Read by QxMD icon Read


Phillip J Summers, Isabelle A Struve, Michael S Wilkes, Vaughan W Rees
BACKGROUND: Injection-site vein loss and skin abscesses impose significant morbidity on people who inject drugs (PWID). The two common forms of street heroin available in the USA include black tar and powder heroin. Little research has investigated these different forms of heroin and their potential implications for health outcomes. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was administered to a sample of 145 participants seeking services at reduction facilities in both Sacramento, CA and greater Boston, MA, USA...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
S L Chen, R C Liu, F M Chen, X X Zhang, J Zhao, T M Chen
Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to control AHC outbreaks in schools. A susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model was built to simulate AHC outbreaks in Chinese schools, with isolation or school closure added into the model. We used outbreak data from the period 2004-2015 in our models to estimate the effective reproduction number and assess the efficacy of interventions...
October 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Nathanael Heckmann, Alexander Bradley, Lakshmanan Sivasundaram, Ram Kiran Alluri, Eric W Tan
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the effect of insurance on the management of various orthopedic conditions. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of insurance and other demographic factors on the operative management of tibiotalar osteoarthritis. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify patients who underwent a total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) or tibiotalar arthrodesis (TTA) for tibiotalar osteoarthritis. Insurance status was identified for each patient, and the proportions of each insurance type were computed for each operative modality...
October 18, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Wenjie Huang, Mahalakshmi Rangabashyam, Ying Hao, Jiaying Liu, Song Tar Toh
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the impact of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on quality of life (QOL) and evaluate the utility of polysomnographic parameters in reflecting QOL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) between December 2010 and November 2012 consecutively were recruited and they completed the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires. Based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), patients were classified as primary snorers (AHI <5), suffering from mild (5 ≤15), moderate (15 ≤30) or severe OSA (≥30)...
September 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Pedro J Sanches Filho, Emerson M Böhm, Giani M B Böhm, Gissele O Montenegro, Lucas A Silveira, Glauco R Betemps
A high concentration of hydrocarbons in the environment is indicative of pollution. To evaluate the effect of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff, the present study analyzed total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and n-alkanes of the sediments of the canal that cross the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The carbon preference index (CPI), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and pristane/phytane ratio were determined. The TPH content ranged from 177,043...
October 11, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vijay M Vulava, D Syreeta Vaughn, Larry D McKay, Steven G Driese, Lee W Cooper, Fu-Min Menn, Norman S Levine, Gary S Sayler
We assessed whether coal tar present in contaminated streambed sediments can be mobilized by flood events and be re-deposited in an adjacent floodplain. The study was conducted within a contaminated urban stream where coal tar wastes were released into a 4-km reach from a coke plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. Sediments containing visible amounts of coal tar were dredged from the streambed in 1997-98 and 2007 as part of a cleanup effort. However, post-dredging sampling indicated that very high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remained in streambed sediments...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Akihiko Komuro, Yuya Homma, Takaharu Negoro, Glen N Barber, Curt M Horvath
LGP2 and MDA5 cooperate to detect viral RNA in the cytoplasm of Picornavirus-infected cells and activate innate immune responses. To further define regulatory components of RNA recognition by LGP2/MDA5, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify LGP2-interacting proteins. The screening has identified the TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP), which is known to be an essential factor for RNA interference (RNAi). Immuno-precipitation experiments demonstrated that TRBP interacted specifically with LGP2 but not with related RIG-I-like receptors, RIG-I or MDA5...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
R Orrego, R Abarca-Del-Río, A Ávila, L Morales
Climate change scenarios are computed on a large scale, not accounting for local variations presented in historical data and related to human scale. Based on historical records, we validate a baseline (1962-1990) and correct the bias of A2 and B2 regional projections for the end of twenty-first century (2070-2100) issued from a high resolution dynamical downscaled (using PRECIS mesoscale model, hereinafter DGF-PRECIS) of Hadley GCM from the IPCC 3rd Assessment Report (TAR). This is performed for the Araucanía Region (Chile; 37°-40°S and 71°-74°W) using two different bias correction methodologies...
2016: SpringerPlus
Ursula Schulze-Gahmen, Ignacia Echeverria, Goran Stjepanovic, Yun Bai, Huasong Lu, Dina Schneidman-Duhovny, Jennifer A Doudna, Qiang Zhou, Andrej Sali, James H Hurley
HIV-1 Tat hijacks the human superelongation complex (SEC) to promote proviral transcription. Here we report the 5.9 Å structure of HIV-1 TAR in complex with HIV-1 Tat and human AFF4, CDK9, and CycT1. The TAR central loop contacts the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM) and the second Tat Zn(2+)-binding loop. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) shows that AFF4 helix 2 is stabilized in the TAR complex despite not touching the RNA, explaining how it enhances TAR binding to the SEC 50-fold. RNA SHAPE and SAXS data were used to help model the extended (Tat Arginine-Rich Motif) ARM, which enters the TAR major groove between the bulge and the central loop...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Chido H Chihobo, Arindrajit Chowdhury, Pardon K Kuipa, David J Simbi
Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons...
