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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138839/sumo1-ubc9%C3%A2-decreased-nox1-activity-inhibits-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-apoptosis-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Jiaoli Hu, Pengcheng Xue, Xinbang Mao, Lin Xie, Guodong Li, Zhipeng You
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an increasing global health concern that causes vision loss and blindness. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a principal cause of DR. An important source of ROS is the oxidization of NADPH. In the present study, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)‑expressing human retinal epithelial cell (HREC) lines were generated and infected with small ubiquitin‑like modifier 1 (SUMO1) and/or ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 I (UBC9) lentiviral pGMLV constructs. The viabilities, apoptotic capacities and ROS production levels of the HREC lines were quantified using Hoechst 33258, annexin V/propidium iodide and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assays, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138553/the-protective-effect-of-prmt6-overexpression-on-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-murine-emphysema-model
#2
Xue He, Tiao Li, Naixin Kang, Huihui Zeng, Siying Ren, Dandan Zong, Jinhua Li, Shan Cai, Ping Chen, Yan Chen
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a). H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3), which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysema...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133306/quaking-inhibits-doxorubicin-mediated-cardiotoxicity-through-regulation-of-cardiac-circular-rna-expression
#3
Shashi K Gupta, Ankita Garg, Christian Bär, Shambhabi Chatterjee, Ariana Foinquinos, Hendrik Milting, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke, Jan Fiedler, Thomas Thum
Rationale: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been described to be expressed and regulated in various organs including the heart. Little is known about the role of RBPs in heart failure induced by the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin and their interaction with circular RNAs. Objective: We aimed to identify key RBPs involved in doxorubicin-mediated heart failure and to elucidate their function. Methods and Results: Global transcriptome profiling from murine myocardium exposed to doxorubicin identified five differentially expressed RBPs...
November 13, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131087/deferoxamine-induced-migration-and-odontoblast-differentiation-via-ros-dependent-autophagy-in-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#4
Xuan Wang, Tian Tian Wu, Long Jiang, Du Rong, Ya Qin Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a vital degradation and recycling system, autophagy plays an essential role in regulating the differentiation of stem cells. We previously showed that iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) could promote the repair ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of DFO in autophagy and the role of autophagy in regulating the migration and odontoblast differentiation of DPSCs. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed to evaluate the autophagic activity of DPSCs...
November 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130994/enhancement-of-anti-leukemia-immunity-by-leukemia-derived-exosomes-via-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression
#5
Fang Huang, Jiangbo Wan, Weiwei Hu, Siguo Hao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Minimal residual leukemia cells (MRLs) are difficult to eradicate through traditional treatment and therefore remain to be a major threat to the long-term survival of leukemia patients. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which carry tumor associated antigens (TAA), may be a potential cell-free tumor vaccine for the specific eradication of MRLs. However, TEXs are intended to be less immunogenic due to exosomal TGF-β1. To further optimize the efficacy of TEX-based vaccines, we investigated whether exosomes from TGF-β1 silenced leukemia cells (LEXTGF-β1si) had an increased potential to induce a specific antitumor effect compared with non-modified exosomes...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128752/the-roles-of-five-conserved-lentiviral-rna-structures-in-hiv-1-replication
#6
Yang Liu, Jianbo Chen, Olga A Nikolaitchik, Belete A Desimmie, Steven Busan, Vinay K Pathak, Kevin M Weeks, Wei-Shau Hu
The HIV-1 RNA genome contains complex structures with many structural elements playing regulatory roles during viral replication. A recent study has identified multiple RNA structures with unknown functions that are conserved among HIV-1 and two simian immunodeficiency viruses. To explore the roles of these conserved RNA structures, we introduced synonymous mutations into the HIV-1 genome to disrupt each structure. These mutants exhibited similar particle production, viral infectivity, and replication kinetics relative to the parent NL4-3 virus...
