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Takeshi Urade, Hidehiro Sawa, Koichi Murata, Yasuhiko Mii, Yoshiteru Iwatani, Ryoko Futai, Shohei Abe, Tsuyoshi Sanuki, Yukiko Morinaga, Daisuke Kuroda
Omental abscess due to a spilled gallstone is extremely rare after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man who presented with left upper abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gangrenous cholecystitis. Seven months prior to admission, gallbladder perforation with spillage of pigment gallstones and bile occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The spilled gallstones were retrieved through vigorous peritoneal lavage. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3 × 2...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Minzhong Yu, Neal S Peachey
A monolayer of pigmented epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), supports photoreceptor function in many ways. Consistent with these roles, RPE dysfunction underlies a number of hereditary retinal disorders. To monitor RPE function in vivo models for these conditions, we adapted an electroretinographic (ERG) technique based on direct current amplification (DC-ERG). This chapter describes the main features of this approach and its application to mouse models involving the RPE.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bhubanananda Sahu, Akiko Maeda
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of polarized epithelial cells which plays many important roles for visual function. One of such roles is production of visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle. The visual cycle consists of biochemical processes for regenerating chromophore by a collective action of the RPE and photoreceptor. Photoreceptors harbor the G protein-coupled receptors, opsin which enables to receive light when it bounds to 11-cis-retinal. With absorption of a photon of light, 11-cis-retinal photoisomerizes to all-trans-retinal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoko Miura
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of epithelial cells located between the neural retina and the choroid, plays a significant role in the maintenance of retinal function. Its in vivo imaging is still technically challenging in human eye. With the mouse eye, there is a possibility to look into the RPE through the sclera using two-photon microscopy (TPM). TPM is a two photon-excited nonlinear fluorescence microscopy that enables the observation of deep tissues up to several hundred micrometers. Since the simultaneous absorption of two photons occurs only at the focal plane, spatial resolution of the TPM is quite high, such that pinhole as used in a confocal microscope is not necessary...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roni A Hazim, David S Williams
The phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for retinal homeostasis. Defects in this process can be caused by mutations in the photoreceptor cells, the RPE cells, or both cell types. This function can be experimentally investigated by performing an in vitro phagocytosis assay, in which cultured RPE cells are challenged with isolated POSs, and subsequently tested for their ability to degrade the POSs. A significant advantage of this approach is that mutant phenotypes can be attributed either to the photoreceptor or the RPE cells, by experimenting with different permutations of mutant and control photoreceptor and RPE cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoshihiko Tsukamoto
The mouse retina has a layered structure that is composed of five classes of neurons supported by Müller glial and pigment epithelial cells. Recent studies have made progress in the classification of bipolar and ganglion cells, and also in the wiring of rod-driven signaling, color coding, and directional selectivity. Molecular biological techniques, such as genetic manipulation, transcriptomics, and fluorescence imaging, have contributed a lot to these advancements. The mouse retina has consistently been an important experimental system for both basic and clinical neurosciences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ashish Agnihotri, Praveen Gupta, Anuj Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Seth
Salicylic acid alleviates lead toxicity in Brassica juncea (L.) by promoting growth under non-stress and activating stress-defense mechanism (s) under lead stress conditions. It also boosts the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and thus helps in minimizing oxidative and DNA damage. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to different concentrations (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 ) of lead (Pb) and subsequently sprayed with 0.5 mM of salicylic acid (SA) to check for morphological and leaf gas exchange parameters like transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (GH2 O), net photosynthetic rate (A) and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv /Fm )...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Wen Lin, Guoxing Xu
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that excessive blue-light (BL) with high photochemical energy and phototoxicity could induce apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. RPE apoptosis leads to retina damage and further aggravate age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Because of their neuroprotective, plasticity, and immunomodulatory ability, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are recognized for retinal neuroprotection. RPE cells possess ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor complexes and can respond to CNTF; hence, we investigated the effects of BMSCs over-expressing CNTF on BL-injured RPE cells...
March 21, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Yinjuan Wang, Marion Tissot, Gwenaël Rolin, Patrice Muret, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert, Céline Viennet
Primary melanocytes in culture are useful models for studying epidermal pigmentation and efficacy of melanogenic compounds, or developing advanced therapy medicinal products. Cell extraction is an inevitable and critical step in the establishment of cell cultures. Many enzymatic methods for extracting and growing cells derived from human skin, such as melanocytes, are described in literature. They are usually based on two enzymatic steps, Trypsin in combination with Dispase, in order to separate dermis from epidermis and subsequently to provide a suspension of epidermal cells...
