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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749042/the-use-of-intravesicular-alteplase-for-thrombolysis-in-a-dog-with-urinary-bladder-thrombi
#1
Kimberly S Hooi, Julie D Lemetayer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of alteplase for intravesicular thrombolysis in a dog after development of urinary tract obstruction from a blood clot in the urinary bladder. CASE SUMMARY: A 5.8 kg, 6.5-year-old female neutered Bichon Frise was presented for signs of acute hematuria. A complete blood count (CBC) revealed marked thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspirate cytology revealed mild hypercellularity, mild megakaryocytic hyperplasia, mildly left-shifted erythroid maturation, and moderately left-shifted myeloid maturation, suggesting ongoing recovery from an acute bone marrow insult...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746873/deletion-of-glut1-and-glut3-reveals-multiple-roles-for-glucose-metabolism-in-platelet-and-megakaryocyte-function
#2
Trevor P Fidler, Robert A Campbell, Trevor Funari, Nicholas Dunne, Enrique Balderas Angeles, Elizabeth A Middleton, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Andrew S Weyrch, E Dale Abel
Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO]) specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745329/involvement-of-maf-spp1-axis-in-the-development-of-bone-marrow-fibrosis-in-pmf-patients
#3
S Ruberti, E Bianchi, P Guglielmelli, S Rontauroli, G Barbieri, L Tavernari, T Fanelli, R Norfo, V Pennucci, G C Fattori, C Mannarelli, N Bartalucci, B Mora, L Elli, M A Avanzini, C Rossi, S Salmoiraghi, R Zini, S Salati, Z Prudente, V Rosti, F Passamonti, A Rambaldi, S Ferrari, E Tagliafico, A M Vannucchi, R Manfredini
Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hyperplastic megakaryopoiesis and myelofibrosis. We recently described the upregulation of MAF in PMF CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) compared to healthy donor. Here we demonstrated that MAF is also upregulated in PMF compared to Essential Thrombocytemia (ET) and Polycytemia Vera (PV) HPCs. MAF overexpression and knockdown experiments shed some light into the role of MAF in PMF pathogenesis, by demonstrating that MAF favours the megakaryocyte and monocyte/macrophage commitment of HPCs and leads to the increased expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators...
July 12, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743899/thrombopoiesis-is-spatially-regulated-by-the-bone-marrow-vasculature
#4
David Stegner, Judith M M vanEeuwijk, Oğuzhan Angay, Maximilian G Gorelashvili, Daniela Semeniak, Jürgen Pinnecker, Patrick Schmithausen, Imke Meyer, Mike Friedrich, Sebastian Dütting, Christian Brede, Andreas Beilhack, Harald Schulze, Bernhard Nieswandt, Katrin G Heinze
In mammals, megakaryocytes (MKs) in the bone marrow (BM) produce blood platelets, required for hemostasis and thrombosis. MKs originate from hematopoietic stem cells and are thought to migrate from an endosteal niche towards the vascular sinusoids during their maturation. Through imaging of MKs in the intact BM, here we show that MKs can be found within the entire BM, without a bias towards bone-distant regions. By combining in vivo two-photon microscopy and in situ light-sheet fluorescence microscopy with computational simulations, we reveal surprisingly slow MK migration, limited intervascular space, and a vessel-biased MK pool...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742189/novel-endogenous-negative-modulators-of-platelet-function-as-potential-anti-thrombotic-targets
#5
Y-J Li, H-X Zhu, D Zhang, H-C Li, P Ma, L-Y Huang
Platelets are megakaryocyte-derived nuclear-free fragments that participate in cardiovascular diseases including acute myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. At the endothelium damage site, platelets interact with sub-endothelial matrix proteins such as glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor γ-chain (GPVI/FcRγ), G protein-coupled receptor/phospholipase Cγ(β) (GPCR/PLCγ(β)), Rho/RhoK and integrin. The activation of these signaling pathways triggers intracellular calcium increase and causes platelet adhesion, aggregation, granule release and finally thrombus formation...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739484/protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-platelet-function-in-thrombosis-and-hemostasis-in-mice
#6
Sarah Beck, Michael Leitges, David Stegner
Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury is crucial for hemostasis, but it may also cause myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Upon platelet activation, cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for platelet secretion and thrombus formation. Members of the protein kinase C family, which includes 12 isoforms, are involved in most platelet responses required for thrombus formation. The atypical protein kinase Cι/λ (PKCι/λ) has been implicated as an important mediator of cell polarity, carcinogenesis and immune cell responses...
