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Dysmotility gastrointestinal disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834292/mesenteric-vascular-dysregulation-and-intestinal-inflammation-accompanies-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Emily M Besecker, Gina M Deiter, Nicole Pironi, Timothy K Cooper, Gregory Michael Holmes
Cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) drastically impairs autonomic nervous system function. Individuals with SCI at thoracic spinal-level 5 (T5) or higher often present cardiovascular disorders that include resting systemic arterial hypotension. Gastrointestinal (GI) tissues are critically dependent upon adequate blood flow and even brief periods of visceral hypoxia triggers GI dysmotility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that T3-SCI induces visceral hypoperfusion, diminished postprandial vascular reflexes and concomitant visceral inflammation...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743770/mitochondrial-neurogastrointestinal-encephalomyopathy-presenting-as-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Francesco Demaria, Franco De Crescenzo, Anna Maria Caramadre, Adele D'Amico, Antonella Diamanti, Fabiana Fattori, Maria Pia Casini, Stefano Vicari
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder mainly caused by mutations in the nuclear gene TYMP, encoding thymidine phosphorylase. It generally appears in childhood and is clinically characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and diffuse leukoencephalopathy on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with the main symptoms being gastrointestinal, with an important weight loss...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709505/a-novel-thymidine-phosphorylase-mutation-in-a-chinese-mngie-patient
#3
Hui-Fang Wang, Juan Wang, Yan-Ling Wang, Jian-Jian Fan, Gui-Lin Mo, Feng-Yin Gong, Zhi-Ming Chai, Jin Zhang, Hua-Xing Meng, Chang-Xin Li, Jun-Hong Guo, Chuan-Qiang Pu
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mitochondrial alterations. MNGIE is characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, peripheral neuropathy, and leukoencephalopathy. The condition is caused by mutation of the TYMP gene. We studied the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a family with MNGIE. The proband was a 48-year-old male presenting with diarrhea and progressive weight loss. He also had ptosis and exhibited eyeball fixation...
October 5, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613260/esophageal-motor-abnormalities-in-patients-with-scleroderma-heterogeneity-risk-factors-and-effects-on-quality-of-life
#4
Michael D Crowell, Sarah B Umar, W Leroy Griffing, John K DiBaise, Brian E Lacy, Marcelo F Vela
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is associated with esophageal aperistalsis and hypotensive esophagogastric junction pressure, although there could be a gradation in esophageal motor dysfunction. We characterized esophageal motor function by high-resolution manometry (HRM), and assessed associations between SSc severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and HRM findings in patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 200 patients with SSc and 102 patients without SSc (controls) who underwent HRM at the Mayo Clinic Arizona Rheumatology Scleroderma Clinic for esophageal manometry, from May 2006 through January 2015...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552331/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-the-elderly
#5
Neelam G Gidwaney, Manisha Bajpai, Sita S Chokhavatia
The number of persons 60 years and older has increased 3-fold between 1950 and 2000. Aging alone does not greatly impact the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Digestive dysfunction, including esophageal reflux, achalasia, dysphagia, dyspepsia, delayed gastric emptying, constipation, fecal incontinence, and fecal impaction, is a result of the highly prevalent comorbid conditions and the medications with which those conditions are treated. A multidisciplinary approach with the expertise of a geriatrician, gastroenterologist, neurologist, speech pathologist, and physical therapist ensures a comprehensive functional and neurological assessment of the older patient...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446985/intestinal-dysbiosis-contributes-to-the-delayed-gastrointestinal-transit-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Mallappa Anitha, François Reichardt, Sahar Tabatabavakili, Behtash Ghazi Nezami, Benoit Chassaing, Simon Mwangi, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew Gewirtz, Shanthi Srinivasan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: High-fat diet (HFD) feeding is associated with gastrointestinal motility disorders. We recently reported delayed colonic motility in mice fed a HFD mice for 11 weeks. In this study, we investigated the contributing role of gut microbiota in HFD-induced gut dysmotility. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (60% kcal fat) or a regular/control diet (RD) (18% kcal fat) for 13 weeks. Serum and fecal endotoxin levels were measured, and relative amounts of specific gut bacteria in the feces assessed by real time PCR...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444283/radionuclide-esophageal-transit-scintigraphy-in-primary-hypothyroidism
