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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926637/pigmentation-and-pregnancy-knowing-what-is-normal
#1
Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Kathryn J Martires, Jennifer A Stein, Jane M Grant-Kels, Marcia S Driscoll, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz
Changes in melanocytic nevi during pregnancy are frequently attributed to the new hormonal milieu and are dismissed without concern for malignancy. Recent studies suggest that pregnancy itself does not induce significant change in nevi, and delays in the assessment of changing moles may contribute to the often more advanced nature of melanomas diagnosed during or soon after pregnancy. Nevi on the breasts and abdomen can grow as a result of skin expansion, but studies have found no significant changes in nevi located in more stable areas such as the back or lower extremities...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925662/clinical-and-pathological-features-of-hair-coat-abnormalities-in-curly-coated-retrievers-from-uk-and-sweden
#2
R Bond, K Varjonen, A Hendricks, Y M Chang, H Brooks Brownlie
OBJECTIVES: To gain information on hair loss amongst curly coated retrievers by questionnaire and to define the clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in affected dogs in the United Kingdom and Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were completed by members of the Curly Coated Retriever Clubs. Fourteen dogs (six in the United Kingdom, eight in Sweden) were clinically examined and skin/hair samples collected for microscopy and histopathology...
December 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925261/photochromic-properties-of-3-deoxyanthocyanidin-pigments-in-nontoxic-solvents
#3
Yuki Yagishita, Mai Mihara, Yoshiumi Kohno, Masashi Shibata
The photochromic properties of some naturally occurring 3-deoxyanthocyanidin pigments were investigated in various nontoxic solvents. When luteolinidin, a representative 3-deoxyanthocyanidin, was dissolved in a mixture of weakly acidic water and an organic solvent with a relative permittivity between 20 and 34, it was possible to repeatedly induce coloration via ultraviolet irradiation and decoloration under light-shielded conditions. 1,3-Butanediol and ethanol, which are approved for use in foods, cosmetics, and household goods, were found to be appropriate organic solvents for this process...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924127/ssr-based-genetic-diversity-of-pigmented-and-aromatic-rice-oryza-sativa-l-genotypes-of-the-western-himalayan-region-of-india
#4
Humaira Ashraf, Amjad M Husaini, M Ashraf Bhat, G A Parray, Salim Khan, Nazir A Ganai
A set of 24 of SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity in 16 rice genotypes found in Western Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, India. The level of polymorphism among the genotypes of rice was evaluated from the number of alleles and PIC value for each of the 24 SSR loci. A total of 68 alleles were detected across the 16 genotypes through the use of these 24 SSR markers The number of alleles per locus generated varied from 2 (RM 338, RM 452, RM 171) to 6 (RM 585, RM 249, RM 481, RM 162)...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923599/the-role-of-the-atm-chk-p53-pathway-in-mediating-dna-damage-in-hand-foot-syndrome-induced-by-pld
#5
Jie Yang, Long Qiao, Zhen Zeng, Junnai Wang, Tao Zhu, Juncheng Wei, Mingfu Wu, Shuangmei Ye, Xiaoyuan Huang, Ding Ma, Ronghua Liu, Qinglei Gao
Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has been approved to treat patients with various types of cancers because it rarely caused side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, in comparison to doxorubicin, but it frequently results in hand-foot syndrome (HFS). This may affect the quality of life and require a reduction in the PLD dose. The pathophysiology of HFS was not well understood. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanism of HFS induced by PLD. We compared the effects of different doses of PLD on the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in vitro in HaCaT cells and analyzed the skin changes and skin cell DNA damage in vivo using a zebrafish model...