July 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738004/bone-marrow-cell-composition-and-morphology-in-healthy-juvenile-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#7
Rebekah M Riedel, Ricardo de Matos, Deanna M W Schaefer
OBJECTIVE To provide contemporary preliminary guidelines for the morphological evaluation of bone marrow in conjunction with CBC results for healthy juvenile (3- to 6-month-old) female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). ANIMALS 22 female New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Each rabbit was sedated, and a blood sample (3 mL) was collected from an ear artery for a CBC, after which the rabbit was euthanized. Within 5 minutes after euthanasia, bone marrow samples were obtained from the femur for cytologic and histologic evaluation...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737134/nephrotic-syndrome-in-primary-myelofibrosis-with-renal-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-and-glomerulopathy-in-the-jak-inhibitor-era
#8
Rachele Del Sordo, Rachele Brugnano, Carla Covarelli, Gioia Fiorucci, Franca Falzetti, Giorgio Barbatelli, Emidio Nunzi, Angelo Sidoni
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is an uncommon form of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by a proliferation of predominantly megakaryocytes and granulocytes in the bone marrow that, in fully-developed disease, is associated with reactive deposition of fibrous connective tissue, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), and splenomegaly. Kidney involvement is rare and clinically presents with proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and renal insufficiency. Renal damage can be due to EMH and glomerulopathy. Renal EMH presents three patterns: infiltration of the interstitium with possible renal failure caused by functional damage of parenchyma and vessels, infiltration of capsule and pericapsular adipose tissue, and sclerosing mass-like lesions that can cause hydronephrosis and hydroureter with obstructive uropathy and renal failure...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730545/platelet-first-responders-in-wound-response-cancer-and-metastasis
#9
REVIEW
David G Menter, Scott Kopetz, Ernest Hawk, Anil K Sood, Jonathan M Loree, Paolo Gresele, Kenneth V Honn
Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728747/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-bone-marrow-and-spleen-of-primary-myelofibrosis
#10
Benedetta Gaia Erba, Cristian Gruppi, Monica Corada, Federica Pisati, Vittorio Rosti, Niccolo' Bartalucci, Jean-Luc Villeval, Alessandro Maria Vannucchi, Giovanni Barosi, Alessandra Balduini, Elisabetta Dejana
Primary myelofibrosis is characterized by the development of fibrosis in the bone marrow that contributes to ineffective hematopoiesis. Bone marrow fibrosis is the result of a complex and not yet fully understood interaction among megakaryocytes, myeloid cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Here, we report that >30% of the endothelial cells in the small vessels of the bone marrow and spleen of patients with primary myelofibrosis have a mesenchymal phenotype, which is suggestive of the process known as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT)...
August 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722829/megakaryocytes-enhance-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-proliferation-and-inhibit-differentiation
#11
Arbi M Emmakah, Hussain E Arman, Marta B Alvarez, Paul J Childress, Joseph P Bidwell, William S Goebel, Tien-Min Gabriel Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Megakaryocytes (MKs) can induce proliferation of calvarial osteoblasts [Ciovacco et al., 2009], but this same phenomenon has not been reported for bone marrow stromal populations from long bones. Bone marrow contains several types of progenitor cells which can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell types. Herein, we examined mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation when rabbit or mouse MK were cultured with i) rabbit bone marrow stromal cells, ii) rabbit dental pulp stromal cells, or iii) mouse bone marrow stromal cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713671/diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-malignant-mesothelioma-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Zhongjian Chen, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I Pass, Michele Carbone, Haining Yang
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and lethal cancer, mostly related to inhalation of asbestos and erionite fibers. MM is associated with poor prognosis, because of its resistance to current therapies, even if higher survival occurs in patients diagnosed and treated when at stage I of the disease. However, these do not exceed 5% of the total number of cases, due to the inadequacy of the existing biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis. Therefore, new effective biomarkers are needed for MM detection at earlier stages and to develop tailored therapies...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705856/factor-v-marks-platelet-primed-megakaryocytes
#13
Alessandra Bertoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703137/platelet-function-is-modified-by-common-sequence-variation-in-megakaryocyte-super-enhancers
#14
Romina Petersen, John J Lambourne, Biola M Javierre, Luigi Grassi, Roman Kreuzhuber, Dace Ruklisa, Isabel M Rosa, Ana R Tomé, Heather Elding, Johanna P van Geffen, Tao Jiang, Samantha Farrow, Jonathan Cairns, Abeer M Al-Subaie, Sofie Ashford, Antony Attwood, Joana Batista, Heleen Bouman, Frances Burden, Fizzah A Choudry, Laura Clarke, Paul Flicek, Stephen F Garner, Matthias Haimel, Carly Kempster, Vasileios Ladopoulos, An-Sofie Lenaerts, Paulina M Materek, Harriet McKinney, Stuart Meacham, Daniel Mead, Magdolna Nagy, Christopher J Penkett, Augusto Rendon, Denis Seyres, Benjamin Sun, Salih Tuna, Marie-Elise van der Weide, Steven W Wingett, Joost H Martens, Oliver Stegle, Sylvia Richardson, Ludovic Vallier, David J Roberts, Kathleen Freson, Lorenz Wernisch, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, John Danesh, Peter Fraser, Nicole Soranzo, Adam S Butterworth, Johan W Heemskerk, Ernest Turro, Mikhail Spivakov, Willem H Ouwehand, William J Astle, Kate Downes, Myrto Kostadima, Mattia Frontini
Linking non-coding genetic variants associated with the risk of diseases or disease-relevant traits to target genes is a crucial step to realize GWAS potential in the introduction of precision medicine. Here we set out to determine the mechanisms underpinning variant association with platelet quantitative traits using cell type-matched epigenomic data and promoter long-range interactions. We identify potential regulatory functions for 423 of 565 (75%) non-coding variants associated with platelet traits and we demonstrate, through ex vivo and proof of principle genome editing validation, that variants in super enhancers play an important role in controlling archetypical platelet functions...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702412/megakaryocytic-morphology-in-janus-kinase-2-v617f-positive-myeloproliferative-neoplasm
#15
Shuchi Ghai, Sharada Rai
CONTEXT: Alterations in megakaryocyte morphology are the hallmark of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). These neoplasm are also associated with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation in nearly 95% patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 40% patients of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 50% patients of myelofibrosis (MF). The utility of megakaryocyte morphology in these disorders in correlation with JAK2 V617F remains unresolved. AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the morphology of megakaryocytes in bone marrow aspirates (BMAs) and bone marrow biopsies of patients of BCR-ABL negative MPNs with JAK2 V617F mutation...