#7
Shoukat H Khan, Tanveer A Rather, Madhu Vijay P, Bashir A Laway
Background/Aims: Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregrulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus particularly the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit time in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377071/retention-during-capsule-endoscopy-is-it-a-real-problem-in-routine-practice
#8
Asli Cifcibasi Ormeci, Filiz Akyuz, Bulent Baran, Suut Gokturk, Tugrul Ormeci, Binnur Pinarbasi, Ozlem Mutluay Soyer, Sami Evirgen, Umit Akyuz, Cetin Karaca, Kadir Demir, Sabahattin Kaymakoglu, Fatih Besisik
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risks and outcomes of capsule retention during capsule endoscopy (CE) for investigating small bowel disease. Capsule retention is the most serious complication of CE. METHODS: Before CE, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated for blockages with computerized tomography. Analysis of CE was made retrospectively. RESULTS: Capsule endoscopy was used to investigate obscure bleeding (90.2%; n = 324) or other symptoms (9...
August 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366228/understanding-the-gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-fabry-disease-promoting-prompt-diagnosis
#9
REVIEW
Claire Zar-Kessler, Amel Karaa, Katherine Bustin Sims, Virginia Clarke, Braden Kuo
Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disease characterized by the dysfunction of multiple systems, including significant gastrointestinal involvement such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, early satiety and nausea. The gastrointestinal symptoms of Fabry disease are thought to be due to neuropathic and myopathic changes leading to symptoms of dysmotility that are encountered in many other disorders. The gastrointestinal symptoms can often be one of the presenting signs of the disease in childhood, but can be misdiagnosed by gastroenterologists for many years due to their nonspecific presentation...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345626/hesperidin-alleviates-rat-postoperative-ileus-through-anti-inflammation-and-stimulation-of-ca-2-dependent-myosin-phosphorylation
#10
Yong-Jian Xiong, Hong-Wei Chu, Yuan Lin, Fang Han, Ya-Chan Li, Ai-Guo Wang, Fu-Jin Wang, Da-Peng Chen, Jing-Yu Wang
AIM: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a postoperative dysmotility disorder of gastrointestinal tract, which remains one of the most perplexing problems in medicine. In the present study we investigated the effects of hesperidin, a major flavonoid in sweet oranges and lemons, on POI in rats. METHODS: SD rats were administered hesperidin (5, 20, and 80 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) for 3 consecutive days. POI operation (gently manipulating the cecum for 1 min) was performed on d 2...
August 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313955/use-of-serotonergic-drugs-in-canada-for-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Biniam Kidane, Farouq Manji, Jennifer Lam, Brian M Taylor
Background. Surgery for GI dysmotility is limited to those with severe refractory disease. Though effective, use of serotonergic promotility drugs has been restricted in Canada due to adverse events. We aimed to investigate utilization of promotility serotonergic drugs in patients under consideration for surgical management. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data. The study population included consecutive patients referred to a motility clinic for consideration of bowel resection at a Canadian tertiary hospital (1996-2011)...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261896/upper-gastrointestinal-tract-motility-disorders-in-women-gastroparesis-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jasmine K Zia, Margaret M Heitkemper
This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions...
June 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254746/activity-and-mecp2-dependent-regulation-of-nnos-levels-in-enteric-neurons
#13
G Wahba, S C Schock, S Cudd, D Grynspan, P Humphreys, W A Staines
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment, motor dyspraxia, and seizures. Rett syndrome arises predominantly from mutations in MECP2, the gene coding for methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 is an important mediator of synaptic development and is essential in regulating homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) in the brain. In addition to demonstrating central nervous system impairment, RTT patients also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility...
