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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#1
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218977/evaluation-of-a-co-delivered-training-package-for-community-mental-health-professionals-on-service-user-and-carer-involved-care-planning
#2
A C Grundy, Lauren Walker, Oonagh Meade, Claire Fraser, Lindsey Cree, Penny Bee, Karina Lovell
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the acceptability of training for mental health professionals on service user and carer involved care planning. AIM: To investigate the acceptability of a co-delivered, two-day training intervention on service user and carer involved care planning. METHODS: Community mental health professionals were invited to complete the Training Acceptability Rating Scale post-training. Responses to the quantitative items were summarised using descriptive statistics (Miles 2013) and qualitative responses were coded using content analysis (Weber 1990)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217031/rationalizations-and-identity-conflict-following-smoking-relapse-a-thematic-analysis
#3
Lei Hum Wee, Azlyn Azmainie Binti Ithnin, Robert West, Nihayah Mohammad, Caryn Mei Hsien Chan, Siti Saadiah Hasan Nudin
Introduction: Little is known about how smokers respond cognitively and emotionally to the experience of "late" relapse after the acute withdrawal phase. This study assessed the kinds of thoughts and feelings that emerge in order to provide a basis for quantitative research assessing prevalence of different types of response and implications for future quit attempts. Methods: Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted among 14 people attending a quit smoking clinic in Malaysia who had relapsed after at least 6 weeks of abstinence...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Substance Use
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#4
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196041/change-in-talar-translation-in-the-coronal-plane-after-mobile-bearing-total-ankle-replacement-and-its-association-with-lower-limb-and-hindfoot-alignment
#5
Young Yi, Jae-Ho Cho, Ji-Beom Kim, Jae-Young Kim, Su-Yeon Park, Woo Chun Lee
BACKGROUND: Mobile-bearing total ankle replacement (TAR) enables motion at the tibial implant-polyethylene insert interface. This motion could lead to coronal translation of the talus relative to the tibia and may affect radiographic outcome. We aimed to assess the translation of the talus before and after mobile-bearing TAR to determine whether translation of the talus after TAR is associated with coronal plane alignment of the lower limb and hindfoot as well as to investigate the complications associated with talar translation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185702/impact-of-total-arterial-revascularization-on-long-term-survival-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-130-305-patients
#6
Bobby Yanagawa, Subodh Verma, Amine Mazine, Derrick Y Tam, Peter Jüni, John D Puskas, Shamini Murugavel, Jan O Friedrich
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis compares total arterial revascularization (TAR) versus conventional coronary artery bypass and additionally to two arterial grafts. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE Databases from 1996-to-2016 for studies comparing TAR versus non-TAR for multi-vessel surgical revascularization. Data were extracted by 2 independent investigators. Meta-analysis used random effects, which incorporates heterogeneity. RESULTS: There were 4 smaller shorter follow-up randomized controlled trials (RCTs), plus 15 matched/adjusted and 6 unmatched/unadjusted larger longer follow-up observational studies that met inclusion criteria (N=130...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181891/-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-an-old-acquaintance-in-athletes
#7
E G B Vijverberg, A C M Pijnenburg, P Scheltens, Y A L Pijnenburg
- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive head injuries like those seen in sports such as boxing, American football and soccer.- The clinical features of CTE are a range of cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms, and histopathology involves deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and the presence of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) with relatively little beta-amyloid.- CTE is difficult to differentiate clinically from Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and psychiatric disorders because of the major symptom overlap between these conditions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167698/adar1-and-pact-contribute-to-efficient-translation-of-transcripts-containing-hiv-1-trans-activating-response-tar-element
#8
Evelyn Chukwurah, Indhira Handy, Rekha C Patel
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved various measures to counter the host cell's innate antiviral response during the course of infection. Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene products are produced following HIV-1 infection to limit viral replication, but viral proteins and RNAs counteract their effect. One such mechanism is specifically directed against the IFN-induced Protein Kinase R (PKR), which is centrally important to the cellular antiviral response. In the presence of viral RNAs, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the translation initiation factor, eIF2α...