December 3, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920496/fabrication-of-anti-vitiligo-ointment-containing-psoralea-corylifolia-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization
#6
Irshad Hussain, Nisar Hussain, Abdul Manan, Abdur Rashid, Barkat Khan, Sattar Bakhsh
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a repugnant and odious dermatological malady of the time. It has an detrimental impact on the pigmentation of the human skin as a result of the destruction of cutaneous melanocytes. It affects 1%-2% of the population worldwide. Different therapeutic regimens have been deployed to treat vitiligo, but none of them could stand alone to be stated as a perfect cure. Recently, a change has been observed through novel experimental-designed optimization leading to the development of an anti-vitiligo ointment containing Psoralea corylifolia (PC) seed powder...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919568/all-trans-retinoic-acid-suppresses-the-adhering-ability-of-arpe-19-cells-via-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-focal-adhesion-kinase
#7
Yo-Chen Chang, Yuh-Shin Chang, Ming-Chu Hsieh, Horng-Jiun Wu, Meng-Hsien Wu, Chia-Wei Lin, Wen-Chuan Wu, Ying-Hsien Kao
This study investigated the signaling mechanism underlying the anti-adhesive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Adhesion kinetics with or without ATRA treatment were profiled by adhesion assay. Surface coating with type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, but not type I collagen, significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of ARPE-19 cells, while ATRA at subtoxic doses (ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-6) M) profoundly suppressed the extracellular matrix-enhanced adhesion ability...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919537/acute-toxicity-reduction-and-toxicity-identification-in-pigment-contaminated-wastewater-during-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-a-a-o-treatment-process
#8
Minjie Deng, Ying Zhang, Xie Quan, Chunhong Na, Shuo Chen, Wei Liu, Shuping Han, Shigeki Masunaga
In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919517/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-a-preparative-tool-for-isolation-and-purification-of-xylindein-from-chlorociboria-aeruginosa
#9
Anukul Boonloed, Genevieve L Weber, Kelly M Ramzy, Veronica R Dias, Vincent T Remcho
A centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) method was developed for the preparative-scale isolation and purification of xylindein from the wood-staining fungi, Chlorociboria aeruginosa. Xylindein, a blue-green pigment naturally secreted from the hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus, has great value in the decorative wood industry and textile coloration. Xylindein has great potential for use as a fluorescent labeling agent as well as in organic semiconductor applications. However, a primary limitation of xylindein is its poor solubility in most common HPLC solvents...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918537/the-genome-and-transcriptome-of-japanese-flounder-provide-insights-into-flatfish-asymmetry
#10
Changwei Shao, Baolong Bao, Zhiyuan Xie, Xinye Chen, Bo Li, Xiaodong Jia, Qiulin Yao, Guillermo Ortí, Wenhui Li, Xihong Li, Kristin Hamre, Juan Xu, Lei Wang, Fangyuan Chen, Yongsheng Tian, Alex M Schreiber, Na Wang, Fen Wei, Jilin Zhang, Zhongdian Dong, Lei Gao, Junwei Gai, Takashi Sakamoto, Sudong Mo, Wenjun Chen, Qiong Shi, Hui Li, Yunji Xiu, Yangzhen Li, Wenteng Xu, Zhiyi Shi, Guojie Zhang, Deborah M Power, Qingyin Wang, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Flatfish have the most extreme asymmetric body morphology of vertebrates. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the contralateral side of the skull, and this migration is accompanied by extensive craniofacial transformations and simultaneous development of lopsided body pigmentation. The evolution of this developmental and physiological innovation remains enigmatic. Comparative genomics of two flatfish and transcriptomic analyses during metamorphosis point to a role for thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling, as well as phototransduction pathways...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918307/vegf-regulates-local-inhibitory-complement-proteins-in-the-eye-and-kidney
#11
Lindsay S Keir, Rachel Firth, Lyndsey Aponik, Daniel Feitelberg, Susumu Sakimoto, Edith Aguilar, Gavin I Welsh, Anna Richards, Yoshihiko Usui, Simon C Satchell, Valeryia Kuzmuk, Richard J Coward, Jonathan Goult, Katherine R Bull, Ruchi Sharma, Kapil Bharti, Peter D Westenskow, Iacovos P Michael, Moin A Saleem, Martin Friedlander
Outer retinal and renal glomerular functions rely on specialized vasculature maintained by VEGF that is produced by neighboring epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and podocytes, respectively. Dysregulation of RPE- and podocyte-derived VEGF is associated with neovascularization in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), choriocapillaris degeneration, and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Since complement activation and genetic variants in inhibitory complement factor H (CFH) are also features of both ARMD and TMA, we hypothesized that VEGF and CFH interact...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918305/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-inactivation-disrupts-melanogenesis-via-mtorc1-activation
#12
Juxiang Cao, Magdalena E Tyburczy, Joel Moss, Thomas N Darling, Hans R Widlund, David J Kwiatkowski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor-suppressor gene syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, and the TSC protein complex is an essential regulator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Patients with TSC develop hypomelanotic macules (white spots), but the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation are not fully characterized. Using human primary melanocytes and a highly pigmented melanoma cell line, we demonstrate that reduced expression of either TSC1 or TSC2 causes reduced pigmentation through mTORC1 activation, which results in hyperactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), followed by phosphorylation of and loss of β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby reducing expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and subsequent reductions in tyrosinase and other genes required for melanogenesis...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918003/combination-therapy-in-skin-of-color-including-injectables-laser-and-light-devices
#13
Lark Guss, Joanna G Bolton, Sabrina Guillen Fabi
With the rapid increase in patients seeking cosmetic treatments, the variation in responses of lightly pigmented skin versus darkly pigmented skin has become increasingly apparent. Despite extensive treatment options in patients with skin of color, there is a paucity of well-designed studies performed on this patient population. The lack of research is concerning, as it is well documented that patients with darker skin types are at an increased risk of adverse events when treated with many of the available modalities used in cosmetic procedures...