October 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Tianmu Chen, Haogao Gu, Ross Ka-Kit Leung, Ruchun Liu, Qiuping Chen, Ying Wu, Yaman Li
BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings where laboratory capacity is limited and response strategy is non-specific, delayed or inappropriate intervention against outbreaks of Norovirus (NoV) are common. Here we report interventions of two norovirus outbreaks, which highlight the importance of evidence-based modeling and assessment to identify infection sources and formulate effective response strategies. METHODS: Spatiotemporal scanning, mathematical and random walk modeling predicted the modes of transmission in the two incidents, which were supported by laboratory results and intervention outcomes...
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
A Barry Kay
Paul Ehrlich's techniques, published between 1879 and 1880, for staining blood films using coal tar dyes, and his method of differential blood cell counting, ended years of speculation regarding the classification of white cells. Acidic and basic dyes had allowed him to recognize eosinophil and basophil granules, respectively, work that was a direct continuation of his discovery of the tissue mast cell described in his doctoral thesis. Ehrlich went on to develop neutral dyes that identified epsilon granules in neutrophils ("cells with polymorphous nuclei")...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Valentin Le Douce, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Sebastian Eilebrecht, Benoit Van Driessche, Amina Ait-Ammar, Roxane Verdikt, Yoshihito Kurashige, Céline Marban, Virginie Gautier, Ermanno Candolfi, Arndt G Benecke, Carine Van Lint, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
Among many cellular transcriptional regulators, Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HGMA1 have been described to control the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in microglial cells, the main viral reservoir in the brain. In this present work, we identify and characterize a transcription factor i.e. HIC1, which physically interacts with both Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HMGA1 to co-regulate specific subsets of cellular genes and the viral HIV-1 gene. Our results suggest that HIC1 represses Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Attila Gácsi, Bence Kutus, Zita Csendes, Tünde Faragó, Gábor Peintler, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos
The complex formation reaction between the l-tartrate (Tar(2-)) and calcium ions taking place in neutral and in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions has been investigated. It was demonstrated that upon NaOH addition the solubility of the CaTar(s) precipitate significantly increases. Conductometric and freezing point depression measurements further confirmed that in this process water soluble species are formed as a result of a reaction between the CaTar(s) and the hydroxide ion (or, conversely, between Ca(OH)2(s) and the Tar(2-) ion)...
October 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Man-Young Jung, Jong-Geol Kim, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, W Irene C Rijpstra, Eugene L Madsen, So-Jeong Kim, Heeji Hong, Ok-Ja Si, Melina Kerou, Christa Schleper, Sung-Keun Rhee
A wide diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota exists and plays a key role in the N cycle in a variety of habitats. In this study, we isolated and characterized an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain MY3, from a coal tar-contaminated sediment. Phylogenetically, strain MY3 falls in clade 'Nitrosocosmicus' of the thaumarchaeotal group I.1b. The cells of strain MY3 are large "walnut-like" cocci, divide by binary fission along a central cingulum, and form aggregates. Strain MY3 is mesophilic and neutrophilic...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
John Paul Balmonte, Carol Arnosti, Sarah Underwood, Brent A McKee, Andreas Teske
Riverine bacterial communities play an essential role in the biogeochemical coupling of terrestrial and marine environments, transforming elements and organic matter in their journey from land to sea. However, precisely due to the fact that rivers receive significant terrestrial input, the distinction between resident freshwater taxa vs. land-derived microbes can often become ambiguous. Furthermore, ecosystem perturbations could introduce allochthonous microbial groups and reshape riverine bacterial communities...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erika N Guerrero, Haibo Wang, Joy Mitra, Pavana M Hegde, Sara E Stowell, Nicole F Liachko, Brian C Kraemer, Ralph M Garruto, K S Rao, Muralidhar L Hegde
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a common motor neuron disease affecting two per 100,000 people worldwide, encompasses at least five distinct pathological subtypes, including, ALS-SOD1, ALS-C9orf72, ALS-TDP-43, ALS-FUS and Guam-ALS. The etiology of a major subset of ALS involves toxicity of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43). A second RNA/DNA binding protein, fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) has been subsequently associated with about 1% of ALS patients. While mutations in TDP-43 and FUS have been linked to ALS, the key contributing molecular mechanism(s) leading to cell death are still unclear...
September 28, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Yoko Hirata, Kazutoshi Kiuchi
In the present study, we applied a highly sensitive NanoLuc-based technology to understand the status of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) within mammalian cells. Two fragments of NanoLuc (NanoBit), large N-terminal and small C-terminal regions, were fused with wild-type (wt) and mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1) genes and transfected into cells. Luciferase activity through NanoBit assembly was only detected in NanoBit-tagged wtSOD1-expressing cells. Furthermore, the developed NanoLuc system was used to investigate the role of protein-protein interactions in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"