November 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127680/gene-addition-strategies-for-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-sickle-cell-anemia
#7
Alisa C Dong, Stefano Rivella
Beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are two of the most common diseases related to the hemoglobin protein. In these diseases, the beta-globin gene is mutated, causing severe anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis. Patients can additionally present with a number of life-threatening co-morbidities, such as stroke or spontaneous fractures. Current treatment involves transfusion and iron chelation; allogeneic bone marrow transplant is the only curative option, but is limited by the availability of matching donors and graft-versus-host disease...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123516/avidity-and-bystander-suppressive-capacity-of-human-regulatory-t-cells-expressing-de-novo-autoreactive-t-cell-receptors-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Wen-I Yeh, Howard R Seay, Brittney Newby, Amanda L Posgai, Filipa Botelho Moniz, Aaron Michels, Clayton E Mathews, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Todd M Brusko
The ability to alter antigen specificity by T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene transfer has facilitated personalized cellular immune therapies in cancer. Inversely, this approach can be harnessed in autoimmune settings to attenuate inflammation by redirecting the specificity of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Herein, we demonstrate efficient protocols for lentiviral gene transfer of TCRs that recognize type 1 diabetes-related autoantigens with the goal of tissue-targeted induction of antigen-specific tolerance to halt β-cell destruction...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120364/crystal-structure-of-the-full-length-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-capsid-protein-shows-an-n-terminal-%C3%AE-hairpin-in-the-absence-of-n-terminal-proline
#9
Christelle Folio, Natalia Sierra, Marie Dujardin, Guzman Alvarez, Christophe Guillon
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA) drives the assembly of the viral particle, which is a critical step in the viral replication cycle. Here, the first atomic structure of full-length FIV CA to 1.67 Å resolution is determined. The crystallized protein exhibits an original tetrameric assembly, composed of dimers which are stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge induced by the crystallogenesis conditions...
November 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116484/suppression-of-glioblastoma-growth-and-angiogenesis-through-molecular-targeting-of-methionine-aminopeptidase-2
#10
Ming Lin, Xuyu Zhang, Bingjie Jia, Su Guan
Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) have been pharmacologically linked to cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, which make it an attractive target for cancer therapy. We investigated MetAP2's biological role in glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive tumor characterized by massive neovascularization. We examined the effect of anti-MetAP2 RNA interference on proliferation and angiogenesis in GBM cell line. The biological effects of MetAP2 knockdown were assessed by comparing the proliferation, tumorigenecity, and angiogenesis of parental cells and MetAP2 knockdown cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115585/idh1-mutation-diminishes-aggressive-phenotype-in-glioma-stem-cells
#11
Qi Yao, Gang Cai, Qi Yu, Jianhong Shen, Zhikai Gu, Jian Chen, Wei Shi, Jinlong Shi
The R132H mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-R132H) is associated with better prognosis in glioma patients. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) in glioma are believed to be responsible for glioma growth and maintenance. However, the relation between the R132H mutation and GSCs is not fully understood. In the present study, GSC markers were detected in patients with IDH1-R132H or wild-type IDH1 (IDH1-wt) by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC). The relationship between the expression patterns of GSC markers and the clinicopathological characteristics in glioma were analyzed...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113912/arid1a-regulates-response-to-anti-angiogenic-therapy-in-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Chaobo Hu, Weiping Li, Feng Tian, Kai Jiang, Xiaoting Liu, Jin Cen, Qiang He, Zhixin Qiu, Yvonne Kienast, Zhong Wang, Haibin Zhang, Yuan Ji, Junhao Hu, Lijian Hui
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Arid1a, a component of the chromatin-remodelling complex, has emerged as a tumor suppressor gene. It is frequently mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unknown how Arid1a suppresses HCC development and whether Arid1a deficiency could be exploited for therapy. METHODS: The expression of Arid1a in human and mouse HCCs was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Gene expression was determined by qPCR, ELISA or Western blotting...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113224/t-cell-immunoglobulin-mucin-3-as-a-potential-inducer-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Huapeng Lin, Bin Yang, Mujian Teng
T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM)-3 is an important member of the TIM gene family, which was thought to contribute to the progression of numerous types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the mechanism underlying TIM-3 functions in HCC progression has not yet been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the function of TIM-3 in the metastasis of HCC and to determine whether the alteration of TIM-3 expression levels regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurrence of HCC, using epithelial (E)-cadherin, neuronal (N)-cadherin, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), Twist 1, Slug, Snail, and Smad as EMT biomarkers...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113169/lentivirus-mediated-rna-interference-inhibits-the-tumorigenicity-of-cluster-of-differentiation-44-tumor-cells-in-hypopharyngeal-cancer
#14
Chenling Shen, Bin Ye, Haixia Hu, Chen Nie, Yan Ma, Jingrong Lv, Hao Wu, Mingliang Xiang
The present study aimed to investigate whether the inhibition of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 expression reduces the tumorigenicity of CD44(+) cancer stem cells in hypopharyngeal cancer. To assess this, effective recombinant CD44 short hairpin RNA-expressing lentiviruses were produced. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was then used to knockdown CD44 gene expression in the hypopharyngeal cancer FaDu cell line. The viability of FaDu cells in the two control groups and the RNAi group (RNAi-CD44 lentiviral vector) was detected using an MTT assay in vitro...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112682/cross-coupling-effects-of-silencing-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-aggrecanase-1-and-over-expressed-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf-1-in-an-osteoarthritis-animal-model
#15
Zhao Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Heng Huang, Guozhong Wang, Zhigang Qu, Haining Zhang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to observe the effect of lentivirus-mediated cyclooxygenase-2 and aggrecanase-1 silencing and insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after injection into model osteoarthritic knees. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using genetic recombination technique, the genes of cyclooxygenase-2, aggrecanase-1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 were recombined into the lentiviral vectors, and we transfected the human bone marrow stem cells in vitro. The BMSC transfected with lentivirus without genes served as a blank-virus group, and saline was used for another control group...
