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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053824/chemogenetic-locus-coeruleus-activation-restores-reversal-learning-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jacki M Rorabaugh, Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Christian A Botz-Zapp, Vanessa M Fu, Natalie A Lembeck, Robert M Cohen, David Weinshenker
Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer's disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies...
September 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052839/effects-of-microrna-206-and-its-target-gene-igf-1-on-sevoflurane-induced-activation-of-hippocampal-astrocytes-in-aged-rats-through-the-pi3k-akt-creb-signaling-pathway
#2
Tie-Jun Liu, Bin Wang, Qun-Xi Li, Xiao-Liu Dong, Xiao-Liang Han, Shu-Bo Zhang
The study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-206 (miR-206) targeting IGF-1 on the activation of hippocampal astrocytes in aged rats induced by sevoflurane through the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway. Wistar rats and astrocytes were divided into the normal/blank, sham/negative control (NC), sevoflurane (sevo), miR-206 mimics + sevo, miR-206 inhibitors + sevo, miR-206 NC + sevo, IGF-1 shRNA + sevo and miR-206 inhibitors + IGF-1 shRNA + sevo groups. The Morris water maze test was exhibited to assess the cognitive functions...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043988/effects-of-estrogen-on-learning-memory-and-expression-of-calbindin-d28k-in-hippocampus-in-vascular-dementia-rats
#3
Jing Li, Lei Zhang, Jiao-Jiao Li, - Xian-Qu, Lin Chen, Dong-Ying Li, Chun-Ying Li
Vascular dementia (VD) models were made first by repeating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and followed by treating with estrogen. Learning-memory ability was measured by Morris water maze. Concentration of Ca(2+) in hippocampus was determined by Fura-2/AM fluorescence probe and the expression of Calbindin-D28K (CB) in hippocampal CA1 was tested by immunohistochemistry. Learning-memory ability was improved in E group rats; Concentration of Ca(2+) in hippocampus was decreased in E group rats. The expression of CB was less in E group rats...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039252/western-style-diet-induces-object-recognition-deficits-and-alters-complexity-of-dendritic-arborization-in-the-hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-of-male-rats
#5
Kathryn S Sarfert, Melina L Knabe, Nicole S Gunawansa, Sarah N Blythe
OBJECTIVE: Research demonstrates a link between diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairments; however, no studies have utilized the Sholl analysis to assess changes in dendritic arborization as a possible cause of obesity-induced memory deficits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Western-style diet (WSD) on memory and dendritic complexity of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were fed either a control or WSD...
October 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034441/the-oral-pretreatment-of-glycyrrhizin-prevents-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aged-mice-by-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-alzheimer-s-related-pathology-via-hmgb1-inhibition
#6
Zhong-Hong Kong, Xin Chen, Hui-Po Hua, Liang Liang, Long-Juan Liu
Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology play essential roles in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is well known as a pivotal mediator in neuroinflammation, and its associations with Alzheimer's-related pathology and POCD have been also revealed. Glycyrrhizin is a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 and is reported with neuroprotective effects through oral administration. Therefore, the present study aims to test the hypothesis that the oral pretreatment of glycyrrhizin prevents POCD by inhibiting HMGB1-induced neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology in aged mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027091/walnut-supplementation-reverses-the-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-by-restoration-of-cholinergic-function-via-mitigating-oxidative-stress-in-rats-a-potential-therapeutic-intervention-for-age-related-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Saida Haider, Zehra Batool, Saara Ahmad, Rafat Ali Siddiqui, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
The brain is highly susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative reactive species. The free radicals which are produced as a consequence of aerobic respiration can cause cumulative oxygen damage which may lead to age-related neurodegeneration. Scopolamine, the anti-muscarinic agent induces amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. Studies suggest that antioxidants derived from plant products may provide protection against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the attenuation of scopolamine-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress by walnut supplementation in rats...
