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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102569/human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-increases-the-tlr9-dependent-response-to-bacterial-dna
#1
Sarah L McGlasson, Fiona Semple, Heather MacPherson, Mohini Gray, Donald J Davidson, Julia R Dorin
Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with potent bactericidal activity in vitro. HBD3 is produced in response to pathogen challenge and can modulate immune responses. The amplified recognition of self-DNA by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells has been previously reported, but we show here that hBD3 preferentially enhances the response to bacterial DNA in mouse Flt-3 induced dendritic cells (FLDCs) and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show the effect is mediated through TLR9 and although hBD3 significantly increases the cellular uptake of both E...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101766/crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier-recent-advances-in-drug-delivery-to-the-brain
#2
Mayur M Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
CNS disorders are on the rise despite advancements in our understanding of their pathophysiological mechanisms. A major hurdle to the treatment of these disorders is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which serves as an arduous janitor to protect the brain. Many drugs are being discovered for CNS disorders, which, however fail to enter the market because of their inability to cross the BBB. This is a pronounced challenge for the pharmaceutical fraternity. Hence, in addition to the discovery of novel entities and drug candidates, scientists are also developing new formulations of existing drugs for brain targeting...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101458/cationic-liposomes-modified-with-polyallylamine-as-a-gene-carrier-preparation-characterization-and-transfection-efficiency-evaluation
#3
Reza Kazemi Oskuee, Asma Mahmoudi, Leila Gholami, Alireza Rahmatkhah, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
Purpose: Cationic polymers and cationic liposomes have shown to be effective non-viral gene delivery vectors. In this study, we tried to improve the transfection efficiency by employing the advantages of both. Methods: For this purpose, modified polyallylamines (PAAs) were synthesized. These modifications were done through the reaction of PAA (15 KDa) with acrylate and 6-bromoalkanoic acid derivatives. Liposomes comprising of these cationic polymers and cationic lipid were prepared and extruded through polycarbonate filters to obtain desired size...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101016/cellulitis-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-disseminated-cryptococcal-disease
#4
Marcos Davi Gomes de Sousa, Fred Bernardes Filho, Luís Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Cássia Regina Guedes Leal, Cristiane Rocha Magalhães, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da Silva, Halime Silva Barcaui
A 50-year-old male underwent liver transplantation due to cryptogenic cirrhosis and was admitted with severe pain in the left leg as well as phlogosis. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was prescribed, assuming bullous erysipelas. Among the tests performed, the latex agglutination test for the Cryptococcus sp. antigen was positive, and in both the blood culture and blister culture Cryptococcus sp. was isolated. Daily fluconazole was started. Even though liposomal amphotericin B has been started on the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient progressed to death...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100639/munc13-4-functions-as-a-ca2-sensor-for-homotypic-secretory-granule-fusion-to-generate-endosomal-exocytic-vacuoles
#5
Sang Su Woo, Declan J James, Thomas F J Martin
Munc13-4 is a Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE- and phospholipid-binding protein that localizes to and primes secretory granules (SGs) for Ca(2+)-evoked secretion in various secretory cells. Studies in mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells provides direct evidence that Munc13-4 with its two Ca(2+)-binding C2 domains functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for SG exocytosis. Unexpectedly, Ca(2+) stimulation also generated large (>2.4 μm diameter) Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+)/Rab11(+) endosomal vacuoles. Vacuole generation involved the homotypic fusion of Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+) SGs followed by a merge with Rab11(+) endosomes, and depended on Ca(2+) binding to Munc13-4...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100163/a-vector-based-short-hairpin-rna-targeting-aurora-b-suppresses-human-prostatic-carcinoma-growth
#6
Mei Cao, Panpan Qi, Chong Chen, Liju Song, Xuege Wang, Ningzhe Li, Daoyan Wu, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao
Aurora kinase B, playing a vital, important role in mitosis, is frequently detected to be overexpressed in many cancer cell lines and various tumor tissues, including prostatic carcinoma. Given the essential function of Aurora kinase B in mitosis and its association with tumorigenesis, it might be a drug target for prostatic carcinoma treatment. In our study, short hairpin RNA targeting Aurora kinase B was cloned into a pGPU6 plasmid vector and then transfected into human prostatic carcinoma cells. The expression level of Aurora kinase B was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099806/melting-behavior-of-zipper-structured-lipopeptides-in-lipid-bilayer