March 21, 2018: Cytotechnology
Francesca Pedonese, Filippo Fratini, Luisa Pistelli, Federica Maria Porta, Pierluigi Di Ciccio, Roberto Fischetti, Barbara Turchi, Roberta Nuvoloni
Essential oils (EOs) are mixtures of secondary metabolites of plant origin with many useful properties, among which the antimicrobial activity is also of interest for the food industry. EOs can exert their antimicrobial potential both directly, in food products and active packaging, and indirectly, as sanitizing and anti-biofilm agents of food facility surfaces. Aim of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four EOs (bergamot, cinnamon, manuka and thyme) against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Ryan A Kelley, Shannon M Conley, Rasha Makkia, Jamie N Watson, Zongchao Han, Mark J Cooper, Muna I Naash
Introduction: DNA nanoparticles (NPs) comprising polylysine conjugated to polyethylene glycol efficiently target murine photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and lead to long-term phenotypic improvement in models of retinal degeneration. Advancing this technology requires testing in a large animal model, particularly with regard to safety. So, herein we evaluate NPs in non-human primates (baboon). Methods and results: NPs with plasmids carrying GFP and a ubiquitous, RPE-specific, or photoreceptor-specific promoter were delivered by either subretinal or intravitreal injection...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Amit Paryag, Jenai Lowe, Reisha Rafeek
In this case of extensive gingival recession (Miller's Class II) and mild physiologic pigmentation, an alternative method for the placement of Amaris Gingiva-Colored Composite was used to produce a non-invasive, aesthetic result acceptable to the patient. In restoring the defects in the entire maxilla of this patient, the opaquers were not mixed, but applied individually, directly to various areas of the teeth. Multiple opaquers were placed in a pattern mimicking the coloring of the patient's gingiva. These were then covered with the base shade for a more aesthetic result to the patient's satisfaction...
November 20, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Fei Xie, Jia-Lan Yuan, Yi-Xiao Li, Can-Jie Wang, Hong-Yu Tang, Jun-Hui Xia, Qing-Yong Yang, Zheng-Jie Wan
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is universally utilized in cruciferous vegetables. However, the Chinese cabbage hau CMS lines, obtained by interspecific hybridization and multiple backcrosses of the Brassica juncea ( B. juncea ) CMS line and Chinese cabbage, show obvious leaf etiolation, and the molecular mechanism of etiolation remains elusive. Here, the ultrastructural and phenotypic features of leaves from the Chinese cabbage CMS line 1409A and maintainer line 1409B are analyzed. The results show that chloroplasts of 1409A exhibit abnormal morphology and distribution...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matilda Karlsson, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Folke Sjöberg, Pia Olofsson, Johan Thorfinn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate scarring at split-thickness skin graft donor sites 8 years after surgery. METHODS: At surgery, 67 patients were randomized to hydrofiber, polyurethane foam, or porcine xenograft treatment. Scars were evaluated with the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. RESULTS: Results showed significant differences in observed scar outcomes at donor sites, leaving the polyurethane foam-treated and the porcine xenograft-treated patients with the least satisfying scars...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Avinash Sharma, Kunal Jani, Guang-Da Feng, Prachi Karodi, Venkata Ramana Vemuluri, Hong-Hui Zhu, Sisinthy Shivaji, Vishal Thite, Swapnil Kajale, Praveen Rahi, Yogesh Shouche
A Gram-stain-negative, yellowish-orange pigmented, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, designated strain ARC111T , was isolated from sediment of Arctic permafrost at Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard. 16S rRNA gene based identification of strain ARC111T demonstrated highest sequence similarities to Subsaxibacter broadyi P7T (97.8 %) and Subsaxibacter arcticus JCM30334T (97.5 %) and ≤95.2 % with all other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the distinct positioning of strain ARC111T within the genus Subsaxibacter...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Qian Wang, Yali Song, Lina Choi, Hongyu Liu, Gejiao Wang, Mingshun Li
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, red-pigmented strain, designated W37T , was isolated from soil near an iron factory in Busan (Republic of Korea). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain W37T was most closely related to Deinococcus yunweiensis YIM 007T (98.3 %) and Deinococcus radioresistens 8AT (96.3 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain W37T and D. yunweiensis YIM 007T was 50.5 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major polar lipids were an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Stefanie P Glaeser
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain KSS165-70T ) was isolated from a coolant lubricant emulsion. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain KSS165-70T showed high sequence similarity to the type strains of Novosphingobium subterraneum (98.1 %), Novosphingobium lentum (97.9 %) and Novosphingobium taihuense (97.8 %). Sequence similarities to type strains of all other Novosphingobium species were below 97.5 %. Ubiquinone Q-10 was detected as the major respiratory quinone...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Larissa Bueno Tofani, Lívia Vieira Depieri, Patrícia Mazureki Campos, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Kamilla Swiech Antonietto, Márcia Carvalho de Abreu Fantini, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley
PURPOSE: Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by depigmentation and the presence of white patches that are associated with the loss of melanocytes. The most common explanation for the cause of this condition is that it is an autoimmune condition. TyRP-1 is involved in melanin pigment synthesis but can also function as a melanocyte differentiation antigen. This protein plays a role in the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, which results in the depigmentation, characteristic of this disease...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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