October 12, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018405/chimeric-peptide-tat-ha-nr2b9c-improves-regenerative-repair-after-transient-global-ischemia
#8
Hai-Hui Zhou, Li Zhang, Hai-Xia Zhang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Wei-Hong Ge
Transient global ischemia (TGI) is a major public health problem, and it heightens the need of effective treatments. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether recombinant polypeptide Tat-HA-NR2B9c improves spatial learning and memory deficits in rats after TGI. Rats were subjected to 20-min ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method and daily injected with Tat-HA-NR2B9c (1.12 mg/kg) for 1 week. Tat-HA-NR2B9c increased CREB activity, upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression after treated for 24 h...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994710/large-scale-oral-treatment-study-with-the-four-most-promising-d3-derivatives-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Janine Kutzsche, Sarah Schemmert, Markus Tusche, Jörg Neddens, Roland Rabl, Dagmar Jürgens, Oleksandr Brener, Antje Willuweit, Birgit Hutter-Paier, Dieter Willbold
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with the aggregation of the amyloid β protein (Aβ). Aβ oligomers are currently thought to be the major neurotoxic agent responsible for disease development and progression. Thus, their elimination is highly desirable for therapy development. Our therapeutic approach aims at specific and direct elimination of toxic Aβ oligomers by stabilizing Aβ monomers in an aggregation-incompetent conformation. We have proven that our lead compound "D3", an all d-enantiomeric-peptide, specifically eliminates Aβ oligomers in vitro...
October 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993949/poly-n-methylated-a%C3%AE-peptide-c-terminal-fragments-meptides-reverse-the-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-rats
#10
Siya G Sibiya, Musa V Mbandla, Thavi Govender, Adeola Shobo, William M U Daniels
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. These protein deposits impair synaptic plasticity thereby producing a progressive decline in cognitive function. Current therapies are merely palliative and only slow cognitive decline. Poly-N-methylated Aβ-Peptide C-Terminal Fragments (MEPTIDES) were recently shown to reduce Aβ toxicity in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster, however whether these novel compounds are effective in inhibiting Aβ-induced toxicity in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993860/lanthanum-damages-learning-and-memory-and-suppresses-astrocyte-neuron-lactate-shuttle-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Cuihong Jin, Liang Gao, Yingqi Li, Shengwen Wu, Xiaobo Lu, Jinghua Yang, Yuan Cai
Rare-earth elements (REEs) are applied in various fields by virtue of their superior physical and chemical properties. Surveys have reported that REEs can impair learning and memory in children and induce neurobehavioral abnormalities in animals. However, the mechanism underlying this neurotoxicity is still unclear. Lanthanum (La) is often chosen to study the effects of REEs. Here, we investigated the role of astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) in spatial learning and memory impairment induced by LaCl3 in hippocampus, an important spatial memory-related brain region...
October 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992623/salvianolic-acid-b-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-through-igf-1-akt-pathway-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia
#12
Xiaowei Ma, Weiwei Xu, Zhongxia Zhang, Na Liu, Jie Yang, Mingwei Wang, Yanyong Wang
BackgroundAims: Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a natural polyphenolic compound enriched in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Our study was designed to explore the role of Sal B on cognitive impairment in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, as well as its possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15 for each group): Control group, Sal B group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with Sal B), VD group and VD + Sal B group. The VD group rats were established by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990533/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-leads-to-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#13
Bin Wang, Siyuan Li, Xipeng Cao, Xinghui Dou, Jingzhu Li, Ling Wang, Mingshan Wang, Yanlin Bi
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has received considerable attention as one of the main postoperative complications. The underlying mechanism of POCD in elderly subjects has not been fully elucidated to date. The central nervous system (CNS) is isolated from the bloodstream by the blood brain barrier (BBB) that consists of endothelial cells, capillary blood vessels and the tight junctions. The tight junctions carry out significant biological functions that are associated with the CNS and the blood circulation...