#7
Sijia Wang, Xia Han, Danyang Liu, Mengya Li, Shouhong Xu, Honglai Liu
A zipper-structured lipopeptide is expected to play a role of "intelligent valve" in the lipid bilayer. In this paper, a series of zipper-structured lipopeptides have been designed for preparing thermo-controllable hybrid liposomes. Their conformational transition as a function of temperature in lipid bilayer has been investigated for understanding the influences of molecular structure and bilayer property on bio-function. The melting temperatures Tm of the lipopeptides have been found to depend on their molecular structures...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099778/pseudozyma-and-other-non-candida-opportunistic-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-a-large-stem-cell-transplant-center
#8
Anupam Pande, Lemuel R Non, Rizwan Romee, Carlos A Q Santos
INTRODUCTION: Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. CASE REPORT AND REVIEW: We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097002/ambisome-induced-avascular-necrosis-of-the-alae-of-the-nose-of-a-very-young-girl-suffering-from-kala-azar-a-case-report
#9
Shomik Maruf, Proggananda Nath, Fatima Aktar, Ariful Basher
Although liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) is considered as the first-line treatment for New Kala-azar, there is not enough evidence on the dosage formulation in children and its effect on them. Being considered as the safest drug for treatment of Kala-azar, this case of AmBisome-induced avascular necrosis now gives rise to the question; whether it is actually safe enough and if a dosage modification is needed in case of children. This so far, to the best of our knowledge, is the first instance of such severe adverse event due to AmBisome administration...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096670/lung-targeting-drug-delivery-system-of-baicalin-loaded-nanoliposomes-development-biodistribution-in-rabbits-and-pharmacodynamics-in-nude-mice-bearing-orthotopic-human-lung-cancer
#10
Yumeng Wei, Jing Liang, Xiaoli Zheng, Chao Pi, Hao Liu, Hongru Yang, Yonggen Zou, Yun Ye, Ling Zhao
The present study aims to develop a kind of novel nanoliposomes for the lung-targeting delivery system of baicalin as a Chinese medicine monomer. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes were prepared by the effervescent dispersion and lyophilized techniques. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes had an average particle size of 131.7±11.7 nm with 0.19±0.02 polydispersity index, 82.8%±1.24% entrapment efficiency and 90.47%±0.93% of yield and sustaining drug release effect over 24 h and were stable for 12 months at least. In vitro no hemolytic activity was observed for the experimental drug concentration...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095796/a-severe-case-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-liposomal-amphotericin-b-treatment-failure-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure
#11
Anna Eichenberger, Annina E Buechi, Andreas Neumayr, Chistroph Hatz, Andri Rauch, Marc Huguenot, Eva Diamantis-Karamitopoulou, Cornelia Staehelin
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for 200.000-400.000 yearly infections worldwide. If left untreated, the fatality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 years. 90% of cases occur in just six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. It is thus a disease rarely seen by physicians in Europe or North America. We report on the fatal case of VL in an 80-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with a latency of over 15 years after having visited an endemic region...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095734/entrapment-efficiency-of-pyridoxine-hydrochloride-in-unilamellar-liposomes-experimental-versus-model-generated-data
#12
Heba Abd-El-Azim, Alyaa Ramadan, Noha Nafee, Nawal Khalafallah
The present study investigates the effect of the preparation method (four methods) and formulation additives (propylene glycol (PG) and cholesterol (CH)) on the entrapment efficiency (EE) of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6 (VB6)), representing hydrophilic water-soluble low permeable vitamins, in unilamellar liposomes. The main aim is to compare determined EE with predicted values generated using a web-published, computational model. Results showed that among the different preparation methods, modified film hydration showed significantly higher EE (p < 0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095317/formulation-of-liposomes-functionalized-with-lotus-lectin-and-effective-in-targeting-highly-proliferative-cells
#13
Cinzia Della Giovampaola, Antonietta Capone, Leonardo Ermini, Pietro Lupetti, Elisa Vannuccini, Federica Finetti, Sandra Donnini, Marina Ziche, Agnese Magnani, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Floriana Rosati, Claudia Bonechi
BACKGROUND: Liposomes, used to improve the therapeutic index of new and established drugs, have advanced with the insertion of active targeting. The lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus (LTL), which binds glycans containing alpha-1,2-linked fucose, reveals surface regionalized glycoepitopes in highly proliferative cells not detectable in normally growing cells. In contrast, other lectins localize the corresponding glycoepitopes all over the cell surface. LTL also proved able to penetrate the cells by an unconventional uptake mechanism...