February 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167528/heat-shock-induced-phosphorylation-of-tar-dna-binding-protein-43-tdp-43-by-mapk-erk-kinase-regulates-tdp-43-function
#9
Wen Li, Ashley N Reeb, Binyan Lin, Praveen Subramanian, Erin E Fey, Catherine R Knoverek, Rachel L French, Eileen H Bigio, Yuna M Ayala
TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is a highly conserved and essential DNA- and RNA-binding protein that controls gene expression through RNA processing, in particular, regulation of splicing. Intracellular aggregation of TDP-43 is a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration. This TDP-43 pathology is also present in other types of neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease. We report here that TDP-43 is a substrate of MEK, a central kinase in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164274/case-control-study-of-cumulative-cigarette-tar-exposure-and-lung-and-upper-aerodigestive-tract-cancers
#10
Travis J Meyers, Shen-Chih Chang, Po-Yin Chang, Hal Morgenstern, Donald P Tashkin, Jian-Yu Rao, Wendy Cozen, Thomas M Mack, Zuo-Feng Zhang
The development of comprehensive measures for tobacco exposure is crucial to specify effects on disease and inform public health policy. In this population-based case-control study, we evaluated the associations between cumulative lifetime cigarette tar exposure and cancers of the lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The study included 611 incident cases of lung cancer; 601 cases of UADT cancers (oropharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal cancers); and 1,040 cancer-free controls. We estimated lifetime exposure to cigarette tar based on tar concentrations abstracted from government cigarette records and self-reported smoking histories derived from a standardized questionnaire...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157439/dermatoses-among-automobile-mechanics-in-mansoura-egypt
#11
Hala Samir Abou-ElWafa, Ahmed A Albadry, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany, Ahmed Fawzi Ismael
This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura city, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Socio-demographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45.4% and that of exclusively occupational skin diseases was 9.2%. Irritant contact dermatitis, eczema, and tar/oil acne were the commonest types (4.6%, 3.1%, 3.1%; respectively). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of occupational dermatoses increased significantly with lack of use of personal protective equipment, longer duration of work, and presence of workplace chemicals [Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) were 7...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155653/novel-group-based-qsar-and-combinatorial-design-of-ck-1%C3%AE-inhibitors-as-neuroprotective-agents
#12
Kopal Joshi, Sukriti Goyal, Sonam Grover, Salma Jamal, Aditi Singh, Pawan Dhar, Abhinav Grover
BACKGROUND: Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) hyperphosphorylation, caused by Casein kinase 1 (CK-1) protein isoforms, is associated with the onset and progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Among the reported isoforms and splice variants of CK-1 protein superfamily, CK-1δ is known to phosphorylate different serine and threonine sites on TDP-43 protein in vitro and thus qualifies as a potential target for ALS treatment. RESULTS: The developed GQSAR (group based quantitative structure activity relationship) model displayed satisfactory statistical parameters for the dataset of experimentally reported N-Benzothiazolyl-2-Phenyl Acetamide derivatives...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138057/biochemical-and-chemical-biology-study-of-rice-ostar1-revealed-that-tryptophan-aminotransferase-is-involved-in-auxin-biosynthesis-identification-of-a-potent-ostar1-inhibitor-pyruvamine2031
#13
Yusuke Kakei, Ayako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Yamamoto, Yosuke Ishida, Chiaki Yamazaki, Akiko Sato, Megumi Narukawa-Nara, Kazuo Soeno, Yukihisa Shimada
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a major form of auxin, is biosynthesized from L-tryptophan via the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway in Arabidopsis Tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TARs) catalyze the first step from L-tryptophan to IPyA. In rice, the importance of TAA/TARs or YUC homologs in auxin biosynthesis has been suggested, but the enzymatic activities and involvement of the intermediate IPyA in auxin biosynthesis remain elusive. In this study, we obtained biochemical evidence that the rice tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 converts L-tryptophan to IPyA, and has a Km of 82...