December 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918000/pediatric-disorders-of-pigmentation-commonly-seen-in-skin-of-color
#14
Mona Ascha, Mahwish Irfan
There are certain disorders of hyper- and hypopigmentation that are more common in children with skin of color. It is imperative that practitioners can swiftly and accurately diagnose these pigmentary disorders to prevent delay in treatment and enhance quality of life. Pigmentary disorders have many etiologies and may present similarly in the clinical setting; however treatment varies widely and is dependent on accurate diagnosis. Herein, we present a review of common disorders of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in children with skin of color...
December 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917611/high-mass-and-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-nicolas-poussin-painting-cross-section-by-cluster-tof-sims
#15
M Noun, E Van Elslande, D Touboul, H Glanville, S Bucklow, P Walter, A Brunelle
The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue...
December 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917454/comparative-study-of-betacyanin-profile-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-red-pitahaya-hylocereus-polyrhizus-and-red-spinach-amaranthus-dubius
#16
Yi Yi Yong, Gary Dykes, Sui Mae Lee, Wee Sim Choo
Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach...
December 5, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917311/rock-inhibition-promotes-attachment-proliferation-and-wound-closure-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigmented-epithelium
#17
Roxanne H Croze, William J Thi, Dennis O Clegg
PURPOSE: Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD...
November 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917303/mir-146a-is-upregulated-during-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-choroid-aging-in-mice-and-represses-il-6-and-vegf-a-expression-in-rpe-cells
#18
Yi Hao, Qinbo Zhou, Jing Ma, Yun Zhao, Shusheng Wang
PURPOSE: MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been proposed as a marker for age-associated inflammation, or "inflammaging", acting as a negative regulator of cellular senescence and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. However, the regulation and function of miR-146 during ocular aging remains unclear. Here we propose that miR-146 is regulated during aging of the retina and choroid, and functions in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to regulate key genes involved in inflammation and angiogenesis...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917182/expression-of-flavone-synthase-ii-and-flavonoid-3-hydroxylase-is-associated-with-color-variation-in-tan-colored-injured-leaves-of-sorghum
#19
Hiroshi Mizuno, Takayuki Yazawa, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Yuji Sawada, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Yuko Ogo, Masami Yokota Hirai, Takashi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) exhibits various color changes in injured leaves in response to cutting stress. Here, we aimed to identify key genes for the light brown and dark brown color variations in tan-colored injured leaves of sorghum. For this purpose, sorghum M36001 (light brown injured leaves), Nakei-MS3B (purple), and a progeny, #7 (dark brown), from Nakei-MS3B × M36001, were used. Accumulated pigments were detected by using high-performance liquid chromatography: M36001 accumulated only apigenin in its light brown leaves; #7 accumulated both luteolin and a small amount of apigenin in its dark brown leaves, and Nakei-MS3B accumulated 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (apigeninidin and luteolinidin) in its purple leaves...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916854/fast-screening-of-antibacterial-compounds-from-fusaria
#20
Teis Esben Sondergaard, Marlene Fredborg, Ann-Maria Oppenhagen Christensen, Sofie K Damsgaard, Nikoline F Kramer, Henriette Giese, Jens Laurids Sørensen
Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
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