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Pigmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351407/pedf-expression-affects-the-oxidative-and-inflammatory-state-of-choroidal-endothelial-cells
#1
Mitra Farnoodian, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly population, and is associated with severe macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Although the pathogenesis of AMD is associated with choroidal dysfunction and CNV, the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Altered production of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), a neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic factor, contributes to CNV. Furthermore, exogenous PEDF mitigates angiogenesis in preclinical CNV models...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350444/four-cases-of-iridociliary-tumors-in-domestic-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#2
Samantha D Swisher, Heidi Klein, Angela M Lennox, Drury R Reavill, Leandro B C Teixeira, Gillian C Shaw
Spontaneously occurring ocular neoplasia is rarely reported in rabbits. This case series presents four cases of rabbits diagnosed with iridociliary tumors, which have not been previously reported in this species. Major pathological findings include epithelial tumors affecting the anterior uvea with variable pigmentation and basement membrane formation. Follow-up information was only available for two cases, but neither showed evidence of metastasis, suggesting that the prognosis for these tumors in rabbits, as in other species, may be very good...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350323/william-e-vidaver-1921-2017-an-innovator-enthusiastic-scientist-inspiring-teacher-and-a-wonderful-friend
#3
A H Jay Burr, Aaron Vidaver, Ulrich Schreiber, Doug Bruce, Danielle J Donnelly
William (Bill) E. Vidaver (February 2, 1921-August 31, 2017), who did his Ph.D. with Laurence (Larry) R. Blinks at Stanford (1964) and a postdoc with C. Stacy French (1965), taught and did research at Simon Fraser University (SFU) for almost 30 years. Here he published over 80 papers in photosynthesis-related areas co-authored by his graduate students, postdocs, visiting professors and SFU colleagues. He developed a unique high-pressure cuvette for the study of oxygen exchange and studied high-pressure effects in photosynthesis...
January 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350245/chitinophaga-caseinilytica-sp-nov-a-casein-hydrolysing-bacterium-isolated-from-forest-soil
#4
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel casein hydrolysing bacterium designated strain S-52T was isolated from Kyonggi University forest soil. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and golden-yellow-pigmented. Strain S-52T hydrolysed casein. It was able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25-32 °C), pH 6.5-11.0 (optimum 7-9.5), and at 3% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Strain exhibits flexirubin-type pigments. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain S-52T formed a lineage within the genus Chitinophaga that was distinct from other species of the genus...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349977/-therapeutic-effects-of-internal-drainage-by-expanding-arthroscopic-gastrocnemius-semimembranosus-bursa-and-cyst-wall-resection-for-the-treatment-of-41-patients-with-popliteal-cysts
#5
Li-Chuang Wu, Hai-Bo Zhou, Chao Zhang, Lei Chen, Cai-Long Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical curative effects of internal drainage by expanding arthroscopic gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa(GSB) and cyst wall resection for the treatment of popliteal cysts. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients from May 2011 to December 2015. Arthroscopic treatment for 41 patients with popliteal fossa cysts, 18 males and 23 females, aged from 34 to 67 years old, averaged 42.6 years old. All the patients had preoperative magnetic resonance imagings to confirm the diagnosis and identify the valvular opening(Gastrocnemius-Semimembranosus bursa, GSB), as well as the associated intra-articular pathology...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349662/roles-and-maturation-of-iron-sulfur-proteins-in-plastids
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Mélanie Roland, Frédéric Gaymard, Jérémy Couturier, Nicolas Rouhier
One reason why iron is an essential element for most organisms is its presence in prosthetic groups such as hemes or iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are notably required for electron transfer reactions. As an organelle with an intense metabolism in plants, chloroplast relies on many Fe-S proteins. This includes those present in the electron transfer chain which will be, in fact, essential for most other metabolic processes occurring in chloroplasts, e.g., carbon fixation, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, pigment, amino acid, and vitamin biosynthetic pathways to cite only a few examples...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349656/correlations-among-multifocal-electroretinography-and-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Metin Unlu, Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Murat Gultekin, Cagatay Karaca
To assess the correlation between functional and anatomical evaluations with multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This cross-sectional study involved 116 eyes of 58 patients with PD and 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. All study participants underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmic examination, retinal single-layer thicknesses and volumes, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) measurements with SD-OCT, and the patients' mfERG recordings were evaluated...