June 2, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167729/spectrum-of-clinical-manifestations-in-two-young-turkish-patients-with-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy-type-4
#14
Gulcin Akinci, Haluk Topaloglu, Baris Akinci, Huseyin Onay, Cem Karadeniz, Yakup Ergul, Tevfik Demir, Emin Evren Ozcan, Canan Altay, Tahir Atik, Abhimanyu Garg
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder. We report our clinical experience on two unrelated Turkish patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4. A 13-year-old girl (patient-1) presented with generalized lipodystrophy and myopathy. Further tests revealed ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias, gastrointestinal dysmotility, atlantoaxial instability, lumbosacral scoliosis, and metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin resistance. A 16-year-old girl (patient-2) with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 was previously reported...
May 7, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112689/autoimmune-autonomic-disorders
#15
Andrew Mckeon, Eduardo E Benarroch
Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089503/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-in-relation-to-the-structure-and-function-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) are involved in the reproductive cycle and regulate the secretion of sex steroids from the gonads. In mammals, GnRH1 is secreted as a hormone from the hypothalamus, whereas both GnRH1 and GnRH2 are present as neuropeptides in a variety of tissues. This review describes the role of GnRH in the gastrointestinal tract. SUMMARY: GnRH1, GnRH2, and LH receptors in humans and rats, and GnRH receptors in rats, have been described in the gastrointestinal tract, where they affect motility, gastric and hormone secretion, and cell proliferation...
2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943905/fluorescence-visualization-of-the-enteric-nervous-network-in-a-chemically-induced-aganglionosis-model
#17
Takumi Fujimura, Shinsuke Shibata, Naoki Shimojima, Yasuhide Morikawa, Hideyuki Okano, Tatsuo Kuroda
Gastrointestinal motility disorders, severe variants in particular, remain a therapeutic challenge in pediatric surgery. Absence of enteric ganglion cells that originate from neural crest cells is a major cause of dysmotility. However, the limitations of currently available animal models of dysmotility continue to impede the development of new therapeutics. Indeed, the short lifespan and/or poor penetrance of existing genetic models of dysmotility prohibit the functional evaluation of promising approaches, such as stem cell replacement strategy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908282/the-wireless-motility-capsule-a-one-stop-shop-for-the-evaluation-of-gi-motility-disorders
#18
Richard J Saad
The wireless motility and pH capsule (WMC) provides an office-based test to simultaneously assess both regional and whole gut transit. Ingestion of this non-digestible capsule capable of measuring temperature, pH, and the pressure of its immediate surroundings allows for the measurement of gastric, small bowel, and colonic transit times in an ambulatory setting. Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of suspected conditions of delayed gastric emptying and the evaluation of colonic transit in chronic idiopathic constipation, WMC should be considered in suspected gastrointestinal motility disorders as it provides a single study capable of simultaneously assessing for regional, multiregional, or generalized motility disorders...
March 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904189/intramural-oesophageal-dissection-as-an-unusual-presentation-of-chest-pain-a-case-report
#19
Ryo Mizumoto, Henk Van Rooyen
INTRODUCTION: Intramural oesophageal dissection (IOD) is a rare clinical condition and there is a paucity of information regarding the appropriate diagnosis and management. It is described as bleeding in the submucosal plane of the oesophagus, and has various documented causes. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 73 year old female who developed IOD. She presented with severe chest pain. Subsequent imaging revealed IOD and haematoma formation. This was confirmed on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD)...
December 2015: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822390/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-disorders-in-critically-ill-dogs-and-cats
#20
KimMi Whitehead, Yonaira Cortes, Laura Eirmann
OBJECTIVE: To review the human and veterinary literature regarding gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility disorders in respect to pathogenesis, patient risk factors, and treatment options in critically ill dogs and cats. ETIOLOGY: GI dysmotility is a common sequela of critical illness in people and small animals. The most common GI motility disorders in critically ill people and small animals include esophageal dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, functional intestinal obstruction (ie, ileus), and colonic motility abnormalities...
March 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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