October 9, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990110/effects-of-butylphthalide-on-cognitive-decline-in-diabetic-rats
#14
Zhiyan Tian, Jinhua Wang, Yan Wang, Miao Zhang, Yuying Zhou
Butylphthalide, a component extracted from seeds of Chinese celery, is an effective neuroprotective agent used for the treatment of ischemic stroke and dementia. Diabetes may cause central nervous system damage, and diabetes is closely associated with dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of butylphthalide on cognitive impairment in a streptozotocin‑induced diabetic rat model, and the underlying mechanisms of action. A total of 30 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 2 groups: Normal control (NC; n=10) and diabetes model (DM) groups (n=20)...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988132/ferulic-acid-attenuates-diabetes-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-via-regulation-of-ptp1b-and-insulin-signaling-pathway
#15
Hao Wang, Xiaoxu Sun, Ning Zhang, Zhouye Ji, Zhanqiang Ma, Qiang Fu, Rong Qu, Shiping Ma
Cognitive impairment has been recognized as a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes mellitus (DM) and this cognitive dysfunction may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound commonly found in a range of plants, has emerged various properties including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, the protective activities and relevant mechanisms of ferulic acid were evaluated in diabetic rats with cognitive deficits, which were induced by a high-glucose-fat (HGF) diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982596/subsequent-maternal-separation-exacerbates-neurobehavioral-abnormalities-in-rats-neonatally-exposed-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#16
Jiaojiao Yang, Lingsha Ju, Min Jia, Hui Zhang, Xiaoru Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
Several recent studies suggest that in the human population, a routine, short anesthetic in otherwise healthy infants is void of neurodevelopmental insult. On the other hand, many human retrospective epidemiological studies report evidence of cognitive abnormalities in children after testing those who had different anesthesia-requiring procedures in early childhood. We tested in a rat model whether post-anesthesia stressful environmental factors can contribute to developmental abnormalities that were initiated by a relatively short exposure to sevoflurane, the most widely used anesthetic in pediatric anesthesia, whose polyvalent actions include enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) activity...
October 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981195/nhe5-deficiency-enhances-learning-and-memory-via-upregulating-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-mice
#17
Xuejiao Chen, Xiyi Wang, Lingyun Tang, Jinjin Wang, Chunling Shen, Jianbing Liu, Shunyuan Lu, Hongxin Zhang, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang
Nhe5, a Na(+) /H(+) exchanger, is predominantly expressed in brain tissue and is proposed to act as a negative regulator of dendritic spine growth. Up to now, its physiological function in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Nhe5-deficient mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and memory in Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and passive avoidance task. Meanwhile, the pre- and post-synaptic components, synaptophysin (Syn) and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) expression levels were found increased in hippocampal regions lacking of Nhe5, suggesting a possible alterations in neuronal synaptic structure and function in Nhe5(-/-) mice...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979702/chikusetsu-saponin-iva-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-and-cognitive-deficits-via-sirt1-erk1-2-in-developmental-rats
#18
Xi Fang, Qiang Han, Shiyong Li, Yilin Zhao, Ailin Luo
Inhalation anesthetics isoflurane may increase the risk of neurotoxicity and cognitive deficiency at postnatal and childhood. Chikusetsu saponin IVa (chIV) is a plant extract compound, which could possessed extensive pharmacological actions of central nervous system, cardia-cerebrovascular system, immunologic system and treatment and prevention of tumor. In our study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of chIV on isoflurane-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity and cognitive function impairment in neonatal rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979677/astrocytes-mediated-the-nootropic-and-neurotrophic-effects-of-sarsasapogenin-aa13-via-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#19
Dong Dong, Yu Mao, Cui Huang, Qian Jiao, Hui Pan, Lei Ma, Rui Wang
Rhizoma Anemarrhena, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena. The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro, cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974442/supplementation-of-lycopene-attenuates-oxidative-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-via-nrf2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcriptional-pathway
#20
Beita Zhao, Bo Ren, Rui Guo, Wentong Zhang, Shaobo Ma, Yuchen Yao, Tian Yuan, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
Oxidative stress, considered as a major culprit in brain aging, triggers cognitive and memory impairment. Lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid pigment, possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. In the present study, the effects of LYC on oxidative stress-induced cognitive defects and the underlying mechanisms were determined. The behavioral tests, including Y-maze test, locomotor activity and Morris water maze test, revealed that chronic LYC supplementation (50 mg/kg bodyweight per day) alleviated d-galactose induced CD-1 male mice cognitive impairments...
September 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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