January 18, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347911/micrornas-associated-with-early-neural-crest-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#8
Nicole J Ward, Darrell Green, Janet Higgins, Tamas Dalmay, Andrea Münsterberg, Simon Moxon, Grant N Wheeler
BACKGROUND: The neural crest (NC) is a class of transitory stem cell-like cells unique to vertebrate embryos. NC cells arise within the dorsal neural tube where they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in order to migrate and differentiate throughout the developing embryo. The derivative cell types give rise to multiple tissues, including the craniofacial skeleton, peripheral nervous system and skin pigment cells. Several well-studied gene regulatory networks underpin NC development, which when disrupted can lead to various neurocristopathies such as craniofrontonasal dysplasia, DiGeorge syndrome and some forms of cancer...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347000/pattern-production-through-a-chiral-chasing-mechanism
#9
Thomas E Woolley
Recent experiments on zebrafish pigmentation suggests that their typical black and white striped skin pattern is made up of a number of interacting chromatophore families. Specifically, two of these cell families have been shown to interact through a nonlocal chasing mechanism, which has previously been modeled using integro-differential equations. We extend this framework to include the experimentally observed fact that the cells often exhibit chiral movement, in that the cells chase, and run away, at angles different to the line connecting their centers...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346646/the-evolutionary-history-of-nebraska-deer-mice-local-adaptation-in-the-face-of-strong-gene-flow
#10
Susanne P Pfeifer, Stefan Laurent, Vitor C Sousa, Catherine R Linnen, Matthieu Foll, Laurent Excoffier, Hopi E Hoekstra, Jeffrey D Jensen
The interplay of gene flow, genetic drift, and local selective pressure is a dynamic process that has been well studied from a theoretical perspective over the last century. Wright and Haldane laid the foundation for expectations under an island-continent model, demonstrating that an island-specific beneficial allele may be maintained locally if the selection coefficient is larger than the rate of migration of the ancestral allele from the continent. Subsequent extensions of this model have provided considerably more insight...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346561/floricolin-c-elicits-intracellular-ros-accumulation-and-disrupts-mitochondria-to-exert-fungicidal-action
#11
Ming Zhang, Wenqiang Chang, Hongzhuo Shi, Ying Li, Sha Zheng, Wei Li, Hongxiang Lou
Candida albicans, one most prevalent fungal pathogen, causes severe mucosal and invasive infections in predisposed individuals. The rise of fungal infection and drug-resistance demands the development of novel antifungal agents. In this study, we observed that floricolin C (FC), a p-terphenyl pigment from an endolichenic fungus, killed C. albicans cells at planktonic state or within biofilms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Further test revealed that FC could directly damage the mitochondria to cause ROS accumulation...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346532/what-color-should-glacier-algae-be
#12
Roman J Dial, Gerard Q Ganey, S McKenzie Skiles
Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345014/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
REVIEW
Ana Artero Castro, Dunja Lukovic, Pavla Jendelova, Slaven Erceg
Hereditary retinal dystrophies, specifically retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases affecting primarily retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with blindness as a final outcome. Understanding the pathogenicity behind these diseases has been largely precluded by the unavailability of affected tissue from patients, large genetic heterogeneity and animal models that do not faithfully represent some human diseases. A landmark discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) permitted the derivation of patient-specific cells...