April 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694637/isolated-intracranial-myeloid-sarcoma-occurring-as-relapse-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Geetha Narayanan, Lali V Soman, Lakshmi Haridas, Harish Sugathan
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) or chloroma is a rare extramedullary tumor composed of extramedullary proliferation of blasts of granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, or megakaryocytic lineage occurring at sites outside the bone marrow. MS occurs in 2%-8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), sometimes it occurs as the presenting manifestation of relapse in a patient in remission. We describe the case of a young male with AML in remission for 6 years presenting with central nervous system symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extra-axial altered intensity lesion in the parasagittal parietal region, infiltrating anterosuperiorly into anterior falx, and posterosuperior aspect of the superior sagittal sinus...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692777/simultaneous-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-megakaryocyte-polyploidy-and-a-labile-intracellular-protein-using-zinc-based-fixation
#17
Jacqueline M Gertz, Megan Meuser, Beth A Bouchard
Differentiating megakaryocytes undergo a unique endomitotic cell cycle leading to large polyploidal cells, which fragment to generate platelets, blood cells important for normal hemostasis. Simultaneous assessment of DNA content and cellular proteins by flow cytometry is a useful tool to study megakaryocyte differentiation and to define expression of proteins important for megakaryocyte development and platelet formation. The usefulness of zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF), a non-crosslinking method of cell fixation that permits downstream analysis of nucleic acids (Jensen et al...
July 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682009/the-road-map-for-megakaryopoietic-lineage-from-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#18
EDITORIAL
Hidekazu Nishikii, Naoki Kurita, Shigeru Chiba
Megakaryocytes (Mgks) are terminally differentiated blood cells specified to produce platelets, whereas hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the most undifferentiated blood cells that retain multipotency to produce all kinds of blood cells. As such, these two cell types reside at the bottom and the top of the hematopoietic hierarchy, respectively. In spite of this distance, they share several important cell surface molecules as well as transcription factors. In the conventional step-wise differentiation model, HSCs gradually lose their self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multipotent progenitors (MPPs), which is the first branch point of myeloid and lymphoid lineage...
August 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681241/platelet-rna-signatures-for-the-detection-of-cancer
#19
Nik Sol, Thomas Wurdinger
Platelets are equipped with RNA processing machineries, such as pre-mRNA splicing, pre-miRNA processing, and mRNA translation. Since platelets are devoid of a nucleus, most RNA transcripts in platelets are derived from megakaryocytes during thrombocytogenesis. However, platelets can also ingest RNA molecules during circulation and/or interaction with other cell types. Since platelets were first described by Bizzozero in 1881, their well-established role in hemostasis and thrombosis has been intensively studied...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675126/characteristics-of-bone-marrow-cell-dysplasia-and-its-effectiveness-in-diagnosing-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#20
Chujia Liang, Junxun Li, Jing Cheng, Shaoqian Chen, Zhuangjian Ye, Fan Zhang, Zhe Wang, Fang Wang, Cheng Peng, Juan Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Although dysplasia plays an important role in the diagnosis of myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS), its morphologic variety and irregularity result in difficulties in its clinical application. METHODS: Bone marrow smears from cases with MDS and non-clonal disease were collected and performed microscopy analysis. We respectively recorded the percentage of specific dysplastic cells (PSDC) and incidence of specific dysplasia (ISD) of each dysplastic type in three hematopoietic cell lineages for the comprehensive analysis of diagnostic efficacy to MDS...
July 4, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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