January 30, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132840/a-rapid-induction-mechanism-for-lin28a-in-trophic-responses
#14
Alexandra M Amen, Claudia R Ruiz-Garzon, Jay Shi, Megha Subramanian, Daniel L Pham, Mollie K Meffert
Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130775/delphiforce-a-tool-for-electrostatic-force-calculations-applications-to-macromolecular-binding
#15
Lin Li, Arghya Chakravorty, Emil Alexov
Long-range electrostatic forces play an important role in molecular biology, particularly in macromolecular interactions. However, calculating the electrostatic forces for irregularly shaped molecules immersed in water is a difficult task. Here, we report a new tool, DelPhiForce, which is a tool in the DelPhi package that calculates and visualizes the electrostatic forces in biomolecular systems. In parallel, the DelPhi algorithm for modeling electrostatic potential at user-defined positions has been enhanced to include triquadratic and tricubic interpolation methods...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129322/perioperative-physiotherapy-for-total-ankle-replacement-in-patients-with-inherited-bleeding-disorders-outline-of-an-algorithm
#16
Andrzej Kotela, Magdalena Wilk-Frańczuk, Joanna Jaczewska, Piotr Żbikowski, Paweł Łęgosz, Paweł Ambroziak, Ireneusz Kotela
The treatment of end-stage hemophilic arthropathy of the ankle joint remains a controversial problem, and total ankle replacement (TAR) is considered to be a valuable management option. Physiotherapy continues to be an extremely important part of TAR and has a tremendous impact on the outcomes of this procedure. Given the lack of data on the latter, this study details a protocol of perioperative physiotherapy in TAR in patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD). The protocol outlined in this paper was devised via consultations within an interdisciplinary group, the authors' own experiences with TAR in hemophilic and non-hemophilic patients, previous reports on this issue in the literature, and patient opinions...
January 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129109/motor-coordinative-and-cognitive-dysfunction-caused-by-mutant-tdp-43-could-be-reversed-by-inhibiting-its-mitochondrial-localization
#17
Wenzhang Wang, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Luwen Wang, Ogoegbunam Okolo, Sandra L Siedlak, Yinfei Jiang, Ju Gao, Fei Xie, Robert B Petersen, Xinglong Wang
Dominant missense mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 represents a pathological hallmark in ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD). Behavioral investigation of the transgenic mouse model expressing the disease-causing human TDP-43 M337V mutant (TDP-43(M337V) mice) is encumbered by premature death in homozygous transgenic mice and a reported lack of phenotype assessed by tail elevation and footprint in hemizygous transgenic mice...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118540/cloning-stability-and-modification-of-mycoplasma-hominis-genome-in-yeast
#18
Fabien Rideau, Chloé Le Roy, Elodie C T Descamps, Hélène Renaudin, Carole Lartigue, Cécile Bébéar
Mycoplasma hominis is a minimal human pathogen that is responsible for genital and neonatal infections. Despite many attempts, there is no efficient genetic tool to manipulate this bacterium, limiting most investigations of its pathogenicity and its uncommon energy metabolism that relies on arginine. The recent cloning and subsequent engineering of other mycoplasma genomes in yeast opens new possibilities for studies of the genomes of genetically intractable organisms. Here, we report the successful one-step cloning of the M...
February 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115554/tar-heel-footprints-in-health-care-tony-price
#19
Deshira Wallace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111107/crystal-structure-of-the-maturation-protein-from-bacteriophage-q%C3%AE
#20
Janis Rumnieks, Kaspars Tars
Virions of the single-stranded RNA bacteriophages contain a single copy of the maturation protein, which is bound to the phage genome and is required for the infectivity of the particles. The maturation protein mediates the adsorption of the virion to bacterial pili and the subsequent release and penetration of the genome into the host cell. Here, we report a crystal structure of the maturation protein from bacteriophage Qβ. The protein has a bent, highly asymmetric shape and spans 110Å in length. Apart from small local substructures, the overall fold of the maturation protein does not resemble that of other known proteins...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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