January 18, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344961/in-vivo-evaluation-of-some-biophysical-parameters-of-the-facial-skin-of-indian-subjects-living-in-mumbai-part-ii-variability-with-age-and-gender
#14
Loïc Colomb, Frederic Flament, Anupama Wagle, Youssef Idelcaid, Divya Agrawal
BACKGROUND: A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin micro relief….) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in 4 Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). METHODS: 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y) were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344862/cell-type-specific-laser-capture-microdissection-for-gene-expression-profiling-in-the-human-brain
#15
Sarah A Mauney, Tsung-Ung W Woo, Kai C Sonntag
Cell type-specific laser microdissection technologies in combination with molecular techniques to determine gene expression profiles have become powerful tools to gain insight into the neurobiological basis of neural circuit disturbances in various neurologic or psychiatric diseases. To identify specific cell populations in human postmortem brain tissue, one can use the inherent properties of the cells, such as pigmentation and morphology or their structural composition through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Here, we describe the isolation of homogeneous neurons and oligodendrocytes and the extraction of high-quality RNA from these cells in human postmortem brain using a combination of rapid IHC, Nissl staining, or simple morphology with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), or Laser Microdissection (LMD)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344660/purple-sweet-potato-color-attenuates-high-fat-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mouse-brain-by-inhibiting-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#16
Jian Li, Zhao Shi, Yongjie Mi
Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) is a natural anthocyanin pigment that is derived from purple sweet potato storage roots. PSPC possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective effects; however, the detailed effects of PSPC on high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced neuroinflammation remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSPC has a protective role in HFD‑associated neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and to provide novel insight into the mechanisms of the action...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344501/pigmented-epithelioid-melanocytoma-of-the-cheek-orbit-and-intracranial-cavity-a-case-report
#17
Erik R Johnson, Michael E Korchak, Todd A Goodglick, Jasbir S Johal, Craig R Dufresne, Sina J Sabet
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) of the skin has been rarely reported in ophthalmology. The purpose of this case report is to present a young male born with a progressive, hyperpigmented lesion involving the orbit and intracranial cavity diagnosed as PEM. The case is unique given the young age and the size, multifocality, and growth of this tumor. Identification of this lesion is paramount due to its low-grade malignant potential.
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344498/selective-intra-arterial-embolization-for-advanced-extrascleral-uveal-melanoma
#18
Víctor M Villegas, Mariola Monagas, Joseph Campbell, Timothy G Murray, Luis Serrano
Purpose: To report a treatment approach for advanced extrascleral uveal melanoma. Methods: We performed clinical examination including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, angiography, and histopathologic analysis. Case: A 49-year-old healthy woman presented with a 7-year history of an enlarging pigmented mass in her right orbit. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed after biopsy with immunohistochemical stains. Treatment included selective intra-arterial embolization...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344497/a-case-of-adenocarcinoma-of-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-an-immunohistochemical-and-electron-microscopic-study
#19
Hidetsugu Mori, Kanji Takahashi
Purpose: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) adenocarcinoma is a very rare malignant intraocular tumor. Herein we describe the histopathological features of RPE adenocarcinoma. Case: A 36-year-old male was referred to our clinic because of floaters in his left eye. The initial diagnosis was malignant melanoma of the choroid. We resected the tumor and studied it histopathologically. The tumor tissue was investigated by light microscopy including immunohistochemistry using antibodies against S-100, HMB-45, EMA, and AE-1...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344489/caruncular-oncocytoma-mimicking-malignant-melanoma
#20
Thamolwan Surakiatchanukul, Kareem Sioufi, Renelle Pointdujour-Lim, Ralph C Eagle, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
Purpose: To report a case of pigmented caruncular oncocytoma that simulated malignant melanoma and discuss the associated ultrasonographic and pathologic features. Method: Case report. Results: An 81-year-old female presented with a painless caruncular mass with a smooth brown surface suspicious for melanoma. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a round mass with a large central cavity, more suggestive of a cystic rather than solid lesion. Following complete surgical resection, histopathology revealed a cystadenomatous lesion composed of bland cells with copious eosinophilic cytoplasm consistent with oncocytoma that had a central blood-filled cavity...
November 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
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