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Cerebral Gliomas

Jerrold L Boxerman, Mark S Shiroishi, Benjamin M Ellingson, Whitney B Pope
Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR imaging, a perfusion-weighted MR imaging technique typically used in neuro-oncologic applications for estimating the relative cerebral blood volume within brain tumors, has demonstrated much potential for determining prognosis, predicting therapeutic response, and assessing early treatment response of gliomas. This review highlights recent developments using DSC-MR imaging and emphasizes the need for technical standardization and validation in prospective studies in order for this technique to become incorporated into standard-of-care imaging for patients with brain tumors...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Benedikt Wiestler, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Stefan Förster, Thomas Pyka, Christine Preibisch
Non-invasive, imaging-based examination of glioma biology has received increasing attention in the past couple of years. To this end, the development and refinement of novel MRI techniques, reflecting underlying oncogenic processes such as hypoxia or angiogenesis, has greatly benefitted this research area. We have recently established a novel BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) based MRI method for the measurement of relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) in glioma patients. In a set of 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioma, we assessed the performance of a machine learning model based on multiple MRI modalities including rOEF and perfusion imaging to predict WHO grade...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xin Li, Mengyou Li, Xiuli Tian, Qingzhe Li, Qingyang Lu, Qingbin Jia, Lianqun Zhang, Jinqiang Yan, Xueyuan Li, Xingang Li
BACKGROUND Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been reported to be involved in the development of several human cancers. Our previous study showed that GOLPH3 expression in glioma tissues was related to the severity of the malignancy of the cancer. However, the mechanism by which GOLPH3 affects cell apoptosis is largely unknown. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism of GOLPH3 in cell apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS To analyze the biological role of GOLPH3 in glioma cells, we used GOLPH3 small interference RNA in apoptosis of glioma cells...
October 4, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Matthew T Brown, Frederick A Boop
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric low-grade tumors are found in roughly 1-3 % of patients with childhood epilepsy; seizures associated with these tumors are often medically refractory and often present a significant morbidity, greater than the presence of the tumor itself. DISCUSSION: The unique morbidity of the seizures often requires an epilepsy surgical approach over a standard oncologic resection to achieve a reduction in morbidity for the child. Multiple quality-of-life studies have shown that unless a patient is seizure-free, they remain disabled throughout their life; the best way to achieve this in our patient population is with a multidisciplinary team approach with treatment goals focusing primarily on the epilepsy...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Mario Giordano, Cinta Arraez, Amir Samii, Madjid Samii, Concezio Di Rocco
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in pediatric age is still controversial. However, most authors report longer life expectancy in case of completely removed cerebral gliomas. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly utilized in the surgical management of intra-axial tumor in adults following the demonstration of its effectiveness. In this article, we analyze the management of LGG using iMRI focusing on its impact on resection rate and its limits in the pediatric population...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Navneet Singh, Martin Palin, Konstantina Karabatsou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Bin Zhao, Xiaoke Wang, Jun Zheng, Hailiang Wang, Jun Liu
Considerable evidence has demonstrated that metformin can activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in protection of endothelial cell permeability. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on blood brain barrier permeability and AQP4 expression in vitro, and assessed the effects of metformin treatment on tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. Hypoxia or VEGF exposure enhanced bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer permeability and attenuated the expression of tight junction proteins including Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Kohsuke Kudo, Ikuko Uwano, Toshinori Hirai, Ryuji Murakami, Hideo Nakamura, Noriyuki Fujima, Fumio Yamashita, Jonathan Goodwin, Satomi Higuchi, Makoto Sasaki
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to compare different software algorithms for processing DSC perfusion images of cerebral tumors with respect to i) the relative CBV (rCBV) calculated, ii) the cutoff value for discriminating low- and high-grade gliomas, and iii) the diagnostic performance for differentiating these tumors. METHODS: Following approval of institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-five patients with primary glioma (grade II, 9; grade III, 8; and grade IV, 18 patients) were included...
September 20, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Joshua D Burks, Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Robert G Briggs, James D Battiste, Tressie McCoy, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
OBJECTIVE Gliomas invading the anterior corpus callosum are commonly deemed unresectable due to an unacceptable risk/benefit ratio, including the risk of abulia. In this study, the authors investigated the anatomy of the cingulum and its connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). A technique is described involving awake subcortical mapping with higher attention tasks to preserve the cingulum and reduce the incidence of postoperative abulia for patients with so-called butterfly gliomas. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical data on all patients undergoing glioma surgery performed by the senior author during a 4-year period at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Songül Meltem Can, Osman Nuri Türkmenoğlu, Canan Tanik, Ender Uysal, Barış Özöner, Saime Ayça Kaldirimoğlu, Ahmet Murat Müslüman, Adem Yilmaz, Halit Çavuşoğlu, Çiçek Bayindir, Yunus Aydin
AIM: CT-guided stereotactic brain biopsy has been performed in our clinic since March 1998. In this prospective study, we examined the patient data undergoing stereotactic biopsy and the results of biopsies in consecutive 500 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between the dates of March 1998 and January 2015, CT guided stereotactic biopsies were performed by using the Leksell stereotactic frame system (Elekta Instruments EU, Sweden) in 500 patients. A total of 512 procedures were performed in patients consisting of 184 females (36...