January 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094889/selective-electrochemical-bleaching-of-the-outer-leaflet-of-fluorescently-labelled-giant-liposomes
#14
Olivier Buriez, Ana Isabel Perez Jimenez, Lylian Challier, Eric Aït-Yahiatène, Jerome Delacotte, Eric Labbe
Electrochemistry and confocal fluorescence microscopy were successfully combined to selectively bleach and monitor the fluorescence of NBD-labelled phospholipids of giant liposomes. Three types of giant unilamellar vesicles have been investigated, the fluorescent phospholipids being localized either mainly on their outer-, inner-, or both inner/outer leaflets. We established that only the fluorescent lipids incorporated in the outer leaflet of the vesicles underwent electrochemical bleaching upon reduction...
January 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094039/cisplatin-can-be-safely-administered-to-ovarian-cancer-patients-with-hypersensitivity-to-carboplatin
#15
A Bergamini, C Pisano, M Di Napoli, L Arenare, C Della Pepa, R Tambaro, G Facchini, P Gargiulo, S Rossetti, G Mangili, S Pignata, S C Cecere
OBJECTIVE: Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) are frequently reported in patients rechallenged with carboplatin for recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) and represent a critical issue, since discontinuation of the platinum-based therapy could affect prognosis. Several strategies to allow platinum rechallenge have been described, with controversial outcomes. The aim of this study is to illustrate a 10-year experience with cisplatin in patients with a previous HSR to carboplatin or at risk for allergy...
January 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093969/traumatic-brain-injury-preclinical-imaging-diagnostic-s-and-therapeutic-approaches
#16
Eric L Kaijzel, Ermond R van Beek, Marieke A Stammes, Ivo Que, Alan B Chan, Clemens W G M Löwik, Luis J Cruz
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a result of an external physical force to the head that traumatically injures the brain. It is a major public health problem worldwide and mainly results from falls, vehicle accidents and violence. Clinical problem: The management of TBI, causing a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes, has barely changed over the years as encouraging outcomes from many pre-clinical therapeutic and pharmacological studies have only rarely been translated to the clinical situation...
January 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093036/combining-nanoscale-magnetic-nimodipine-liposomes-with-magnetic-resonance-image-for-parkinson-s-disease-targeting-therapy
#17
Bingshuo Ji, Meili Wang, Dawei Gao, Shanshan Xing, Lei Li, Lanxiang Liu, Min Zhao, Ximing Qi, Kun Dai
AIM: To enhance drug targeting and blood-brain barrier penetration for Parkinson's disease (PD), a novel nanoscale magnetic nimodipine (NMD) delivery system was designed and prepared. MATERIALS & METHODS: The PD rats were established and treated with free NMD or Fe3O4-modified NMD liposomes (Fe3O4-NMD-lips). Then, factional anisotropy values were measured by MRI to evaluate therapy efficacy. RESULTS: Fe3O4-NMD-lips showed the best neuroprotective effect, and the NMD concentration of lesions was 2...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092499/nanoparticles-for-sirna-based-gene-silencing-in-tumor-therapy
#18
Anish Babu, Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Narsireddy Amreddy, Meghna Mehta, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential strategy in manipulating cancer causing genes by complementary base-pairing mechanism. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an important RNAi tool that has found significant application in cancer therapy. However due to lack of stability, poor cellular uptake and high probability of loss-of-function due to degradation, siRNA therapeutic strategies seek safe and efficient delivery vehicles for in vivo applications. The current review discusses various nanoparticle systems currently used for siRNA delivery for cancer therapy, with emphasis on liposome based gene delivery systems...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092334/is-enhanced-recovery-the-new-standard-of-care-in-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction
#19
Anoushka Afonso, Sabine Oskar, Kay See Tan, Joseph J Disa, Babak J Mehrara, Jihan Ceyhan, Joseph H Dayan
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) have been shown to aid in patient recovery and improve outcomes in many surgical settings. At present, there is limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of ERPs for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. We sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an ERP that was adopted by multiple surgeons at a single cancer center. METHODS: A multidisciplinary ERP was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction...
January 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091654/cisplatin-and-valproate-released-from-the-bifunctional-pt-iv-cl2-nh3-2-valproato-2-antitumor-prodrug-or-from-liposome-formulations-who-does-what
#20
M Ravera, E Gabano, I Zanellato, A Gallina, E Perin, A Arrais, S Cantamessa, D Osella
The cisplatin-sensitive human ovarian cancer cells A2780 have been challenged with cationic liposomes containing the single drug cisplatin or valproate or their combination with an approximate 1 : 2 molar ratio, i.e. the same ratio present in preformed (OC-6-33)-diamminedichloridobis(valproato)platinum(iv), that releases such metabolites by intracellular Pt(iv) → Pt(ii) reduction. The results of this comparison confirm that valproate barely penetrates cells unless it is transported by liposomes or it is coordinated to a lipophilic Pt(iv) assembly...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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