November 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111393/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-mediated-phosphorylation-of-chip-promotes-the-taif-dependent-death-pathway-in-rotenone-treated-cortical-neurons
#16
Chiho Kim, Juhyung Lee, Yeon Uk Ko, Young J Oh
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase. Its dysregulation has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. We previously reported that phosphorylation of the C-terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) by Cdk5 promotes truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF)-mediated neuronal death induced by oxidative stress. Here, we determined whether this Cdk5-dependent cell death signaling pathway is present in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. First, we showed that rotenone activates Cdk5 in primary cultures of cortical neurons and causes tAIF-dependent neuronal cell death...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110682/tagln2-is-a-candidate-prognostic-biomarker-promoting-tumorigenesis-in-human-gliomas
#17
Ming-Zhi Han, Ran Xu, Yang-Yang Xu, Xin Zhang, Shi-Lei Ni, Bin Huang, An-Jing Chen, Yu-Zhen Wei, Shuai Wang, Wen-Jie Li, Qing Zhang, Gang Li, Xin-Gang Li, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is a member of the calponin family of actin-bundling proteins that is involved in the regulation of cell morphology, motility, and cell transformation. Here, the clinical significance and potential function of TAGLN2 in malignant gliomas were investigated. METHODS: Molecular and clinical data was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Gene ontology and pathway analysis was used to predict potential functions of TAGLN2...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105817/loss-of-spry1-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-proliferation-by-impairing-mitogen-mediated-changes-in-cell-cycle-regulatory-circuits
#18
Xuehui Yang, Yan Gong, Qing He, Jonathan D Licht, Lucy Liaw, Robert E Friesel
Signals from growth factors or mechanical stimuli converge to promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, key events in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia upon vascular injury. Spry1, a regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), plays a role in maintaining the contractile phenotype of VSMC. The aim of the current study was to determine the role of Spry1 in VSMC proliferation in vitro and injury induced neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. VSMC proliferation and neointima formation were evaluated in cultured human aortic SMC (hAoSMC) and ligation-induced injury of mouse carotid arteries from Spry1 gene targeted mice, and their corresponding wild type littermates...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105567/in-vivo-survival-of-human-endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplanted-under-the-kidney-capsule-of-immunocompromised-mice
#19
Shanti Gurung, James A Deane, Saeedeh Darzi, Jerome A Werkmeister, Caroline E Gargett
Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) are a well-characterised adult stem cell type with potential for use in regenerative medicine or cell-therapy. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated that eMSCs promoted wound healing by reducing the inflammatory response through a paracrine action in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair. However, an efficient protocol for culturing eMSCs in the undifferentiated state and a reliable method of labelling them for cell tracking were lacking. Here, we investigated the use of a lentiviral vector containing the mCherry fluorescent reporter gene to transduce and label eMSCs following in vitro culturing in A83-01-containing medium, and different methods of tracing the labelled cells following transplantation under the kidney capsule of immunocompromised NSG mice...
November 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104843/silencing-mir-16-expression-promotes-angiotensin-ii-stimulated-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-growth
#20
Qingqing Gu, Guannan Zhao, Yinan Wang, Biao Xu, Junming Yue
miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous small RNAs that control gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is involved in a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases. miRNAs have been shown to regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and play vital roles in hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. Here we reported that miR-16 as one of miRNAs in the miR-15 family was highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and involved in angiotensin II (Ang II) mediated VSMC signaling pathways...
March 2017: Cell & Developmental Biology
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