January 25, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Philippe Metellus, Salah Boussen, Maxime Guye, Agnes Trebuchon
BACKGROUND: Resection of tumors located within the insula of the dominant hemisphere represents a technical challenge due to complex anatomy including surrounding vasculature and the relationship to functional (motor and language) structures. We report here the case of a successful resection of a left insular glioma in a native deaf signer during an awake craniotomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: Subject A.G., a congenitally deaf right-handed patient who is a native user of Sign Language, presented a seizure one week before he was referred to our department...
September 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
T B Nguyen, G O Cron, K Bezzina, K Perdrizet, C H Torres, S Chakraborty, J Woulfe, G H Jansen, R E Thornhill, B Zanette, I G Cameron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor CBV is a prognostic and predictive marker for patients with gliomas. Tumor CBV can be measured noninvasively with different MR imaging techniques; however, it is not clear which of these techniques most closely reflects histologically-measured tumor CBV. Our aim was to investigate the correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC-MR imaging parameters and immunohistochemistry in patients with gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with a new diagnosis of glioma underwent a preoperative MR imaging examination with dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC sequences...
September 1, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jeffrey S Wefel, Kyle R Noll, Ganesh Rao, Daniel P Cahill
BACKGROUND: Patients with malignant gliomas present with variation in neurocognitive function (NCF) not attributable to lesion size or location alone. A potential contributor is the rate at which tumors grow, or "lesion momentum." Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild type (IDH1-WT) are more proliferative and aggressive than IDH1-mutant (IDH1-M) tumors. We hypothesized that patients with IDH1-WT would exhibit worse NCF than patients with IDH1-M tumors. METHODS: Comprehensive NCF testing was completed in 119 patients with malignant glioma prior to surgical resection...
August 30, 2016: Neuro-oncology
Jason A Ellis, Johann Cooke, Rajinder P Singh-Moon, Mei Wang, Jeffrey N Bruce, Charles W Emala, Irving J Bigio, Shailendra Joshi
Mitoxantrone is a highly cytotoxic antineoplastic drug, however, its poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier has limited its role in the treatment of brain cancers. We hypothesize that intra-arterial (IA) delivery of mitoxantrone may enhance its capacity for regional brain deposition thus expanding its potential as a brain tumor therapy agent. In this study we assessed the dose-response characteristics as well as the feasibility and safety of mitoxantrone delivery to the brain and specifically to gliomas in a rodent model...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
S Yang, B Zhao, G Wang, J Xiang, S Xu, Y Liu, P Zhao, J Pfeuffer, T Qian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systematic and accurate glioma grading has clinical significance. We present the utility of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and provide the bolus arrival time maps for grading astrocytomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with astrocytomas (21 men; mean age, 51 years) were recruited. The classification abilities of conventional MR imaging features, normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging, normalized bolus arrival time, and normalized CBF derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling were compared in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytomas...
August 25, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Eric Nyberg, Justin Honce, Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Brian Shukri, Sarah Kreidler, Lidia Nagae
BACKGROUND: Standard of care for high-grade gliomas (HGGs) includes surgical debulking and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Patients under treatment require frequent clinical and imaging monitoring for therapy modulation. Differentiating tumor progression from treatment-related changes can be challenging on conventional MRI, resulting in delayed recognition of tumor progression. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) may be more sensitive for tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASL and associated conventional MR images obtained in patients previously treated for HGGs and before biopsy or re-resection were reviewed by three neuroradiologists who were blinded to the histopathologic results...
October 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Sarah T Garber, Laith Khoury, Diana Bell, Donald F Schomer, Filip Janku, Ian E McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Intracranial spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland is rare, and metastatic ACC to the splenium of the corpus callosum mimicking butterfly glioblastoma has not been previously reported. A rare case of metastasis to the splenium of the corpus callosum from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: The tumor occupied the splenium and mimicked the presentation of butterfly glioma. The patient had undergone parotidectomy five years prior to presentation with this intracranial lesion...
August 10, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Mazda K Turel, Walter Kucharczyk, Fred Gentili
Supratentorial hemangioblastomas (HBLs) are exceedingly uncommon. They account for less than 5% of all central nervous system HBLs. The commonest location is the cerebral cortex. Rarely, they can involve the visual pathway. Most of the reports described focus on the differential diagnosis, since depending on the location they can often resemble optic nerve gliomas or meningiomas of the optic nerve sheath. In this study we describe a 67-year-old man with progressive diminution of vision in the left eye with an optic nerve hemangioblastoma...
February 5, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Xiaojian Shao, Dan Gao, Yongli Chen, Feng Jin, Guangnan Hu, Yuyang Jiang, Hongxia Liu
Since most of the central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates show poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of a reliable platform for permeability assay will greatly accelerate drug discovery. Herein, we constructed a microfluidic BBB model to mimic drug delivery into the brain to induce cytotoxicity at target cells. To reconstitute the in vivo BBB properties, human cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) were dynamically cultured in a membrane-based microchannel. Sunitinib, a model drug, was then delivered into the microchannel and forced to permeate through the BBB model...
August 31, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Maria C Rossi Espagnet, Andrea Romano, Valeria Mancuso, Francesco Cicone, Antonio Napolitano, Claudia Scaringi, Giuseppe Minniti, Alessandro Bozzao
OBJECTIVE: To compare MRI using perfusion and diffusion techniques with 6-[(18)F]-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) in the follow-up of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and to identify the best imaging parameter to differentiate patients with different prognosis. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 12 patients with a pathology-proven diagnosis of LGG and MR (with perfusion and diffusion sequences) and a PET study during their follow-up were retrospectively included in our study...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
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