGROUND: ROCK-1 expression is associated with the malignant character of tumors, while inhibiting this molecule results in a significant suppression of tumor metastasis. Likewise, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is associated with this malignancy by having the ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Metformin, a drug used in the treatment of diabetes, has previously been shown to inhibit EMT in breast cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the TGF-β1 action model for induction of EMT and the action of metformin and ROCK-1 inhibitor (Y27632) in EMT process in breast cancer cell lines...
January 2, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041981/maternal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-resulting-in-postnatal-pulmonary-dysfunction-mediated-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling
#20
Wenting Tang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Fang He, Jingsi Chen, Xiaomei Li, Xiuying Li, Lin Yu, Dunjin Chen
Fine particles from air pollution, also called particulate matter, less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are a threat to child health. Epidemiological investigations have related maternal exposure to PM2.5 to postnatal respiratory symptoms, such as frequent wheezing, chronic cough, and lung function decrements. However, only few experimental animal studies have been performed to study the effects of PM2.5.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 on postnatal pulmonary dysfunction in a rat model and to examine the mechanism of PM2...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
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